Rhythm: Musical Time• Rhythm, used in its most general sense, means anything and all things associated with time in music.• Rhythm is also used speciﬁcally, to refers to the length or duration of individual notes.• Beat - Regular pulsations• Accent - Beats that are stronger that others.
Meter• The most common groupings are 2, 3, and 4.• The pattern (gesture) of the conductor shows the relative accent of the groupings.• The strongest beat of each grouping is referred to as the downbeat in both duple and triple meters.
Duple Meter The Hogwarts MarchONE two . ONE two . ONE two . ONE two
Duple Meter• By far the most common meter • Found in two forms • Duple 2 • And Duple 4 • In either event, the meter may properly be identiﬁed as duple.
Triple Meter• Three pulses per grouping• Strongest accent is on one, the ﬁrst accent (beat) of the grouping.• STRONG.weak.weak . STRONG weak.weak STRONG.weak.weak . STRONG.weak.weak
Meter: Triple Meter The Potter WaltzSTRONG.weak.weak . STRONG.weak.weak .STRONG.weak.weak . STRONG.weak.weak
Non-metric Meter• Sounds like a contradiction in terms. If meter refers to a pattern of pulses, how can something be non-metric?• Non-metric refers to an absence of regular rhythm and meter. That is, the regulated duration of notes and the absence of accents.• Gregorian chant, used in the Catholic Church and chant used in some other denominations, is non-metric.• In chant, the rhythmic movement is based on the natural accents and ﬂow of the language.
Non-metric Responsorium “Subvente”• Try to ﬁnd or beat or accent, by using some movement such as tapping your foot or moving your pencil in time.• This is a particularly useful effort.• By doing this, you will have a better sense of the presence or absence of regular accent--this will help you identify the examples with meter.
Disruption of Meter• Composers often vary meter by changing the meter unexpectedly and introducing accents that fall outside of the expected accents in the meter that has been in use.• The displacement of accent is known as syncopation.• It adds variety by giving a sense of novelty and occasionally surprise.
Syncopation• For example, the regular grouping of triple meter is: • STRONG.weak.weak . STRONG.weak.weak.• A syncopated pattern shifts the beat to an accent on a beat not usually accented. • weak.STRONG.weak . weak.STRONG.weak• The pattern could also be irregular: • STRONG.weak.weak . weak.STRONG.weak . weak.weak.STRONG . STRONG.weak.weak
Syncopation Jazz Suite: Jazz WaltzListen for the frequent shift of the accent tothe second beat of the groupings of three.Beat the pattern of three in the air (literally)or, at the least, tap your foot.It is difﬁcult to hear syncopation unless youhave a ﬁrm sense of the regular placement ofthe accents.
Irregular SyncopationAccents seem almost capricious.Difﬁcult to identify the basic meter. Igor Stravinsky Rite of Spring “Dance of the Adolescents”