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Milton Chen: Experiments in Desktop Videoconferencing
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Milton Chen: Experiments in Desktop Videoconferencing

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BayCHI June 14, 2005, program: Why is video conferencing not ubiquitous? Over 75 years after Bell Labs released the first videoconferencing system on April 7, 1927, we still do not experience ...

BayCHI June 14, 2005, program: Why is video conferencing not ubiquitous? Over 75 years after Bell Labs released the first videoconferencing system on April 7, 1927, we still do not experience videoconferencing as a common means to communicate today. Milton attributes the lack of adoption to limitations in technology and inadequate understanding of visual communication science.

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  • Theme - Media for the masses Videoconferencing – how to make it much more common and ubiquitous; Podcasting Milton Chen – CTO VSee Lab BS Computer Science, UC Berkeley PHD in Electrical Engineering, Stanford University Thesis – Interactive distance learning Strong endorsements - Intel, Oracle Recognition/awards Colleagues - Erica ? Professor James Davis

Milton Chen: Experiments in Desktop Videoconferencing Milton Chen: Experiments in Desktop Videoconferencing Presentation Transcript

  • Experiments in Videoconferencing Milton Chen CTO http://vseelab.com
  • The VSee Auditorium desktop interface 15’ x 5’ video wall
  • VSee
    • 2 nd place Stanford-Berkeley Innovator’s award
    • 3 rd place Stanford business plan competition
    • Intel CEO Paul Otellini keynote
    • Oracle Executive VP Chuck Rozwat keynote
    Chuck Rozwat keynote
    • “ the breakthrough that collaboration gurus have been hunting for” -
          • Jack Hirsch VP of Technology Shell
    “ the world’s best videoconferencing system” - Cdr. Eric Rasmussen Iraq Humanitarian Operations Center Department of Defense
    • “ uniquely suited for
    • planetwalk” -
          • John Francis Goodwill Ambassador
          • United Nations
  • What if there is no network infrastructure ?
  • Office of Secretary of Defense, State Department, NATO, United Nations … Strong Angel Kona, Hawaii 17-22 July 2004 VSee was selected as the real-time communication system
  • VSee at Strong Angel Provide global communication from a temporary shelter VIP presentation between Kona and DC
  • Ad-hoc peer-to-peer WiFi ~ 0.5 mile ~1 - 10 mile
  • Experiment 1: convoy protection VSee hops from car to car
  • Experiment 2: air-to-surface Can also airdrop arbitrary data setup screen shot
  • Experiment 3: ocean search and rescue
  • Experiment 3: ocean search and rescue The bottom video was from the live underwater camera held by the swimmer. The map with GPS annotation was shared using VSee setup screen shot
  • Experiment 3: ocean search and rescue
  • no pre-existing infrastructure
    • VSee leverages what you have
      • Internet
      • Internet2
      • Satellite
      • WiMax
      • Cell phone
    • VSee ad-hoc peer-to-peer WiFi
      • Laptop + wireless card is all you need
  • Afghanistan
    • Visual fidelity comparable to high-end hardware
    • Secure (FIPS 140-2 and triple 256 bit AES )
    • Never crash (59-day challenge)
    • Trivial to use (less than 60 seconds for 1 st time users)
    Kabul Nov 2004
  • March 2005 From VSee deployment team
  • VSee for tsunami relief UN headquarters in Jakarta
  • VSee in Darfur for refugee management CARE International field office Sudan, Africa
  • but
  • Why is videoconferencing not ubiquitous
    • World’s first videoconferencing system
    • 75 years later
      • Technology limitations
      • Inadequate visual communication science
    April 7, 1927 - Bell Labs 3x2 inch black&white display 1 msec end-to-end latency
  • VSee Peer-to-peer wireless How well can we judge eye contact “ The heart is stirred more slowly by the ear than by the eye .” – Horace
  • Eye contact stirs us to action [Sharbat Gula, photographed by McCurry ‘83]
  • Eye contact fires up our brain [Kampe et al. ’01 Nature ]
  • Eye contact sensitivity is high
    • Spatial perception task
    • As good as Snellen acuity
    [Gibson and Pick ’63] 2 m * 6 observers judged 1 looker looker observer 0 8.5 -8.5 0 100 stdev = 2.8 ° Eye contact (%) Angle (deg)
  • Sensitivity is symmetric
    • Cline ’67
    • Kruger and Huckstedt ‘69
    • Anstis, et al. ’69
    • Stokes ’69
    • Ellgring ’70
    PicturePhone camera above display Hydra camera below display
  • Eye contact is difficult Looking into the camera Attempting eye contact
  • Solutions to eye contact Half-silvered mirror [Rosenthal ’47] MAJIC [Okada, et al. ’94] ClearBoard [Ishii, et al. ’92] GazeMaster [Gemmell, et al. ’00]
  • Methodology Observers watch videos of looker Large display with camera at the center
  • Eye contact?
  • Sensitivity is asymmetric * 16 observers judged recorded videos of 1 looker
  • An anatomical explanation looking at you looking sideways looking up looking down eye closing Illustrations from The Artist’s Guide to Facial Expression [Faigin ’90]
  • VSee Eye contact How well can we judge lip sync “ We shape our tools, and there after our tools shape us” - Marshal Mcluhan
  • Why read lips
    • Improves comprehension
      • Background noise [Sumby and Pollack ’54]
      • Hearing loss [Binnie, Montgomery, Jackson ’86]
    [Yarbus ’ 67]
  • Audio ahead of the video
    • Videoconferencing
      • 1 msec to encode audio
      • Up to 250 msec to encode MPEG-4
    • Detectable skew
      • 130 msec [Dixon and Spitz ’80]
      • 80 msec [Steinmetz ’96]
  • Conventional lip synchronization encode network decode A a v time Unsynchronized encode network decode sync a , v Audio delay line A delay skew
  • Attribute delay and skew to remote person
      • => person is not believable?
      • => person is slow?
    • [Reeves and Nass ’96]
    encode network decode A a v time Unsynchronized encode network decode sync a , v Audio delay line A delay skew
  • A new lip sync method encode network decode sync synchronized and low perceived latency a v a v encode network decode A a v time Unsynchronized encode network decode sync a , v Audio delay line A Round trip delay
  • Methodology
    • Recorded 3 speakers
      • 44.1KHz x 16 bps uncompressed audio
      • 320x240x30fps uncompressed video
      • Sentences consist of easy to lipread words
    Speaker 1 female native speaker Speaker 2 male native speaker Speaker 3 male non-native speaker
  • Perception of variable AV skew * 16 subjects judging recorded videos
  • VSee Eye contact Lip sync What frame rate is necessary “ We express ourselves into existence .” – Iris Murdoch
  • Minimum required frame rate
    • Full motion 10-30 fps
    • Tolerable 5 fps
      • [Tang and Isaac ’93]
    • Lip synchronization 5 fps
      • [Watson and Sasse ’96]
    • Content understanding 5 fps
      • [Ghinea and Thomas ’98]
    • Sign language recognition 1 fps
      • [Johnson and Caird ’96]
  • Gesture Detection Algorithm input image frame difference after erosion Visualization of algorithm
  • Gesture sensitive transmission allows dynamic discussion 15 fps ~0.2 fps 0.2 fps * 8 groups of 4 people during a discussion * requires 10% of full motion bandwidth
  • Other studies [ Conveying Conversational Cues Through Video PhD Dissertation, 2003] When is a smile not a smile Value of f2f for discussion Visualizing the pulse of Classroom
  • VSee Eye contact Lip sync Gesture Telework “ Laugher is the shortest distance between two people ” – Victor Borge
  • VSee customers                                                                                        
  • telework => less money and influence
    • Reasons to telework
    • Business continuity
    • Manage by results vs. time
    • No commute
    • Life style
    • but
    • no tool is able to bridge the physical distance
  • VSee Lab experiment
    • Everybody works from home,
      • hotels, cafes, libraries, airports, … since June 2003
      • California, Michigan, Scotland, Taiwan, Malaysia
    • Almost all customer interaction via VSee
    • Product support via desktop sharing
    • Product development via application sharing
    • Availability via presence indicator
  • Initial results
    • What doesn’t work
      • Still a sense of isolation
        • Company meals and outings are critical!
        • Office of future will be social clubs?
      • Remote whiteboard
    • A surprising bonus
      • Uninterrupted time to think
      • Building personal relationships
  • I love to hear from you [email_address] Summary VSee Eye contact Lip sync Gesture Telework