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Security Handbook 1. Crisis Management Plan1.1 IntroductionA contingency plan, by its nature, will not be in regular operation therefore training is essential.No contingency plan can be left to chance. Anticipatory training must be undertaken. Allaspects of the plan, by day and night, must be tested under conditions as close to reality aspossible. Frequent exercises by key personnel with essential equipment, will ensure thatchanges of staff and building .layout are updated. From time to time full unannouncedexercises should be carried out. The frequency of these exercises should reflect the possibilityof need. There may be some reluctance to participatein these training exercises. Staff and management must CONTENTSbe motivated. The more common attitudes suggest thatthis reluctance is due to psychological reasoning: 1.1 Introduction 1.2 The plan o "dont want it to happen" 1.3 Stages of planning o "would rather it didnt happen" 1.4 Worst event considered o “it is not going to happen" 1.5 Surveillance of staff o “it wont happen to me" 1.6 Link with maintenance 1.7 Report Generation1.2 The plan 1.8 Deviation Analysis 1.9 Simulation & trainingAny contingency plan must involve all relevant 1.10 Support by equipmentsdepartments, both within the business and the external 1.11 Evacuationservices. Police, ambulance, Gas, Water, Fire and 1.12 SummaryElectricity Authorities are some of the essential servicesthat can be involved in a large and complex contingency plan. An early consideration must becommunications. This is a twofold factor - one to warn that the emergency has arisen, and, twoto collect all necessary experts to deal with the situation. Once an incident has occurred, allsubsequent actions should be part of the contingency plan. To ensure that there is a co-coordinated effort the inclusion and identification of an Emergency Controller must be anessential part of the contingency plan.The Emergency / Disaster Plan can be in three following parts: i. Disaster Reduction Plan While planning, all the managements are better advised not to look for Crisis Reactive Perspective as only the crisis pro-active approach the loss of life and damage to property. Broadly, emergency management plan should consist of: • Disaster Reduction Program • Planning and implementation on how to prevent emergencies from occurring Capt S B Tyagi* email@example.com* Author is sole proprietor of this intellectual property. Any use by way of copy or reproduction in any form of this without permission may notbe made.
Security Handbook ii. Disaster Response Plan This is development application in case an emergency occur and includes training of the first responder. iii. Disaster Recovery Plan This includes creation of specialized business recovery machinery as it is very essential for the industrial and chemical health of organization not only to respond to disaster but also to ensure resumption of normal business activities as far as possible.1.3 Stages of PlanningThere are various stages of planning for the emergencies. These are discussed in detail asfollows: Identification & assessment of hazard This stage is crucial to both on-site and off-site emergency planning and requires management to systematically identify what emergencies could arise in the plant. These should range from small incidents which could be dealt with the plant personnel without outside help to the largest event for which it is prudent to have a plan as without external help such events cannot be managed. Experience have shown that for every occasion that the full potential of an accident is realized, there are many occasions when some lesser event occur or when a developing incident is made safe before reaching full potential. Major hazard incident come within the following categories: Events involving flammable materials (i) Major Fires without danger of explosion, prolonged high thermal radiation and smoke (ii) Fire threatening items of plant containing hazardous substances, potential spread of fire, explosion or release of toxic substances (iii) Explosion with little or no-warning (iv) Hazards from blast wave, flying debris and high level thermal radiation Events involving toxic materials (i) Slow or intermittent release of toxic substances (ii) Items of plant threatened by fire (iii) Hazards from potential loss of containment (iv) Rapid release of limited duration due to plant failure Capt S B Tyagi* firstname.lastname@example.org* Author is sole proprietor of this intellectual property. Any use by way of copy or reproduction in any form of this without permission may notbe made.
Security Handbook (v) Massive release of toxic substances due to failure of storage or process vessel1.4 Worst event consideredWhile planning is being made for disaster management the worst scenario should bevisualized and accordingly plan should base on following two factors: • Relative likelihood of the event • Consequence of the eventThe relative likelihood may be very low but if consequences of the event are great, theplanning needs to be the best. Similarly, if relative likelihood of the event is very high evenwhile consequences of the event are marginal, still preventive actions are required to be veryeffective. In fact, even when both the factors inversely relate to each other the plan requires tobe given very serious consideration.1.5 Surveillance of maintenance staff and their routineMaintenance staff needs constant motivation and their performance closely observed. Theyhave to be not only quality conscious but also punctual in maintaining the schedule. Theirwork habits must reflect their safety consciousness, resourcefulness and presence of mind asin most of the cases the maintenance staff happen to be first responder to any emergencysituation. The nominated person must know their specific responsibility separate from theirday-to-day activities in case of emergency situation1.6 Link with preventive maintenance schedulesEmergency planning must have linkage with preventive maintenance schedules as oftenpotential causes of accidents are addressed in maintenance schedule if meticulously planning.1.7 Report generationIn case of accidents major or minor or `near misses’ reports must be generated giving detailedanalysis causes of the accident and corrective and preventive actions. These reports arereflective of the management’s desire for improvement and are to be used for studying thepatterns of accidents emerging out.1.8 Deviation analysisWherever a deviation takes place, an analysis is required to find out the reasons of the causesand the outcome. Any change or breaches of safe practices are sometimes loaded withpotential of accidents. Therefore, even when a deviation is aimed to improve, the safepractices, impact assessment is necessary Capt S B Tyagi* email@example.com* Author is sole proprietor of this intellectual property. Any use by way of copy or reproduction in any form of this without permission may notbe made.
Security Handbook1.9 Simulation and trainingThere is no better way of preparing for the disaster other than simulation disaster andevaluating the response mechanism. Repeated practices, deviation analysis and impactassessment lead to checking the disaster management plan in real conditions and on ground.It is advisable that independent observers are appointed to evaluate the effectiveness of theemergency plan and correctives actions and preventive measures must be consideredseriously.1.10 Support by equipmentsPlanning is but only a part of disaster management plan, the most important part is theprocurement and provisioning of specialized equipments recognized to tackle the range ofdisasters identified in the plan. These equipments are required to be kept in perpetualreadiness and therefore it is suggested that check lists are prepared to ensure that noequipment remains unserviceable.1.11 EvacuationIn a major incident consideration of early evacuation is important. Unless personnel are part ofthe contingency plan they must be kept away from the incident area. The tendency to rush inand take uncoordinated action must be discouraged. Only persons nominated in thecontingency plan should be in the area, and then only when their role requires them to bepresent. Discourage emotional offers of help unless it can be channeled into the general plan.1.12 SummaryAn emergency can occur any time and anywhere. A contingency plan is designed to dealeffectively with a perceived emergency and the aftermath. What cannot be planned for is thedirection an incident will take once it has started. To this end a contingency plan must beflexible. If too rigid it will cause delays and possible escalation of the incident. When preparingit the Coordinator of the plan must consult even those departments not likely to be directlyinvolved in it. Capt S B Tyagi* firstname.lastname@example.org* Author is sole proprietor of this intellectual property. Any use by way of copy or reproduction in any form of this without permission may notbe made.