Appalachian Collapse Scenario
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  • 1. The Collapse of Appalachia by 2040 Run for the Hills: Appalachia’s Burning!!!
  • 2. Table of Contents Chapter One: Stereotypes and Poverty Chapter Six: Mountaintop Removal by Amy Thompson by: Ashley Morgan 2999 words 3069 words Chapter Seven: Clean Coal Technology Chapter Two: Education and Economic by Megan Kleinline Development 3000 words by John Chenault Chapter Eight: Energy 3100 words by Shea Sheppard Chapter Three: Political Corruption 3100 words Chapter Nine: Environmental by Bethany Bargo Legislation 3414 words by Cullen Younger Chapter Four: Religion 3688 words by Matt Finley Chapter Ten: Entrepreneurship 3072 words by Josh Tyree 2897 words Chapter Five: Illegal Drug Use Chapter Eleven: A Warning by Steve Skinner by Blake Gerughty 2973 words 3100 words
  • 3. How Stereotypes and Poverty will Affect Appalachia Chapter 1: Those Gosh Darn Hillbillies BY: AMY THOMPSON
  • 4. The Appalachian Stereotype “Oh, I don‟t know. How about „Good morning, Appalachia, I got a mighty cute sister and an extra set Even if a stereotype generalizes good of toes.” qualities, it is still damaging because it –Gilmore Girls classifies an entire community of people before one can acknowledge the personal (Season 4, Episode 16) differences that exist within such a Stereotypical Appalachian Characteristics: community. 1. Appalachians are unintelligent, uneducated, The Appalachian stereotype is devoid of any cannot read and have trouble understanding many qualities that could be labeled as good. situations. Instead, it encompasses an array of negative Shoes are not are a part of an Appalachian‘s 2. attributes. wardrobe. 3. Appalachians are weak, helpless, shiftless and lazy. 4. That is why they are dirt poor. 5. And this leads them to be wholly unhealthy (drugged up and drunk) and unhygienic. Appalachians don‘t take care of their families; 6. they are irresponsible. 7. But they do take care of their guns. They love guns. 8. Marrying inside the family is not uncommon for Appalachians.
  • 5. Appalachian Stereotype Even if the stereotype is This stereotype is typically targeted toward maintained only jokingly, its the citizens of Kentucky, Tennessee and persistence in the world can lead West Virginia, the heart of Central to many people believing it as the Appalachia. It is one that, whether ultimate truth. Those who are intending to or not, does not work to lift up geographically removed, say in the Appalachian people. Unfortunately, it California, may never have the demeans the people by painting them as opportunity to see Central incapable human beings. Appalachia and thus, would take what they hear as fact, especially According to urbandictionary.com: when those stereotypes are Appalachian American [noun] supported by members of the A PC term for any number of Americans who by news media like Bill O‘Reilly. On region, decent or choice are hillbillies, hilljacks, his show, The O‘Reilly Factor, hilligans or carnival workers. O‘Reilly claimed, for thousands Appalachian Appellation [noun] to hear, that Appalachia was A name for a hillbilly, particularly ones from ―hopeless‖ and the best thing mountain country. Examples include Clem, Appalachians could do would be Bocephus, and Zeke. Female Appalachian to ―move to Miami.‖ These kinds Appellations include Daisy & Ellie Mae. Of of suggestions instill in his course, hillbillies do not use the term themselves, since they can't pronounce the viewers minds that it is time to give up on the region (O‘Reilly). word APPELLATION.
  • 6. Appalachian In the 2008 American The media purported this presidential election, this Stereotype: vision of Palin as a very incident occurred bumbling, with Sarah Palin. Palin is real-life affects unsophisticated, incapable governor of Alaska, a state hillbilly. It does not matter with which the majority of whether this labeling was those living in the Figure 1.1 continental U.S. are based on truth or not. unfamiliar. What is important is the fact that America, During the 2008 election, knowing very little about members of the media, this political newcomer, inside the news business accepted the media‘s and out, took facts about reports as truth, without 1.2 Palin like that she enjoys Figure imploring much hunting and had an 18- further(Olbermann). year-old, unwed pregnant daughter, two Appalachian stereotypical characteristics, and amplified them in order to justify the renaming of her family the ―Wasilla Hillbillies.‖ http://media.photobucket.com/image/wasilla%20hillbil http://blog.oregonlive.com/opinion_impact/2008/11/tt081029.jpg lies/nonnie9999/tv%20shows/thebeverlyhillbillies2.jpg
  • 7. Appalachian Stereotype: origins Norma Myers, an archivist at the Archives for Appalachia acknowledges that ―[t]here are little grains of truth in some of these stereotypes.‖ Yes, some people own Around the same time the United States overalls and some people choose not to wear shoes when entered the industrial revolution in the outside; the region does have high poverty rates; there are late 19th and early 20th century, the drug problems and health problems, and yes some people Appalachian stereotype was emerging. in Appalachia are lazy, just like some people are in New Up until this time, the country‘s economy York and Detroit, L.A. and Hartford. was agriculturally based, the culture was heterogeneous, and communication was Seeing these grains of truth as the absolute picture of more rudimentary. Appalachia is a mistake. It is necessary to ask why these things are true and understand that they do not equate the Appalachian people to hopelessness. Once roads were developed and the “[t]he stereotypes have economy changed, so did the way people saw each other, and the Appalachian been applied broadly to stereotype prevailed. The country [all Appalachians], and progressed: more roads, education was it‟s been turned into a modernized; farming turned into to caricature.” corporations and fast food chains began. Central Appalachia‘s mountainous -Norma Myers landscape made it hard to pave and while, there is enough land for individuals to The biggest problem with the Appalachian stereotype is keep gardens, agricultural on a massive that it is the only side displayed to people outside scale is hard to sustain there. Central Appalachia. There is nothing wrong with walking around Appalachia was left behind as industry barefoot when you have soft, comforting land, like began to tighten its grasp on America. Bluegrass, to walk on, but when that plays into the one, mass generalization that is widely known about Appalachia, it provokes people to accept the bad attributes, like being lazy and uncaring, as true and provides less motivation to care about the well-being of
  • 8. According to the Collins Essential English Appalachian Dictionary: Hillbilly [noun] Stereotype: Usually disparaging an unsophisticated person from the why it remains mountainous areas in the southeastern U.S. The Appalachian stereotype remains because people, inside and outside of the region, refuse to As a result of the stereotype‘s presence in let it die. It spread like a virus from personal highly watched shows like the O‘Reilly factor perceptions of the region to bigger, more powerful outlets. Entertainment industries, mostly and 20/20, the likelihood of people outside the television, use the stereotype to amuse their region believing the stereotype as fact viewers and make a profit, but even in this increases, making it harder to break, and it seemingly innocent fashion it is damaging. leads to insiders embracing the things that they are best known for: laziness and helplessness. After decades of the stereotype‘s presence in entertainment, it has crept into the news media Then, it becomes easier for elites to thrive industry. It seems that the jokes have been around because it easier to enforce this stereotype. If for enough voices in power say that the citizens of such a substantial amount of time that those who Central Appalachia are unintelligent or live unskilled, they can manipulate the Central outside of the region believe that it is true. Now, it Appalachians into believing they deserve their is poor quality of life. Furthermore, it limits not unheard of for journalists and commentators to beneficial development, like better forms of
  • 9. Figure 1.3 Figure 1.4 CMT is currently on their third season of ―My Big Fat Redneck Go into any Halloween costume store or scroll Wedding.‖ This particular wedding cake is for the union of through any costume website, and you will most Carol and Carlis, a Waverly, Ohio couple (Season 3, Episode likely find some version of this costume. This one is 14). Carol and Carlis are entitled to a confederate themed specifically called the ―Hillbilly Bride Costume‖ and wedding, but it does play into the stereotype by show in the it comes with an inflatable tummy, the essential same side of Appalachia that is always shown. Those watching accessory to really perfect the stereotypical look. this televised event, who are unfamiliar region, are once again, The Bride and Groom costume can be yours for a only provided with a single picture of Appalachia. mere $67.99 at Costumesupercenter.com ! http://www.cmt.com/shows/dyn/my_big_redneck_wedding_3/151311/episode_photos.jh http://www.costumesupercenter.com/csc/prod/116591/i/1/product.web tml
  • 10. This picture is a still from the Looney Tunes Figure 1.5 cartoon, ―Hillbilly Hare.‖ Similar to ―The Beverly Hillbillies‖, ―Hillbilly Hare‖ feature naïve, ignorant characters who loved their guns. Also, their lack of shoes is very noticeable. The difference between this cartoon and the live-action T.V. show is that this cartoon is targeted specifically to children. This instills a generic image of Appalachians at an early age. http://yosemite-sam.net/Sam/Relatives/Hillbilly-Hare.JPG From creative commons search ―The Beverly Hillbillies‖ was a television comedy that aired from 1962-1971. It focused on a country family‘s move from the holler to L.A., after they accidentally struck oil. Each week this was the version of ―hillbillies‖ America saw. These characters embodied Figure 1.6 naïve, ignorant personalities for fans to laugh http://www.fiftiesweb.com/tv/beverly-hillbillies-2.jpg at. From creative commons search
  • 11. Figure 1.7 Figure 1.8 Hillbilly Days is an annual event in Pikeville, Jeff Foxworthy has made an entire career Kentucky. While it provides an opportunity for preying off the redneck stereotype that is socializing and fun, it is a great example of how frequently associated with the people of Central some Appalachians embrace the stereotype. Appalachia (Kentucky, West Virginia, Furthermore, Hillbilly Days also provides Tennessee). His most prolific joke, ―You might evidence of how the stereotype is not as prominent be a redneck, if ________‖ pokes fun at as some may think, considering that the Appalachians, implying their stupidity. Since it Appalachians who participate have to dress, on is all a joke though, it seems to be okay with his this special day, to specifically conform to the http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://1.bp.blogspot.com http://www.thefoxworthystore.com/images/medium/redneckdictio fans. / stereotype. nary3_MED.jpg From creative commons search
  • 12. Appalachian Stereotype: The Appalachian stereotype cannot Native Americans, however, could get any worse. If this stereotype not problems continues it will build up the power to overcome the label that had been drive Central Appalachia into a state bestowed upon them, and almost of collapse. Stereotypes, this one entirely vanished. especially, are more than just childish The negative, name-calling. They are a Native Americans, blacks and Appalachian psychological force that frequently women have all provided examples stereotype has many critiques the ability of an entire of the real danger involved in the community of people. adverse affects for the present Appalachian stereotype, an example Central Appalachia must Central Appalachian notice. By the stereotype‘s future Region: When the Europeans arrived in North persistence, it will continue to America, they stereotyped the Native shackle Central Appalachia and 1. Limits tourism American population as ―savage‖ and while Central Appalachians will not 2. Limits the appeal used that to justify their vicious be physically slaughtered by the slaughter and oppression. Throughout rest of the United States, their of colleges in the the United State‘s history, until the society and their place in it will be area 20th century, blacks were stereotyped murdered. In order to avoid as‖ less than human;‖ they were collapse, it is essential to remove 3. Weakens the consequently, enslaved and physically the oppressive shackles of the morale of the and verbally abused. For the same Appalachian stereotype. If span of time, women in the U.S.A. Appalachians cannot break through citizens were considered ―weak‖ and thus this stereotype, it will continue to 4. Paves the way for denied the same rights of their male persist and be amplified. The the region‘s counterparts. stereotype will start to become true and confine the majority of Central communities to be Appalachians to a disenfranchising manipulated and These historical examples provide label. And since people are not two willing to help people who do not mistreated, as seen options of what one can do with a seem worth the time, this in the logic behind stereotype. The American black and stereotype will threaten the
  • 13. Figure 1.9 2020 2030 2040 The stereotype has now All of the people living The Appalachian amplified all of the outside the region are stereotype prevails in all economic problems in the either apathetic toward or forms of the media region. cruelly dismiss the industry. problems of Central No businesses are Appalachians. interested in coming to Stand-up comedians Central Appalachia have begun using because they believe Appalachian jokes to there is no money, from replace racial and gender Medicare and Medicaid local taxes or on an jokes. News are cut to the region individual level to commentators have because Central support them. The begun calling for the Appalachians are all seen unfortunate aspect is that United States as substance abusers, and they are right. The government to cut the government has stereotype has programs like welfare, decided they will not progressed into such Medicare and Medicaid support such a prominence that Central in Central Appalachia widespread drug Appalachians have because they believe the problem. nothing left but their people are using it for a poverty. free ride.
  • 14. Poverty: introduction The Appalachian Stereotype has prevailed for decades and it is not showing any signs of demise. Because of this stagnation it amplifies one of the most depreciating problems in the regions, individual poverty. The poverty experienced in Central Appalachia could get worse. In third world countries, like Somalia and South Africa, the people live in abject poverty. That is where they are so poor that they are on the brink of death, where if something bad happens, there is no back-up plan. Central Appalachian poverty in 2009 has not reached such a low level. However, if the current drivers of poverty do not cease, there is a great probability that it will happen.
  • 15. Poverty Trends Figure 1.10 U.S.A. Kentucky Tenn. Virginia W.V. 90,000 80,000 Median-Income for Four-Person Families (in dollars) 70,000 60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 0 1980 1981 1983 1985 1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2003 2005 2007 Year
  • 16. Poverty Trends In figure 1.11 (information homogenous industries. All from the labor of bureau of these limit growth and statistics) employment opportunities. Kentucky‘s, Tennessee‘s and West Virginia‘s median Virginia is the only Central incomes are never once Appalachian state whose above the median income as median income exceeds the a whole. These three states United State‘s. This can be make up the heaviest part linked to the fact that very Central Appalachia and also little of Virginia is actually a are the most deeply affected part of Central Appalachia by coal mining. and the rest of the state is Therefore, they are victims more economically to such problems like diversified. mechanization, environment al degradation and
  • 17. Figure 1.11 Environmental Degradation Child Poverty (Common, violent destruction of the (When a child begins their land, mostly due to mountaintop life in poverty, it is hard for removal, causes tax money to be diverted them to come out of it, thus for fixing these environmental problems keeping them in a cycle of instead funding education. It also poor.) damages infrastructure, which limits the growth/addition of new business in the region.) Power Inequalities (occurs between elites- Unemployment/Low paying jobs upper class and politicians-and the Drivers of working class, who do not have the same level Central of financial power. Appalachian Poverty
  • 18. Poverty: Unemployment/Low paying jobs Central Appalachia does not stand alone in their amount of chronic, rural poverty. South Africa faces an eerily miners employed in Central Appalachia. Most of similar situation, that should serve as a forewarning this was to the Central Appalachian region. due to the mechanization of surface mining. Because of Elizabeth Francis writes that one of the biggest the prominence of the mining industry drivers of South Africa‘s poverty is ―historically though, there are not a lot of options for other generated power inequalities.‖ In Central employment (Coal Appalachia, power inequalities thrive. The coal Mining Productivity by State). mines dominate much of the region; they hire thousands, own much of the land, and support Once unemployment like this strike, it can fuel many of the region‘s political candidates. The same other drivers that maintain unemployment and circumstances occur in South Africa: the region ―is consequently, poverty. When one loses a job it dominated by an alliance between can trigger depression and/or substance abuse. industrial, financial and mining capital…with As these problems progress, it becomes less landowners playing a less important role.‖ They likely that the individual find a new job because too have an abundance of valuable resources; there is just not much a market for South Africa‘s coal is platinum and mining has depressed, substance abusers. As Central been a big industry there as well, especially Appalachia has little funds to rehabilitate throughout the 1970‘s and 1980‘s.Its people, it can deepen this cycle (Bishop). mechanization dominated the land, stole jobs from the farmers, and squeezed the mineral rights out of the landowners. Combined these situations reduce the amount of jobs available in South Africa and consequently, the amount of money the working citizens make. Since the 1977 signing of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (SMCRA), mountaintop removal
  • 19. Unemployment Trends Figure 1.12 USA Kentucky Tenn. Virginia W.V. 20 18 16 Annual Average Unemployment Percentage 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 1980 1981 1983 1985 1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2008 Year
  • 20. Poverty: additional drivers As seen in figure 1.12 (information from the the Bureau of Labor Statistics), until percent of adults with college degrees 2003,West Virginia, Kentucky and increased from 10.4% to 14.8% Tennessee all have higher (Socioeconomic Data). unemployment rates than the United States‘ average. Virginia has a lower rate Even though West Virginia improved than the country‘s average, but once their unemployment rate, their again, it is important to remember how poverty still remains dismal, like the little of Virginia actually makes up rest of the Central Appalachian Central Appalachia, and region. This can be connected back thus, suffers the same problems. to the problem of an undiversified West Virginia manages to maintain business economy. Without an unemployment rate lower than opportunities for high-paying the United States‘ average in 2005. jobs, besides mining foreman, there is little hope that Central This improvement can be attributed to Appalachians can bring themselves the increase of education attainment in out of poverty. the state. From 1980 to 2000, the percent of adults with high school diplomas jumped from 56% to 75.2%;
  • 21. Figure 1.13 2020 2030 2040 Central Appalachia has reached Poverty rates continue to abject poverty. 1 in 4 children increase for West are dying of starvation. A new Virginia, Tennessee and It has become harder for global pandemic, Dinosaur Kentucky, and people spend Central Appalachians to buy flu, spreads, but Central less on medicine and health any food and starvation Appalachia does not have the care, less on healthy foods rates increase. funds for proper medical care. and their health declines. The people are so unhealthy already that this flu wipes out 20% of the population. The only people with college degrees are The tax base for Central teachers, mining engineers The percent of adults with and some of the town‘s Appalachia declines and college degrees plummet. more people apply for mayors. There is less Higher education has government funds, but do money coming into become unaffordable for the not get the money they need government than can go out majority of families and because there are so many to serve the community. those who can finance people who are demanding Roads go into disrepair and college, move out of the it. only a fraction of people region. can attain a basic level of health care,.
  • 22. Chapter One Works Cited Bishop, Bill. quot;As Poverty Worsens in Appalachia, So Do Drug Abuse and Depression.quot; Dailly Yonder. Aug. 2008. 26 Apr. 2009 <http://www.dailyyonder.com/ poverty-worsens-appalachia- so-do- drug-abuse-and-depression>. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Local Area Unemployment Statistics. 22 Apr. 2009 <http://www.bls.gov/ lau/>. Calhoun, Jennifer. quot;Archives dispel Appalachian stereotypes.quot; East Tenessean. Nov. 2004. 24 Apr. 2009<http://media.www.easttennessean.com/media/storage/paper203/news/2004/11/01/Li festyle/ Archives.Dispel.Appalachian.Stereotypes-789117.shtml>. quot;Coal Mining Productivity by State and Mine Type .quot; Energy Information Administration . Sept. 2008. U.S. Government. 30 Apr. 2009 <http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/coal/page/acr/table21.html>. Countdown with Keith Olberman. MSNBC. Nov. 2008. 30 Apr. 2009 <http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=JtelwDgX5Mc>. Francis, Elizabeth. Poverty: Causes, Responses and Consequences in Rural South Africa. Development Destin Studies Institue, 2006. 26 Apr. 2009 <http://www.chronicpoverty.org/pdfs/ 60Francis.pdf>. quot;Socioeconomic Data.quot; Appalachian Regional Commission. 2000. 21 Apr. 2009 <http://www.arc.gov/search> The O'Reilly Factor. Fox News. New York. Feb. 2009. Transcript. 30 Apr. 2009
  • 23. The Future of Education in Appalachia Chapter 2: We Don’t Need No Edumucation BY: JOHN CHENAULT
  • 24. Collapse: Education The socioeconomic plight of Appalachia has Explaining the regions difficulties as examined in been well documented. As one of the 1960, Ronald Eller explains ―Per capita Nation‘s poorest regions having many assessments on property in the mountains unemployed and struggling just to stay alive. averaged 38 percent less than comparable national Ron Eller, in his book Uneven Ground: assessments. Per pupil expenditures for education Appalachia Since 1945, articulates the cause in Appalachia were about half those in the rest of of many of the region‘s woes: ―Low per the country‖ (Eller 31). Resulting education capita incomes reflect[s] a labor force that is reform focused on trying to bring more money to largely uneducated‖ (Eller 31). Most the schools of the region. Reform in the late 1980s observers of the history of Appalachia point and 90s equalized funding in many school districts to education as a primary cause of many and helps allocate money to install the troubles in the region. These include technologies necessary for schools of the joblessness, poverty levels, drug approaching decades after major education Today, two 21st century. addiction, and crime. Attempts to reform the system in the 1960s reform in Appalachia, the region still lags and, again, in the late 1980s and early 90s were nationally in many socioeconomic areas. Figure aimed at the funding of the regions schools. The 1.1 is a graph showing the number of families poorer school districts throughout in poverty by state. States of Central Appalachia, lacking tax base and damaged by Appalachia are highlighted with red: political patronage throughout the school Kentucky, West Virginia, and Tennessee. As of system, have always trailed areas outside the 2007, these three Appalachian states rank region. among the highest nationally and well above the national average of 9.5 percent.
  • 25. Figure 2.1: Families in Poverty Figure 2.2 is even more telling about the regions educational situation. It graphs the percent of 18 to 64 year olds who have just a high school diploma or less, and are living in families with incomes below a living wage. Again, Kentucky, West Virginia, and Tennessee are highlighted in red; they all rank among the top ten nationally. Figure 1.2: Percent of 18 to 64 Year Olds Who Have Just a High School Diploma or Less, and are Living in Families with Income Below a Living Wage Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2007 American Community Survey Source: 2007 American Community Survey
  • 26. Education: shifting the burden The numbers above may suggest that the schools systems reinforce the problem. in Appalachian states continue to trail nationally. Some might suggest legislation to inject more money into the First, as we modernize our school systems we alienate the regions education systems. Appalachian school systems poorer, rural students who have less access to modern may have needed more money allocated during the culture. Also, the consolidation of high schools has made education reforms of the 20th century, but today education it harder for rural students to get to school activities reform must be different. Leaders addressing problems in making them among the first students to drop out. These education today continue to try to bring in more money for first two side effects show that many of the changes made struggling school districts. More attempts to inject money in schools help those who least need it and harm those into the education systems would fall under the ―Shifting who are already disadvantaged. the Burden‖ archetype defined by Peter Senge in The Fifth Discipline. Another side effect of past attempts to reform education is the tendency for the most educated people to leave the The ―Shifting the Burden‖ archetype holds that short-term region. Figure 2.3 shows the ―Shifting the Burden‖ archetype with Appalachia‘s traditional education reform fixes hinder the solving of the fundamental (long-term) model on top in the section labeled ―Symptomatic problem. Legislators have fallen into a cycle by which Solution.‖ A fundamental element of the ―Shifting the they respond to the symptoms of a problem (low test Burden‖ archetype is that symptomatic solutions reinforce scores and low educational achievement) with a short-term fix (the allocation of money to build school infrastructure further reliance. As schools receive more and more and buy technology). When the government allocates updates and monies more and more successful students money to education we see the results in the form of new move away and ever more troubled students continue to schools and new stuff. This may be accompanied with struggle (including their children). Each year, as education some short-term successes such as higher standardized test levels remain low, the school systems of Appalachia will scores, more students with high school diplomas and more request more funding for more stuff—and the cycle students in college but the fundamental problem continues indefinitely. The inability to retain the educated resurfaces: Appalachian people remain among the least- is causing a net loss of people who live and are employed educated citizens of the United States. This happens in the region with higher education. because the solution offered creates some side effects that
  • 27. Figure 2.3: Shifting the Burden
  • 28. Jim Dator, of the Manoa School of Future Studies, defines a collapse scenario not only as an image where the world ends, but can be a scenario where a system ceases to function as efficiently or as it was intended to function. Collapse can be complete nothingness and total loss or, as Dator explains, it can be ―simply revert[ing] to a lower level of economic and social activity‖ (Dator Podcast). I will show that a collapse scenario already exists when applied to Appalachia‘s education situation. Additionally, I will give a total collapse scenario in which the region ceases to exist. Current Collapse in the System Defining collapse as when a system ceases to function as it should, Appalachia is experiencing collapse at this very moment. The states of central Appalachia (defined in the portion as KY, WV and TN) have steadily educated more of their citizenry. A 2007 U.S. Census Bureau survey shows that among folks aged 65 and older, Kentucky, West Virginia, and Tennessee rank in the bottom five nationally in attainment of a high school diploma. Among people aged 44 to 65, the same three states improve, but still rank among the bottom ten nationally. More folks in Kentucky, West Virginia, and Tennessee aged 25 to 34 attained a high school diploma. Kentucky and West Virginia both rank above the national average in high school attainment rates for people aged 25 to 34. The numbers just discussed are shown below in figures 2.4, 2.5, and 2.6. Relevant states are highlighted in red. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey (ACS) Figure 2.4: Percent of Adults 65 and Older with a High School Diploma
  • 29. Figure 2.5: Percent of Adults 45 to 64 with a High School Diploma Figure 2.6: Percent of Adults 25 to 34 with a High School Diploma Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey (ACS) (ACS)
  • 30. Education Figures 2.4,2.5, and 2.6 show that education reform As of now, states of central Appalachia has led to the states of Appalachia educating more of (KY, WV, and TN) are educated people at higher its population; the information shows education rates than ever. More people in the region are attainment in a generational order. Using this attaining high school diplomas and are going to information, I am assuming that the schools of the college. Kentucky, West Virginia, and Tennessee region are able to educate and prepare students for all rank above the national average in state and higher education. But poverty local support for higher education. A State Higher rates, joblessness, healthcare problems and lack of Education Executive Offices (SHEEO) survey business still plague Appalachia. The answer can be shows that Kentucky provides $9.60 per $1,000 of explained by the amount of jobs available in the personal income for higher education. West science, technology, engineering, and mathematics Virginia offers $8.51 per $1,000 of personal occupations. Jobs in these fields are most relevant and income; Tennessee provides $7.28 per $1,000 of needed compete in the modern globalized economy. personal income for higher education. These statistics help gauge the size and scope of a state‘s Kentucky, West Virginia, and Tennessee all rank in the bottom ten nationally and well below the national effort to support higher education. The states average in terms of percent of their population discussed are clearly doing so. What these states employed in the science, technology, engineering, and are not doing is attracting modern businesses to mathematics occupations. The data is shown below in retain the people that they educate (particularly in figure 3.4. For the most part, jobs in these areas are the fields of science, technology, engineering, and higher paying than other occupations and are mathematics). The net loss of people employed in associated with a strong and vibrant high-technology occupations in these fields is a collapse scenario. economy ready for business in the 21st century. States Figure 2.7 shows the percent of the workforce that score high in this measure are those most likely to employed in science, technology, engineering, and attract highly-skilled college-educated people; in-state mathematics. Kentucky, Tennessee, and West
  • 31. Figure 2.7: Percent Employment in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics Occupations Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey (ACS)
  • 32. Figure 2.8 is a diagram showing how the characteristics of a state‘s workforce and economy are made. The characteristics of the workforce, which determines the economic conditions in the state, are determined by entrants into the workforce and the characteristics of the in-migrants. The state‘s workforce loses the characteristics of the out-migrants. If the characteristics of the out-migrants include education in occupations that are higher paying and relevant in the modern market (i.e. science, technology, etc.) and the in-migrants don‘t make up this difference, a collapse of the system has occurred. Eventually, total collapse and destruction will occur. Figure 2.8: A State‟s Workforce and Economy Source: http://www.higheredinfo.org
  • 33. Total Collapse: education the ones who are unable to adapt to the requirements of the new economy. The video clip hyperlinked below was made for the ten year As Appalachia loses more and more educated anniversary of postsecondary education reform in citizens, the entire system will begin to suffer at an Kentucky. It offers insights into Kentucky‘s increasing rate. Businesses in the region relevant education and workforce goals and explains the and fit for survival in the modern, globalized value of higher education as it relates to jobs and economy will decline until there are no more. Less business. educated Appalachians will stay in Appalachia as •Video: 10 Year Anniversary of Kentucky there aren‘t jobs appropriate for higher levels of Postsecondary Reform (view from 08:00-9:42) education; this creates an exponential loss rate of • educated people. Appalachia offers little in the way http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iyPX_61yhNQ of globalized businesses, thus, there are little opportunities for the well-educated. ―Graduate and The states of Appalachia must strive to attract the professional schools and institutions for scientific businesses necessary to retain the students it and medical research [are] scarce in Appalachia, educates and, perhaps, attract educated people leaving most of the region‘s professionals to be from out-of-state. Kentucky wants to double the educated outside the mountains and denying number of people with bachelorette degrees by localities the economic, (educational) and civic 2020. If Kentucky achieves this, experts predict benefits that such institutions (and people) provide that state revenue will increase by $9 billion and to dynamic communities‖ (Eller 111). per capita income will increase $140 billion. Increasing the amount of students a state educates Without the infrastructure and businesses is one way to increase the odds of retaining necessary to attract and keep smart people, educated people, but there are other ways to Appalachia will continue to lose the people it has compete with other states in the global economy. strived so hard to educate and remain stuck with
  • 34. Post, notes in her 2009 article ―Rural Riddle: Do Jobs Follow Broadband Access: A Broadband Access‖ that ― residents with limited exposure to technology and low education levels may struggle to meet the job qualifications of tech-sector positions‖ Possible Leverage Point (http://www.washingtonpost.com). Providing high-Internet should be only one step (and a possible leverage point) in an ongoing process aimed at attracted educated Senge, in The Fifth Discipline, defines a leverage point as something people. The Internet must be met with an increase in the educated that requires little effort but produces a lot of action or results. population of the region. Broadband can help jump-start an economy. Kentucky, West Virginia, and the rest of Appalachia could help attract Some promoters of increased broadband access cite the Appalachian the needed workforce by making the environment right for educated town of Lebanon, Virginia as an example of how broadband can people. Any national or international business competitor must have change an economy. Rep. Rick Boucher and then-Governor Mark R. access to the Internet. Businesses must be connected to the world, Warner helped get $2.3 million in grants to bring fiber-optic cables to and doing that is much easier than in the past. Businesses in home and businesses in the city. The defense contractor Northrop Appalachia have historically followed the interstate highways and set Grumman and software-maker CGI soon placed businesses there and up close to them. Before the Internet it was much more necessary to created jobs for around 700 people with an average salary of $50,000 be physically close to the market. Today, with speed and convenience a year. ―It [also] helped that district planners at the same time of the World Wide Web, businesses are less reliant on being converted an old strip mall to a training center that allowed residents physically close to important clients. While the internet may be a to get their high school equivalency diplomas and prepare for jobs as potential leverage point in the system, bringing high-speed Internet to technicians and information technology workers‖ an under-educated region can be a complicated process. Some note (http://www.washingtonpost.com). Attracted the right jobs and people that the socioeconomic conditions don‘t always favor adding the is a process that must be addressed at many levels; that is, many Internet. For instance, some residents may not see the advantage of factors must align for real progress to be made. Figure 4.1 below Figure 2.9: Location of Lebanon be able to afford the subscription being online and other may not shows the location of Lebanon, the broadband success story. required for service. Cecilia Kang, a staff writer for the Washington Source: www.washingtonpost.com
  • 35. Attracting the Creative Class: Other Factors innovation. The last ‗T‘ is tolerance. This is the most challenging Discouraging Educated People from Staying in the issue to the Appalachia. The region has long been heralded as a bastion of backwardness and limited tolerance. Florida contends that Region the creative people needed to attract modern business prefer to work in environments that are open to all. For example, Florida uses the Richard Florida, in his book The Rise of the Creative Gay Index to measure an areas openness and level of diversity. With Class, defines the people I have identified the people who work in the the logic that since integrating gays into mainstream society has been occupations I defined as beneficial to the region (in science, so difficult, he assumes areas that welcome gays welcome all people. technology, etc.) as members of the ―Creative Class.‖ He explains, Most educated people place value on this. For Appalachian towns and ―This book describes the emergence of a new social class. If you are a cities becoming more diverse would be nearly impossible. Low scientist, an architect or designer…or if you use creativity as a key educational attainment rates and a high rate of Christian factor in your work in business, education, health care, law or some fundamentalism discourage almost anyone who is different, much less other profession, you are a member‖ (Florida xxvii). Florida contends homosexuals, from living in the region. that these people are attracted to locations that offer similar things. A Conclusion number of the regions that attract the most creative people are those that have major universities, research facilities and governments that support attracting creative class businesses and, thus, more creative To compete and remain relevant in the global economy Appalachian class people. These places are not necessarily the large cities. Areas leaders and citizens must strive to increase not only the amount of like Gainesville, Florida and Hartford, Connecticut harbor some of people it educates, but must increase the amount of educated people the largest concentrations of these people, so Appalachia is not out of that live and work in the region. Currently, a collapse scenario is the running because of its location and lack of population. Creative taking place as Appalachia loses more educated folks than it gains places are also not limited to established high-technology and cultural annually. An eventual total destruction scenario will occur if this centers—so Appalachia can improve. Florida notes that significant trend continues. The availability of jobs in the region will shrink. As a competitive advantage goes to areas that already have concentrations result, the tax base will decrease and infrastructure will suffer. Less of the class. Additionally, regions that harbor large concentrations of businesses and educated people will inhabit the region. In an extreme working and service class jobs are at a considerable disadvantage. If situation, without federal or state legislative interference, the region Appalachia wishes to compete, the region must attract more creative could totally die. Downtown Detroit‘s infrastructure and business people. Areas with high concentrations of creative class workers tend state can serve as a model for what happens in a total economic to support high-tech businesses, so broadband access and the collapse. The area produced too many working class jobs and not attraction of high-tech businesses is crucial to improving the enough jobs in creative areas such as science, technology, and demographic. Florida contends that creative people are attracted to mathematics. This led to collapse of the system evidenced by areas with high technology, talent and tolerance; what he labels the Detroit‘s crumbling infrastructure. three ‗T‘s‘. High technology is present to harbor large, globalized
  • 36. Chapter Two Works Cited Eller, Ronald. Uneven Ground; The History of Appalachia Since 1945. Lexington, KY: University of Kentucky Press, 2008. Florida, Richard. The Rise of the Creative Class. New York: Basic Books, 2002. Senge, Peter. The Fifth Discipline. New York: Doubleday, 1990.
  • 37. Politics and Collapse in Appalachia Chapter 3: Absolute Power Corrupts Absolutely BY: BETHANY BARGO
  • 38. Political Road to Collapse worse, unnoticed because the symptoms Peter Senge, in his book The Fifth apparently clear up, and the system loses Discipline, defines an archetype called shifting the burden as ―an underlying whatever abilities it had to solve the underlying problem‖ (Senge 103). Who is problem that generates symptoms that this someone that shifts the burden when demand attention but the underlying they ―fix‖ the problem? It is Appalachia‘s problem is difficult for people to address so people ‗shift the burden‘ of their problems to finest, political elites who will hinder an entire region as long as they‘re in power. other solutions-well intentioned, easy fixes which seem extremely efficient‖ (103). The rest of the nation is moving forward while this region is staying stagnant. The residents of Appalachia have been Political elites will personally drive the bus surrounded by this archetype for most of to the world of Appalachian collapse. their lives. A problem presents itself, someone tries to combat it by coming up with quick fixes like trying to use gum to stop a leak. On the surface it appears that the problem is being addressed however, ―the underlying problem grows
  • 39. Political Road to Collapse: Vision 2040 • The political road to collapse leads to Appalachia in 2040. There are no more mountains, only level reminders of where a mountain once stood. It‘s beauty has been destroyed and can only be found in historical pictures • The area is more similar to a third world country, with pockets of drug abuse and 8th grade level education. The stereotypes are the same and no one seems to care. • The rest of the world is 100 steps ahead and Appalachia will never catch up. Alternative energy has flooded the once coal enriched economy and the skills of the coal mine have not been replaced. • The federal government used to care however there are more important issues on the agenda. • However, one thing remains constant. One thing has not changed for 30 years or longer. The local and state political structures in Appalachia will gain power at any cost. They live in the mansions up on the hill while their voting base can not even afford to live in anything strong enough to support insulation. The rich are getting richer and the poor are getting poorer. • The political structure looks more like a dictatorship than a democracy.
  • 40. Political trends that lead to the collapse of Appalachia in the year 2040
  • 41. Political Road to Collapse • The History of the (ARC) Appalachian Regional Commission – According to the commission‘s website, ―In 1960, the Region's governors formed the Conference of Appalachian Governors to develop a regional approach to resolving these problems. In 1961, they took their case to newly elected President John F. Kennedy, who had been deeply moved by the poverty he saw during campaign trips to West Virginia.‖ – The website also states that ―in 1963 Kennedy formed a federal-state committee that came to be known as the President's Appalachian Regional Commission (PARC), and directed it to draw up quot;a comprehensive program for the economic development of the Appalachian Region‖ • Some conditions that were facing the Appalachian region at that time were ―One of every three Appalachians lived in poverty, per capita income was 23 percent lower than the U.S. average, and high unemployment and harsh living conditions had, in the 1950s, forced more than 2 million Appalachians to leave their homes and seek work in other regions.‖ (arc.gov)
  • 42. Political Road to Collapse The conditions facing the Appalachian region in 1963, the year According to the ARC, ―While the ARC was created, are the same significant strides have been made conditions facing Appalachia today. since the mid 1960s, one fifth of the 46 years later, no change, what gives? counties in Appalachia are still The programs enacted by the ARC considered distressed. Figure 3.1 on were not bad, however the region has the next slide shows the geographic been left in the wrong hands. locations of these 82 counties, and an apparent pattern does seem to exist in their location and concentration south According to Dr. Ronald Eller in his and west in the region.‖ book titled Uneven Ground ―five years after the ARC creation, low- income people in the sixty poorest counties in central Appalachia remained almost untouched by the commission‘s programs‖ (191)
  • 43. Political Road to Collapse Figure 3.1 In 2040 the entire region http://www.arc.gov/index.do?nodeId=2321 will be distressed.
  • 44. Political Road to Collapse: history of political efforts For years politicians have tried the area, President Johnson their best to donate the best known demanded a war on poverty during efforts to alleviate the problems in the State of the Union address on Appalachia. It dates as far back as January 8, 1964. (npr.org) President John F. Kennedy who personally ―telephoned the newly See President Johnsons Special elected governor of Message to Congress about the War Kentucky, Edward ―Ned‖ on Poverty Breathitt, and assured him that the White House would follow through on its commitment to Appalachia‖ According to Dr. Ronald Eller in (Eller 75). his book titled Uneven Ground, ―Johnson understood the political benefits of government The commitment from President investment in local poverty Kennedy never reached it programs, especially in the fulfillment due to his assassination South, where white leaders were in November 1963, however Vice resisting federal civil rights President Lyndon B. Johnson was pressures‖ (76). right behind him to follow his lead. Perhaps setting the tone for politicians and motivations toward
  • 45. Political Road to Collapse: history of political efforts domino effect that is still in place in The War on Poverty was a quick fix Appalachia today. According to Kent for the problems in Appalachia. In Germany of the University of Virginia January 1968, Appalachia was still President Nixon ―endorsed a ‗New termed as a ―forgotten land‖ (Eller Federalism‘ in which the federal 154). According to reporter Peter Schrag, ―in the seven years since John governments shifted more authority over social welfare enterprises to state F. Kennedy had drawn national and local government‖ and thus the attention to the region, grand solutions problem worsens (2). Once the power have soured into new problems, the over social welfare enterprises was exploitation of land and people turned over to the state and local continues, and even the best and most governments of Appalachia, the area hopeful efforts are jeopardized by was controlled on every level by ugly political machines all too close to home‖ (Eller 154). Where did the political powerhouses. For Kentucky Governor Breathitt, ―the War on political machines come from? Poverty was dead‖ (Eller 156). When Richard Nixon took over the Presidency, he continued the movement and perhaps set off the
  • 46. Political Road to Collapse • What are social welfare enterprises? – According to Dr. Ronald Eller, ―not only had government programs enlarged the number of politically dependent jobs, but Medicare and Medicaid had proven to be a boon for local druggists and physicians‖ (157). – ―Grocers welcomed expanding food stamp programs and checks for welfare, disability, and retirement flooded into county banks each month‖ (Eller 157) • The political elites of Appalachia benefited from the social welfare enterprise more than anyone, even those the programs were ―supposed‖ to help. – Doctors make a lot of money and reelection campaigns cost a lot of money. Dr. Eller writes how ―mountain physicians had long held influential positions in local politics and often were among the principal investors in local land development efforts.‖ (35) – The creation of such an enterprise is the quick fix made by political elites to make it appear as though Appalachia is making strides when really all that is happening is the rich are getting richer and the poor are getting poorer.
  • 47. Political Road to Collapse • ―The seeds of change and resistance had been planted‖ by the War on Poverty ―and even as government-sponsored funds for fighting poverty began to tighten, a wave of dissent washed across the mountains that would dramatize the depth of the region‘s problems and reframe the debate over regional disparity for years to come‖ (Eller 132). • ―For some Appalachian elites, managing poverty was more acceptable than fighting it and sometimes more rewarding‖ (Eller 157) • The regional disparity mentioned by Dr. Eller above continued to plague the Appalachian region through the course of 2010, 2020, 2030, and eventually lead to the ultimate collapse in 2040. It turned out to be true that managing poverty was definitely more acceptable and rewarding, but it also proved to be the easiest way too. When the region can no longer lean on coal, the political elites stand by and watch their own wealth grow as the region digresses because no one will pay to educate the unemployed.
  • 48. Political Road to Collapse: State and Local Government in Appalachia (2009)The nation is coming off of a historical political turning point however Appalachia may be more concerned at the moment with the upcoming local elections. One would think that maybe the mayor or state representative would be of great importance to a local in the elections. Think again. It seems that ―County Judge Executive [is] easily the most important political office to most voters in the region‖ (cyberhillbilly.blogspot.com).
  • 49. Political Road to Collapse • Judge executives control many jobs throughout a community. They also control the improvement and/or construction of local roads. • Robert Ireland referred to Kentucky‘s 120 counties as ―little kingdoms‖ (cyberhillbilly.blogspot.com). The elected officials are the kings and queens while the citizens remain in the working class. The money they earn goes towards making ―improvements‖ in the officials popularity, not in the area itself. • The office of judge executive is in control of millions of county dollars.
  • 50. Political Road to Collapse • John Gaventa had a way of describing power in his book Power and Powerlessness which is described below. • The elite versus the non-elite equals power versus powerlessness. • In this case, the elite (A) determines/influences what the non-elite (B) want. The elite County Judge Executive has a job opening. The non-elite, out of work citizen needs the job, however their family was on the opposite end of the voting spectrum during the last election. ―A‖ has the ability to determine what ―B‖ wants when re-election rolls around.
  • 51. Political Road to Collapse • Just how much power do they have? • According to the website cyberhillbilly.blogspot.com, Judge Executives control jobs such as ―receptionists, solid waste management, 911 directors, Deputy Judge Executive, economic development positions.‖ • Jobs such as these are definitely important in small counties in Appalachia. They could very well determine whether someone has to rely on the social welfare enterprises or if they will earn themselves the food they put on the table for dinner. Those in power tend to offer the jobs up to a friend of a friend-someone they owe a favor to because they helped them out during campaign season. Citizens of Appalachia can not catch up to the rest of the nation when their own political authorities dictate whether they will have a job or rely on food stamps and a medical card. • In fact, ―the combination of a good word from the county judge executive and a certification of disability from the local doctor was almost certain to convince the Department of Social Welfare to approve a monthly check and to obligate the claimant to the local political machine as well‖ (Eller 35).
  • 52. Political Road to Collapse • Did you know: – ―Four serving or former Eastern Kentucky County Judge Executives over the past few years have gone to prison-two from Knott County, one from Knox County, and one from Perry County‖ (cyberhillbilly.blogspot.com) – ―Five Clay County Kentucky officials, including the circuit court judge, the country clerk, and election officers were arrested Thursday after they were indicted on federal charges accusing them of using corrupt tactics to obtain political power and personal gain‖ (schneir.com) – The lack of trust in the political structure leads to collapse of the political democracy (if one can even call it that) into a complete political dictatorship. Incomes, employment, land ownership, road improvement, clean water, etc is all predetermined by the powerful.
  • 53. Political Road to Collapse • During the tough economic times, many elected officials, including President Obama tried to show support for the country by decreasing the amount of bonuses or raises received. This seems to show the country trending away from the trickle down affect that has plagued the Appalachian area for so many decades which creates an even wider gap between Appalachia and the rest of the world. • Dr. Eller wrote of this in his book which was published in 2008 before the elections were even over. It appears that Appalachians have dealt with this political gap more than once. Dr. Eller says ―mountain residents had always felt a sense of separateness from mainstream society that reinforced their passion for freedom and independence‖ and he attributes the reinforced ―pride in things local and familiar‖ from political elites as a ―pretext to resist change and eventually it was utilized by mountain elites to maintain long, established political dynasties‖ (245). • It isn‘t that Appalachians do not want change, it is that they are told that change is not what they want. Political elites seem to use the motto ―if it ain‘t broke don‘t fix it.‖ In their world, Appalachia is not broken-they thrive although the area is collapsing.
  • 54. Political Road to Collapse • A prime example of a political elite in Appalachia is the Governor of West Virginia Joe Manchin. – Manchin was recently re-elected to his second term in 2008. • Here is what Governor Manchin had to say when he addressed the West Virginia Public Employees Union UE Local 170 who were rallying for a pay raise: – ―I would think they would be tickled to death to have a job, to have a good paycheck, and a benefits package‖ (appalachiangreens.blogspot.com). • In an economy like that of 2009, that seems to be a pretty logical statement. If you were to ask someone who was just laid off from their job, they would probably be content to just have a job, much less a raise. • According to the Charleston Gazette, ―Manchin said he respects the right of public employees to rally for a pay raise, says it is all part of the legislative process, but that state employees should be consider themselves lucky at the moment to have a secure job‖ (appalachingreens.blogspot.com). – Manchin also stated that ―many private-sector workers and public employees in other states are ‗scared to death‘ that they may lose their job‖ (appalachingreens.blogspot.com). • Again, this is a prime example of an elite determining what a non-elite wants.
  • 55. Political Road to Collapse • Here was Governor Manchin‘s response to his executive staff‟s, as well as his own pay raise: – According to the Charleston Gazette ―Manchin said he was justified in giving seven members of his executive staff pay raises of 12% or more, because of additional responsibilities they are taking on in the second term of his administration‖ (appalachiangreens.blogspot.com) – Governor Manchin increased his own salary by $55,000, from $95,000 to $150,000 a year. (appalachiangreens.blogspot.com) – Who exactly needs that much of a raise? Maybe a governor who owns a $2 million dollar private plane! • Appalachians are partially responsible for electing Governor Manchin not once but twice. The lack of education, especially in the political arena would explain this. Most Appalachians grow up and vote a certain way because it is how their father or mother voted. As the area becomes even less educated in 2040, Appalachian states all acquire governors like this.
  • 56. Political Road to Collapse • National Politics Leaving Appalachia Behind – In the 21st century as the rest of the world focuses on clean coal, alternative energy, mass technology, and the outsourcing of jobs, the gap between Appalachia and the rest of America widens. – It is no surprise that coal is a big economic crutch in the Appalachian region however changes in energy capabilities are hindering the region. Dr. Eller stated that ―changes in the coal industry had been at the core of central Appalachia‘s economic distress since WWII. The introduction of new technologies had given rise to massive unemployment in the underground mines and to the emergence of surface mining practices that left the landscape scarred and degraded‖ (144). – As the nation moves toward an alternative energy approach, Appalachia will move closer to collapse. According to the website publicintegrity.org, the ―earnings of the top five U.S. coal producers more than doubled in 2008.‖ – According to Marianne Lavelle‘s article on the website publicintegrity.org, the top 5 coal producers in the U.S. are Peabody Energy (1), Arch Coal (2), Rio Tinto Energy America (3), Foundation Coal (4), and CONSOL Energy (5). The following graph shows their record profits for 2008. Figure 3.2
  • 57. Political Road to Collapse Coal Mining Record Profits 2008 350000 300000 Profits received in 2008 250000 200000 150000 100000 50000 0 1 2 3 4 5 Top 5 Coal Producers in U.S. Figure 3.2 Money in the bank while http://www.publicintegrity.org/investigations/climate_change/articles/entry/1280 the region suffers
  • 58. Political Road to Collapse • The American Coalition for Clean Coal Electricity (ACCCE) is ―a collection of 48 mining, rail, manufacturing, and power companies with an annual budget of over $45 million which is three times larger than the coal industry‘s previous lobby and PR groups‖ (Lavelle). (See Figure 3.3) • If history serves us right, politicians will follow the money trail, which apparently leads to the American Coalition for Clean Coal Electricity. With further support from politicians on a local level, the practice of producing clean coal could set the Appalachian region even further back. There is not anything wrong will trying to produce a more environmentally friendly type of energy, however political elites will not spend the time nor money to retrain so many Appalachians who know only the traditional skill of coal mining by mountain top removal.
  • 59. Political Road to Collapse Clean Coal Campaign Funding 350000 300000 250000 Amount Donated 200000 150000 100000 50000 0 Figure 3.3 Recipients A trend that will change the nation http://www.publicintegrity.org/investigations/climate_change/assets/pdf/Mining_ Record_Profits.pdf
  • 60. Political Road to Collapse • Beginning in 2009, President Obama has taken steps to move away from old policies on mountain top removal. – President Obama made ―a decision to suspend and review permits for two mountaintop removal mining operations, an action that effectively suspends more than 100 additional valley fill permits that threaten to bury hundreds more miles of headwater streams and destroy dozens more Appalachian mountains‖ (ilovemountains.org). This is good for the environment but bad for the job market in Appalachia. Political elites will find another way to increase their fortune, however Appalachians will continue to rely on social welfare enterprises. • ―The National Mine Association is already issuing sky-is-falling predictions of job losses if permits to stop mountain top removal are not issued immediately‖ (ilovemountains.org). • ―The Department of Energy projects Central Appalachia coal production will decline 25% in the next decade, and it is common knowledge that the Appalachian coal industry is undergoing a steep decline simply because the highest quality and easiest access to coal seams have long since been mined out‖ (ilovemountains.org).
  • 61. Political Road to Collapse • Although President Obama has set the reverse of mountain top removal in motion, local political elites will not give up that easily. – ―A controversial mountain top removal mine in Eastern Kentucky was approved the day after the Environmental Protection Agency said it was going to review such permits‖ (kentucky.com). The tug of war between local government in Appalachia and the federal government in Washington D.C. will continue while the Appalachian citizens pay the price. • The choice Appalachians have is to A.)comply with President Obama, forgo mountain top removal, and lose thousands of jobs without receiving any training in any other fields or B.) continue mountain top removal and forsake their land and environment, as well as their health and well being. That is not much choice to have. • Figure 3.4 on the following page showed ―that the region where mountain top removal occurs scored the lowest of any region in the nation for their ‗Index of Well Being.‘ Three Congressional Districts in Southwest Virginia, Eastern Kentucky, and Southern West Virginia where more than 90% of mountain top removal operations are located were all among the bottom 2% of districts in the Gallup Survey‖ (ilovemountains.org).
  • 62. Political Road to Collapse According to the website ilovemountains.org, West Virginia, Kentucky, and Mississippi are ranked as the 48th, 49th, and 50th lowest well being states. Well being is ―the index score for the nation and for each state is an average of six sub-indexes, which individually examine life evaluation, healthy behaviors, work environment, physical health, emotional health, and access to basic necessities. The questions in each sub-index are asked nightly of 1,000 national adults, aged 18 and older.‖ The political elite are definitely not listed in this group. In fact, in 2040 the well-being will be worse and the political elites will be as powerful as ever. Figure 3.4 http://www.ilovemountains.org/news/493
  • 63. Political Road to Collapse In summary, by 2040 the political structure in Appalachia will be a complete dictatorship. Some would argue that is no different from today. However, what will have changed is the type of people under their rule. Due to political corruption, the only individuals left in the area will be uneducated, untrained, out of work citizens who will make whatever living they can off of social welfare enterprises, that keep them forever chained to the political hierarchy that exists.
  • 64. Chapter Three Works Cited quot;ARC | History.quot; ARC | Appalachian Regional Commission. 27 Apr. 2009 <http://www.arc.gov/index.do?nodeId=7>. quot;Election Fraud in Kentucky.quot; Schneirer on Security. 24 Mar. 2009 <http://www.schneier.com/blog/archives/2009/03/election_fraud.html>. quot;Election 2010: Appalachian Kentucky County Judge Executive Roundup.quot; Cyberhillbilly. 07 Apr. 2009 <http://cyberhillbilly.blogspot.com/2009/04/election-2010-appalachian-kentucky.html>. Eller, Ronald D. Uneven ground Appalachia since 1945. Lexington: University P of Kentucky, 2008. Faculty Web Sites at the University of Virginia. 25 Apr. 2009 <http://www.faculty.virginia.edu/sixties/readings/War%20on%20Poverty%20entry%20Poverty%20Encyclopedia.pd f>. Gaventa, John. Power and Powerlessness Quiescence & Rebellion in an Appalachian Valley. New York: University of Illinois P, 1982. quot;Governor Joe Manchin is Lucky to Have a Job (And a New Airplane).quot; 17 Feb. 2009 <http://appalachiangreens.blogspot.com/2009/02/governor-joe-manchin-is-lucky-to-have.html>. Halsall, Paul. quot;Modern History Sourcebook: President Lyndon B. Johnson: The War on Poverty, March 1964.quot; 29 Apr. 2009 <http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1964johnson-warpoverty.html>. quot;Hope Is Alive in Appalachia: President Obama breaks with the Bush Administration policy on mountaintop removal coal mining.quot; 24 Mar. 2009 <http://www.ilovemountains.org/news/493>. Lavelle, Marianne. quot;The 'Clean Coal' Lobbying Blitz.quot; 20 Apr. 2009 <http://www.publicintegrity.org/investigations/climate_change/articles/entry/1280>. Mead, Andy. quot;Leslie County mine permit approved; environmentalists appeal to Obama.quot; 28 Mar. 2009 <http://www.kentucky.com/181/story/741568.html>. Senge, Peter M. The Fifth Discipline The Art & Practice of The Learning Organization. New York: Currency, 2006. Siegel, Robert. quot;Lyndon Johnson's War on Poverty.quot; NPR. 29 Apr. 2009 <http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=1589660>.
  • 65. The Future of Drugs in Appalachia Chapter 4: A Burger With a Side of Xanex BY: STEVE SKINNER
  • 66. Drug Abuse Appalachian is one of the most diverse and beautiful mountain ranges in the word. Underneath the beauty lies a very dark side, derived from greed and power. Appalachia has struggled with economic and social distress for over a century. The region has been plagued with the rampant demand for cheep energy; along with the overexpansion of mines during the industrialization, and war efforts leaving an instable market where only the large companies could survive (1). This and other factors such as; out migration, welfare programs, the war on poverty during the 70‘s, concentration of political power, increased infrastructure in the outer regions, have all contributed to the overall poverty in the area especially with in the central hart of the region.
  • 67. Drug Abuse With the high poverty rates, lack of moonshine and marijuana, to the much economic opportunity, and education; more addictive, and dangerous forms of the Appalachia region has long abuse. Today the region suffers from struggled with substance abuse. The an epidemic of prescription painkiller. early mountaineers did not look at it as The epidemic has touched all most substance abuse, but more like self everyone in the Appalachia region. As Doctor Eller points out in ―Uneven medicating. The rough conditions in Ground‖ from 2000 to 2002 there were the mines, low economic level, and high unemployment in the region, led more than 1300 drug related deaths many to self medicate with moonshine occurred in the mountains of the blue and marijuana. They also granted light grass state. It is clear there is a very big on an economic opportunity, for anyone problem in the Appalachia region and willing to break the law, and many growing. In a resent ARC report jumped on the lucrative band wagon. released showed a nation wide increase Moonshine and Marijuana helped ease in prescription painkillers among the pain, as well as the feelings of adolescents, and even a higher increase inadequacy from lack of in the Appalachian region among employment, as well as the pain the one adolescents. (2) endures while working in the mine. Though now days the illegal drug use in Appalachia has evolved from
  • 68. Figure 1 abuse with opiates
  • 69. Drug Abuse • The question is how can we fix this, and if not soon what will the future hold for Appalachia? When looking at the illegal drug use in Appalachia it is easy to generalize the problem with a stereotype, and blame it on those suffering with addiction. But it is much more complex than that; the low socioeconomic levels of the central areas of the region are being reinforced with new policy decisions. The education system, health care, and the political figures in the region have all played roles in the use of illegal drugs in the region. The central region of Appalachia, consist of Eastern Kentucky, West Virginia, Virginia, and East
  • 70. You can also see that the central part of Appalachia has the worst economic levels in the region.
  • 71. Drug Abuse This is important because the blunt of the illegal drug use is focused in this area, and has a direct link to the lack of economic opportunity. This is also where the majority of the mining is done. The socioeconomic conditions have tried to be combated on many different levels, in many areas but we tend to see the same result. The political elites become more concentrated with power, while the division grows stacking the odds even higher against the worst off.
  • 72. Health Care The Health Care system played a vital role in the illegal drug use by the region. Looking at one aspect, for prescription painkillers to get on the street they have to prescribed by a doctor or stolen at some time or another. At the same time this region is one that endures health risks, and hard work in the mines. So there is a large demand for pain medication that may be essentially needed. The ARC report also notes that Appalachia suffers from one of the highest levels of mental illness in our country. This is another need for prescriptions drugs; although these type a pharmaceuticals are much different than the very addictive opiates causing most of the trouble. But note that the increase in the mental health disorders could have a small link to OxyCotin being prescribed less, and replaced more with the less addictive oxycodone. But when this medication is mixed with zanax or valium, then the user get an even more euphoric high than before. Also pain management centers have became quite a lucrative business in the mountains, allowing for good business for Pharmacist.
  • 73. Health Care The real problem with the health care; the majority patients are in the lowest income bracket. It is of the facility are located on the outer regions of hard to figure out why there is less use of Appalachia. This resembles a trend for most of Medicaid in the core regions. The reasons the infrastructure in the area. There has been so could be derived from many reasons. One much money thrown at the system to increase could be the people located in the core of the healthcare, but never reaches the core of Appalachia have very strong ties to a prideful Appalachia. In a resent ARC report over 60% and self-reliance culture and heritage. Many of of adult hospital stays in Appalachia were billed the Appalachian people have worked hard all their life, and do not like the idea that they can‘t to the government, a 10% more than the rest of the nation. There was also a very interesting take care of themselves. There is a little bit of a finding; while less economically developed stigma of helplessness they want to stay away counties were expected to have a greater from. Another reason could also be link to the percentage of Medicaid payers than the more lack of broadband in the area. The most developed areas. ― However, fewer stays in prevalent areas for broadband are located on the Appalachian community hospitals in outer region of the area. The availability to get ―Distressed‖ ―At-Risk,‖ and ―Transitional‖ on the internet and find out, and apply for these counties were billed to Medicaid than in non- programs could make some difference. There is Appalachia counties with similar economic also an overall trend with more people in the development status. It appears that the delivery Appalachia region seeking routine treatment at or utilization support across communities with the emergency rooms. But this trend is heavily differing economic development levels is concentrated in the central most distressed uneven (2).‖ regions. So comparing the distressed counties, where nearly 90% of patients are in the lowest income bracket, to the attainment counties only 36% of
  • 74. Health Care
  • 75. Health Care These current trends in the health care slows the progress. There is also a system tell us something is wrong. We problem with the people of the core see that the core part of Appalachia that regions more likely to seek emergency suffers the worst from the care. This could be because they have socioeconomic issues, should have a less government healthcare, and the higher percentage on government emergency room has to treat you. The medical care, but that‘s not the case. real problem is who and how are going And the graph above shows that the pay the hospital bills. The bills will add core of Appalachia is more likely to to creating more economic distress of seek the emergency room for help, than the people on the region. Though most other options. This is a disastrous hospital try to set up some kind of situation which is only hurting the payment plans, most of the people will worse off. We also know that this never be able to get them under control. region is also suffering from the highest Eventually the hospitals will turn the rate for illegal drug use and is directly bills over to collectors, and adds more linked to less economic problems to the people in the region. development, and the coal counties. If The health care system reinforces the less people in the core region are using economic and social distress, and less government health care, and less reinforcing the drug problems the are seeking medical attention, and still region is suffering from. Most of the have the worse drug problem. The sum efforts trying to solve the health care of this adds up to a very profitable problems in the region, has only worsen market for drug dealers. the overall problem in core regions of
  • 76. The School System The education system is also closely linked leave the region for higher to the use of illegal drugs in the region. education, they were less likely to return to full time residency. ― The There seems to be trends with the educated that are similar to the health newly consolidated schools enhanced care system. The region has a long the economic opportunities of county history of lack of education and high officials and their families but only poverty rates, and many policy leaders facilitated the exodus of talented students from rule areas(239).‖ The felt throwing out money to create infrastructure in the area would fix the newly consolidated schools were problems. This again, left the core designed to help the overall heath of the regions of Appalachia in the dark. The system, but only divided the region newly consolidated schools systems more. Also, as you can see from the and infrastructure in the outer region of chart below the more educated a person the area region, left many people in the is, the less likely they will suffer from core region facing challenges of substance abuse. The most unlikely to transportation, and cultural alienation. abuse drugs are the collage educated The children from the core areas, were population; which is a population among the first to drop out of high missing from the region. That the school after ninth grade, and the ones education system ships out to that did finish high school were less mainstream America. Leaving the more likely to go on to get a higher likely candidates for drug abuse in the education(1). region And among the students that did
  • 77. The chart below illustrates the percent of educated and uneducated people using illegal drugs.
  • 78. The School System The School System is also face the terrible drugs that can ruin your rising use of prescription life. So when the kids first start painkillers among adolescents. experiment with drugs and they try a joint and realize it‘s not This makes the school a common ground for kid that bad, so OxyCotin must not distributing and using drugs. be that bad. When actual they When kids start taking such are completely different and one strong addictive drugs at such a has one of the worst addictions young age, it can really mess the you can be hooked on. The rest of their life up. Along with current education system in the education system comes lots Appalachia has contributed to of anti- drug programs; the the heavy divisions in the intentions are good but, any region, and reinforces the heavy reasonable person would have to drug use in the core region of question a program that tells Appalachia. kids that marijuana, and oxy, and meth are the same
  • 79. Political Corruption Political corruption has Since there is such a high been a problem Appalachia has rate of abuse in the core suffered with, since the earliest region, and the people of the days of the region. The area less like to travel for political corruption has always medical attention. It crates a been linked to the special prime opportunity for drug interest groups that have dealers to make a nice amount economic power in the region. of cash. And as long as they ―The political culture that had are able to pay the county evolved with the arrival of sheriff, or the local state industrialization decades trooper they can have free earlier now proved to be the range to distribute as they great barrier to structural want. change (1 ).‖ So it is no surprise to see the link, between political corruption and illegal drugs in Appalachia
  • 80. Political Corruption As Doctor Eller points out ― Mingo county West Virginia, for example in the late 1980‘s when sixty two local officials were indicted for corruption with in a two year period. Among those convicted were two sheriffs, a police chief, and the fire chief (1).‖ There drug corruption runs further than just the local police. Also arrested in this same operation was the president of the school board, and director of the poverty program, who had personally handed out over 2,400 jobs; that compromised over one forth of the jobs in the county. In Wise County west Virginia, the mayor and 12 county officials wee indicted for buying votes (1 ). Allowing this illegal drug activity to just add to the social and economic distress.
  • 81. Political Corruption Not only doses the political noise around the region. The corruption tie in directly to the incarceration rate has jumped up distribution of the drugs or the dramatically, and the local jails are busting at the seems ― Since protection for distributors. It also creates a situation that 1970, the overall crime rate has reinforces the division between increased by about 3 percent but the worst off. The ―political the incarceration rate has elites use patronage, fear, and jumped 600 percent as the total prejudice to maintain privilege prison population in Kentucky and power in their modern little went from about 2,800 in 1970 kingdoms (1).‖ A lot of smaller to 22,400 today. About 8,000 of county politics were accused of those are housed in county jails keeping the region down to which in many counties are maintain power. busting county budgets (3). In the more resent years the boom in prisons, have made a lot of
  • 82. The increase in jail population could have a direct tie to prison based gerrymandering • ―By counting inmates at prison instead of at home, the bureau allows unscrupulous legislatures to create phantom districts that sometimes contain more inmates than actual constituents. Politicians from these bogus districts can be elected with shockingly small numbers of votes. Once in office, they reward friends, punish enemies, and generally wield as much power as legislators from legitimate districts with many more real constituents. (4).‖
  • 83. Political Corruption • The report goes on to say the ‖U.S. Department of Agriculture‘s Appalachian Regional Commission which makes $60 million available annually to impoverished Appalachian communities based on a formula that includes total population of each county. (4)‖ This types of formula awards communities that build prisons with more money. And allows the politicians to continue to use patronage, and allow few inside the circle to benefit. For the prisons to keep operating it needs inmates, and more inmates bring more monies, and more money goes in the hands of the political elites to pass out to their cronies.
  • 84. Political Corruption • The political corruption has only added to the illegal drug use in the Appalachia. At a local level counties tend to focus on the drug abusers rather than the dealers. The dealers can pad the pockets of the local officials, to provide safety. Also the local official need them dealing the drugs because if they stopped then they might not have a job.
  • 85. Conclusion The overall prescription drug abuse in the education tend to cause the substance core region has continued to grow; and abuse. The education system has the alarming rate of abuse with contributed to the problem as well. The adolescences is especially concerning. consolidations of schools located in the The more the local elites do, appearing outer region have alienated the youth as if there trying to help the region only and put transportation barriers between worsen, the worst off in the region. The central Appalachia and the schools. worst off in the region is who really Also shipping the regions brightest off to needs the health care; and are the collage. This hurt the core regions even counties that are focused in the center more, a region already on its back hart of the region. These counties throwing punches. The political happen to be the majority of the coal corruption just puts the icing on the mining counties who really badly need cake. The health care and the education health care, because of the harsh life system were strongly shaped they way that comes to the mines they are through the hands of local They also suffer from the highest poverty politics. All of these problems rates, as well as high mental health reinforce the lack of rates. Then stick the hospitals on the education, economic development the outer regions, far out of sight; that kind primary reason for drug abuse. And of sounds like a recipe for drug abuse. drug abuse adds to the socioeconomic And areas that suffer from drug abuse problems. hurt the socioeconomic conditions. The already low socioeconomic and lack of
  • 86. Collapse If Appalachia continues advancing down this path then they are doomed for collapse. The definition of collapse could be total doom, or just collapse to a lower level of economic and social level than before. The central hart of Appalachia might already be very close to this second definition. So if they do continue down this path the they are doomed.
  • 87. Works Cited (1)Eller, Ronald. Uneven ground Appalachia Since 1945. university of Kentucky press 2008. (2) http://www.kentucky.com/static/pdfs/ARCre port.pdf (3) http://www.dailyindependent.com/statenews/ local_story_072002 822.html). (4) http://theboard.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/02/0 6/the-census- phantom- constituents/
  • 88. Religion and Collapse in Appalachia Chapter 5: “I’ve been preachin’ the gospel for 25 years, and I’ve never seen a time so bad” BY: MATT FINLEY
  • 89. Religion and Collapse in Appalachia Current trends in Appalachia are economic development at the key in establishing possible growth poles while decreased futures for the region. Without development in central them there is no intelligent way Appalachia, and a continuation of for any person to credibly predict coal mining in the region as new the possible paths that the people alternative sources of energy are of the region could pursue. developed. But a supporting trend Specifically, these trends are in the midst of all these useful in forecasting where others, and what may very well be http://image58.webshots.com/58/ Appalachia could be heading driving Appalachia to the edge, is 1/3/23/418010323WOkOcr_fs.jp g from an objective stance and, as their constant, unchanging we desire to do here, examine fundamental values founded in what events need to or do not the long history of quot;Mountain need to unfold for Appalachia to Religion.quot; Although in itself it experience complete collapse of may not lead to it's current state. Several drivers collapse, mountain religious ideas can be examined following supplement many of these drivers current trends, such as a and push them even more so consolidation of schools, increase towards the Appalachian collapse in homeschooling, more and more scenario. surface mining, increasing
  • 90. Religion Just Stereotypes? quot;It is stereotyped as hyper- Calvinist, trapped in a fatalism and passivity that strips Appalachia‘s Many times, conceptions are But why is this people of power over their own created of Appalachian religion wrong? Statistics destinies. Mountain people are which seem very derogatory. show that this is perceived by outsiders as embracing As the quote suggests, these indeed how it is… conceptions are seen as only a Bible-thumping, literal stereotypical ways of viewing fundamentalism: Christianity at its the Appalachian religious worst. Their religion is deemed the situation. The idea that these product of illiteracy, anti- stereotypes are wrong and need intellectualism, and ignorance. It is to be overcome is prevalent in called a quot;hillbilly religion,quot; these articles but have a serious clannishly sectarian and problem in that there is no backbone to the arguments. individualistic, prone to internal quot;Most recently, religion in conflicts in an endless epidemic of Appalachia has been split congregations that create even characterized as 'the religion of more small, peculiar, and the poor.' It is hyped as the uncooperative churches.‖ (1) http://www.the-next-wave- religion of an oppressed people ezine.info/userfiles/Image/July_07/pr who are voiceless victims in eacher.jpg need of others more powerful than they to speak and act on
  • 91. Figure 5.1 - (3)
  • 92. Religion http://www.wcu.edu/libr ary/digitalcoll/kephart/on lineexhibit/People/image s/PeopleMain.jpg Religion from the people’s perspective • Even the first generalization of stereotypes made adhere to the bible's teachings. But to refute part by the quote above is certainly true according to of the quote ,this religion certainly did not a popular history of the Appalachian region by evolve from ignorance and anti-intellectualism John Alexander Williams. He examines but from a long-standing, deep history which quot;mountain religionquot; as the quot;truest conception of adds to the idea that the trend may never be who the Appalachian people arequot; (4). The ideas bucked in favor of a more of this specific religion sprung from several denominational, progressive viewpoint. different sources, including pietism which Also, the trend of mountain preachers not being quot;explains the resistance of Appalachian churches predominantly seminary educated leads to a to hierarchical direction and extra biblical continuation of these traditions, the preachers authority in matters of doctrine.‖ (5) feel that they are called by faith not created by some education. quot;In mountain traditions, a • This can be traced from the leftist side of the preacher and pastor is 'called upon' by God and reformation when a group of believers fought for equipped by God, not made through seminary valid religious experience being inner education or even necessarily by being conversion and thoughts. So, the mountain ordained.quot; (6) religion of today is looking in the next world as opposed to this one, with a hyper- Calvinistic, hyper-fundamental viewpoint on almost all issues. Add these ideas to the drivers and progress seems very difficult if it does not
  • 93. Religion and Religion http://www.lib.utk.edu/arrowmont /Files%20&%20Photos/education/ JPEGs/arrs0003_0024_0001.jpg Education Now that we've shown that the stereotypes • • Assuming that this is a fixed increase of are not stereotypes but just the way that home schooled children per year, one can quot;mountain religionquot; has developed, how see the number in 30 years to be around does this idea play into the collapse 440,000. Pair that with the trend of scenario and direct several drivers in consolidation of schools in the growth regional systems towards collapse? First of poles of Appalachia, peripheral towns all looking at education, these fundamental around Appalachia, and central ideas and belief in self-conversion absent Appalachia, for lack of being able to get to of outside hierarchical interference are the new schools in many cases and obviously going to play an integral part in conceptions which will be explained Appalachian's viewpoint on educational momentarily, can not help but to home systems. Religion's place in education is school their children. On top of this one that doesn't have a clear problem. In commonly held conceptions by many fact it is very difficult to see if you do not Appalachians is that they are place it in the correct system homeschooling to protect their children archetype, but once we examine the from the quot;dangers of public schoolsquot; (8). relationship between religion and Christian home schooling, or otherwise education we can see that it is a success to biased, alternatives to public education the successful system. According to trends seems like the only paths that education in in the region, Appalachian homeschooling central Appalachia can take moving into skyrocketed in 20 years. quot;The number of the future, and in fact does not seem that home schooled children has grown from dangerous or leading to collapse at all. In about 15,000 in the early 1970s to between fact Homeschooling has actually been 120,000 and 260,000 children today much more successful than in years past. [1986]― (7)
  • 94. Religion: success to the successful But now it will pay to teachers involved. What is simultaneously, but one evaluate the harmful missing? The spirit of will inevitably beat out the system at play. (See figure questioning is other, especially if this 5.2) Two increasing loops unfortunately not present system keeps up in the are present, both of which in these fundamental next 30 years. So what seem successful but one is viewpoints. This quot;successquot; does Appalachia's religious moving much faster than then allows for more and education system have in the other and is depriving more people to legitimize store? Generations almost the slower moving loop of allocating support in the devoid of researchers and priceless direction of religion. But progress. The younger resources/support. In this on the other side of this populous will be taught at system, support is being system is the standardized home, perhaps on a set allocated to religion as education. Support is curriculum but with opposed to a placed in the extreme religious bias standardized, secular standardized, secular, unbi which is impossible to education. Children's ased, scientific education control. We can not even standardized method. Success is met know for sure how many education, say scientific here also but in a different children are being method or researching sense. Researchers and homeschooled, so how methods, is abandoned in Developers are produced could we regulate, in 30 place of biased teaching or but are frowned upon for years, what these central homeschooling. This is their questioning attitude Appalachians are being met with success which in this entirely taught? An educational can be very confusing. But fundamental society. So collapse would be the success which is seen support still moves toward inevitable. is success in the eyes of religion. Both of these http://mommylife.net/archives/2009/03/06/ho the children and in the loops are turning meschooling%20works.jpg
  • 95. Figure 5.2
  • 96. Religion: religion and economic situations How else will Appalachia's future be the problem, and that is a lack of focus on shaped by religion? Let's take a look at the actual long-term fixes to the economic side of Appalachia and how that economic/health problems at hand, due to is related and will inevitably be shaped by the delay that would be present in trying to religion in the next 30 years. Examining implement the fix. The delay is what central Appalachian, the income disparity causes the real fix to be overlooked. As a is apparent. But referring back to figure result, the economic problems 5.1 we can see that the low income worsen, more people turn toward religion individuals have a much higher percentage as a quick fix, and effects of the of religious among them than the ones in aforementioned characteristics of mountain the higher income bracket. Not only that religion are amplified. This speeds up but a higher percentage of low income more snowball effects and can lead to individuals feel the need to use religion as collapse in the future Appalachia. So with a buffer against the pain caused by low respect to this system, the Appalachia of income. Actually this same concept applies 30 years from now will have a much wider to health issues as well. Once again a very income disparity than we could even harmful system is in effect here that leads imagine today, with the periphery only to a dangerous a future scenario that must getting stronger. Central Appalachia will be taken into account, a fix that fails continue to put their effort into religion system. Referring to figure 5.3, problems and overlook the true solutions; a fatal of economic status or bad health error on Appalachia's part. Collapse would conditions are alleviated by the turning to come swiftly in the form of zero progress religion. It seems very simple but can have of development and Appalachia would very dangerous effects if it is left have circles run around it by a unattended. The quick fix in the balancing new, globalized, technological economy. loop leads to a snowball effect that adds to
  • 97. Figure 5.3
  • 98. Religion: income and actual church attendance Interestingly, something else fatalistic ideas which do not we can take a look at, in the allow the region's people to same vein as the previously act progressively and discussed collapse, is in actively to solve problems. figure 5.1 as well. A statistic They are just going to have to notice is that the too hard of a time getting percentage of low income around the delay present in persons that attend church is many of the systems to actually lower than that of realize that their problems the high income can be fixed without Appalachians. This adds a resorting to the quick fix of dynamic that supports the looking to a higher power non-denominationalism that and a life beyond this one. will continue to be present in the future of Appalachia. A religion all to it's own, living in fundamentalism and
  • 99. Religion: religion and coal http://www.listicles.co m/wp- content/upload/coalmin e1.jpg take up Alternative sources of • along with these two In this system (see Figure 5.4) Appalachian drivers, education energy? Due to their idea of we find two balancing loops and Economic problems/health fatalism, many times they with the US idea of issues, Coal‘s relationship with live, as I‘ve said before, not in researching alternative religion must be discussed. As this world but in the next. With energies being much more discussed in the rest of the that being said, if we analyze successful economically than Mr. Caudill‘s statement, then project, mountain top removal the Appalachian ideas of is very much disliked by the why should he be worried sticking to coal now that they central Appalachians, but it has about the state of the are no longer being exploited not been discussed their feeling environment when he can just by big companies and they can towards coal mining itself. Do be nice to other people and use their god-given resources they find this to be look forward to another, better to support themselves. Also the US‘s implementation of EPA environmentally dangerous? life after this one? After No, the religious conception is all, God put these resources restrictions banning coal held that ― ‗Why did God here on the Earth for us to use mining has threatened to take produce coal then and put it and exploit, but not to destroy away ALL coal mining jobs in underground?‘ said Mr. the land. So following this Appalachia, furthering the Caudill, who attends a model, the Appalachia of 2040 schism between Appalachia nondenominational evangelical can be analyzed with a specific and the rest of the United church. ‗He produced things States. Appalachia‘s ideas systems map. Because there isn‘t really a system‘s that we need on this earth. result in a lack of income Without coal, you wouldn‘t archetype described by Senge comparably and so cannot have the warmth and light you to fit the Religion and Coal support the including of have right now.‘‖ (9) This was discussion, following is a alternative resources into their even found in an article that combination of escalation and society. The rest of America was against mountain top fixes that fail systems to create will essentially pass up central removal. So as far as a future system that will be in Appalachia in terms of the environmental collapse play if the alternative energies environment and goes, mountain top removal is scenario plays out, while the technology, widening an on the way out, but where will Appalachian people hang on to already wide gap. Appalachia move after the rest their fundamental and fatalistic of the United States decides to ideas.
  • 100. Figure 5.4
  • 101. Religion: conclusion Appalachia is on a dangerous slope for the next 30 years. Religion is a very important support driver in many of these situations described by the collapse scenario. Although religion may not directly lead to collapse itself, it‘s fundamental ideas make a collapse scenario in any of the other drivers much more likely. What many people are trying to pass off as stereotypes are real problems which will probably never be overcome because of their deep-seated nature. Hyper- Calvanism, Fundamentalism, Fatalism, and refutation of higher, extra biblical authorities will create a society which rejects ideas that have not developed from their own ―Mountain Religion.‖ How can a society progress when their most influential ideas do not allow them to examine and question the very systems at play. Appalachia is then doomed to collapse, and certainly perhaps by 2040. http://thefirstmorning.files.w ordpress.com/2007/07/jesus- camp-092706-xlg.jpg
  • 102. Chapter Five Works Cited 1 - McCauley, Deborah. quot;Old-Time Religion.quot; Encyclopedia of Appalachia. 2008. University of Tennessee press. Web.29 Apr 2009. <http://utpress.org/Appalachia/EntryDisplay.php?EntryID=013>. 2 - Ibid. 3 - Photiadis, John. quot;Religion in an Appalachian State.quot; Education Resources Information Center. February 1974. West Virginia University. 29 Apr 2009 <http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICDocs/data/ericdocs2sql/content_storage_01/0000019b/80/39/b7/54.pdf>. 4 - Williams, John. Appalachia: A History. illustrated. Chapel Hill, NC: UNC press, 2002. Print. 5 - Ibid. 6 - McCauley, Deborah. Appalachian Mountain Religion: A history. Hardcover. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois press, 1995. Print. 7 - Lines, Patricia. quot;Home instructions: An Overview.quot; Education Resources Information Center. November 1986. Appalachian Educational Lab. 30 Apr 2009 <http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICDocs/data/ericdocs2sql/content_storage_01/0000019b/80/1d/a7/8b.pdf>. 8 – < http://www.thesouthernbaptistacademy.org/mimi_rothschild.php > 9 - <http://www.nytimes.com/2006/10/28/us/28mountains.html?pagewanted=2&_r=1 >
  • 103. Future of Mountain Top Removal Chapter 6: Almost Level, West Virginia BY: ASHLEY MORGAN
  • 104. Coal is the number one energy source in the United States producing about 46.61% total of all electricity, as shown on the chart below. (Energy Information Administration, Annual Energy Outlook). With mountain top removal or, strip mining, as the main method of extracting coal to fulfill this dependence, there are many consequences. (See fig. 1)
  • 105. Figure 1
  • 106. First of all it is important to understand what exactly mountaintop removal is and the process it undergoes that creates an environmental backlash or downfall. The figure 2,below ,depicts the steps of mountaintop removal as well as effects.
  • 107. Figure 2
  • 108. My group and I, otherwise Kentucky. Additionally of known as group Collapse the 57 Synfuel plants in predict a bleak future if the country, 36 are in this single strategy of central Appalachia extracting coal is equaling 54% of the continued along with Synfuel market. current federal policies in place. Out of the Nearly 2/3 of all strip 49,942,211 short tons of mining is mountaintop coal produced in the removal (see figure United States in 3)(Energy Information 2005, 93.4 million short Administration, Official tons were produced in Energy Statistics from the Eastern Kentucky and Government). 26.4 million in Western
  • 109. Figure 3
  • 110. So, while effects are (streams currently being felt by destroyed), hindrance residents and of tourism, and destroy environment of of community history. Appalachia, they are only destined to Read further for the become worse; without specific statistics change a pitfall is proving these particular inevitable for the predictions. The past is Appalachian Region. an indicator of the Specifically, further future. effects will be: damage
  • 111. Between 1985 and By 2012, without 2001, approximately 724 restrictions 6.8 percent of miles of streams across Appalachian forests would Central Appalachia were be eliminated, while buried by valley fills. destroying 600 square Additionally, a highly miles of land and 1000 toxic chemical, selenium miles of streams (Federal has been found in streams Environmental Impact below valley fills which Statement on Mountaintop threatens aquatic and Removal Coal Mining). human life.
  • 112. ―coal camps.‖ In 1945 this Therefore, we predict a was the world‘s largest future hindrance in tourism in the coal camp with a Appalachian region. A population of 10,000. specific example of this Now with strip mining as occurring as we speak is a main source of Black extraction, the remnants of Mountain, Kentucky. In this are slowly being 1911 and 1917, towns destroyed. These coal were built to support coal camps have been a key in companies: Wisconsin cultural heritage tourism Steel Division of for the community. International Harvester and US Coal and Coke Company, in other words
  • 113. Furthermore, in Blair 333 acre mining Mountain, West permit, the battleground Virginia the same is severely threatened problems are being felt as strip mining would as a result of mountain knock out a large top removal. The site of portion of the 1921 Battle of Blair battleground. This Mountain where cultural tourism would northern unions be lost as well as attempted to unionize several natural the south remains in resources. West Virginia. Artifacts can still be found in this zone, however, with a
  • 114. • Secondly, we predict the community history of many communities will be destroyed. We would like to use Walden‘s Ridge, Tennessee as a current example. • (Kentuckians for the Commonwealth: www.kftc.org).
  • 115. Drivers= The System/Policy Flaws There are many factors driving this collapse. They all mainly stem from policy, the system, or in other words…‖the man.‖ First of all the 2008 General Assembly House Bill 164 or (Stream Saver Bill) was blocked the first time around as well as the second stream saver bill in 2009 House Bill 104. – (Louisville Courier Journal: Kentucky General Assembly Camel Ride Gives Stream Saver a Hearing March 2008)
  • 116. Furthermore in a recent court case, federal judges ruled in favor of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in a mountaintop removal mining case. This will allow for 90 new mountaintop removal coal mining operations that have recently been stalled. It will allow operations to take place without minimizing stream destruction. This overturns a prior victory for the Appalachian region in March 2007 where mining companies were found to have violated the Clean Water Act. Moreover, as described by the chart below, lobbying efforts for climate change are not focused on mining and coal, but rather manufacturing, power companies, oil, gas, and transportation. – (Louisville Courier Journal: Breaking News from Appalachia.)
  • 117. • Furthermore, even though Obama‘s administration has reversed some of the Bush administrations‘ mistakes on the issue of mountaintop removal, loopholes remain. For example: Massey, the largest coal producer in Central Appalachia has violated the Clean Water Act. They have agreed to pay $20 million in fines, which is unprecedented. Agreement filed with the US District Court for the Southern District of West Virginia, however it must be approved by the court before it becomes final. • (January 17, 2008. Toxic Spills to Appalachian Waters cost Massey $20 Million). • Coal is the main producer of energy in the US (46.61%), so as of now there is no alternative or incentive for an alternative. – (Environmental Protection Agency. www.epa.gov//images/piechart).
  • 118. • With the statistics mentioned above, our dependence on coal and mountaintop removal is not declining. With the current system and policies in place without lobbying or greater effort for change, collapse is inevitable. We predict no more drinkable water, destroy of community heritage, culture, and tourism as well as economic decline with dependence on one single way of extraction. – See Figure 4, for a comparison of lobbying efforts by climate sector.
  • 119. Figure 4
  • 120. Chapter Six Works Cited *Arch Coal Inc. West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection. Ohio Valley Environmental Coalition. Natural Resources Defense Council. (Fig. 2) *Citizens‘ Coal Council, Hoosier Environmental Council, Clean Air Task Force, Laid to Waste. *Clean the Air, Power Plant Air Pollution Problem, Fact Sheet. *Energy Information Administration, Annual Energy Outlook. *Energy Information Administration, Official Energy Statistics from the Government *Environmental Protection Agency. www.epa.gov//images/piechart. (Fig. 1) *Kentuckians For the Commonwealth, www.kftc.org. *March 2008. Camel Ride Gives Stream Saver a Hearing Louisville Courier- Journal. *February 2009. Breaking News From Appalachia. Louisville Courier-Journal. *Federal Environmental Impact Statement on Mountaintop Removal Coal Mining *Morgado, Alex. Mountaintop Removal Boom. West Virginia Division of Environmental Protection. (Fig. 3)
  • 121. The Future Affects of Clean Coal Technology in Appalachia Chapter 7: Clean Coal Clean BY: MEGAN KLEINLINE
  • 122. Clean Coal Technology Coal has been a staple of the Appalachian economy for over There are many problems associated with the use a century, and is by far the most important energy source in of coal as an energy source. It damages the the United States today. It has been important for quite some landscape from which it is mined, and then has time. Even in the days of the cave man coal was used as a many long term effects. In the past thirty heating source (http://www.fossil.energy.gov). years, over one million acres of forest have been However, coal came into the spotlight during the Industrial destroyed as a result of mining efforts, as well as revolution in which it was found to be the best fuel with over four hundred mountains that have been which to produce the massive amounts of energy required to blasted by mountaintop removal. This has support the new production technologies permanently changed the face of the Appalachian (http://www.fossil.energy.gov). When coal was found to be landscape, known for the beauty of its mountains able to be used to produce electricity during the 1880's, its and country sides. Beyond the aesthetic damage utility skyrocketed (http://www.fossil.energy.gov). Coal is coal extraction has had on the Appalachian burned to produce steam, which turns turbines, producing region, it has also caused the pollution of many electricity. It is used so widely in the United States because streams. Mountain top removal has buried it is so abundant and it is easily found. A majority of this streams, causing flooding and drinking water to coal is found in the Appalachian region, and is the mainstay be polluted. Further, the sludge that is a of the Appalachian economy. byproduct of washing coal of dirt and rock to make it more pure is highly toxic. It is contained in slurry ponds, or dams. However, these ponds Almost ninety two percent of the coal used today in the have been known to leak to spill, like was seen in United States is used to generate electricity, which translates the Tennessee Valley Authority spill that occurred to about one billion tons of coal burned per year, a number in December of 2008, a spill that was called the which has increased steadily over the past few decades. The worst environmental disaster since Chernobyl. If Union of Concerned Scientists reports that about half the these dams release this toxic sludge, it electricity produced today to power the nation is created by contaminates the local water, making it unsafe for burning coal, with some states, such as Kentucky which is humans. Spills such as these release humongous 92.3% powered by coal, relying much more heavily on coal levels of carcinogens into the water, exposing the as a power source (http://ucsusa.org). Because electricity is people of the region. This is another danger of so vital to modern life, the infrastructure that supports its coal extraction. creation is equally as vital, making energy sources a major issue. Coal's abundance makes it easy and efficient to use for electricity production. It is considered consistently available and much cheaper than other fuel sources, and when foreign oil is always a source of trouble for
  • 123. Clean Coal Technology Another dangerous and possibly more pressing issue with using coal for energy production is the pollution caused by the actual burning of coal to turn the turbines that create electricity for the world. When coal is burned it releases many unintended chemicals contained in the coal into the atmosphere. Sulfur and other particulates are dangerous when released into the air, but the most concerning emission into the air is carbon dioxide, a known greenhouse gas. Greenhouse gases are responsible for trapping heat in the atmosphere, causing global warming. Clean coal is a concept that the coal industries have been promoting for many decades. Since the 1980's the U.S. Government has spent billions of dollars Tennessee Coal Ash Spill Source: on a clean coal initiative in order to try http://www.nytimes.com/images/blogs/freakonomics/po and find a way to reduce the pollution and sts/Spill11.jpg carbon emissions that are a result of burning coal. This has been done in an attempt to clean up one of the most valuable energy resources so that it will not have to be discarded in favor of human welfare and safety. Coal is never clean in itself. When it is burned, it always emits dangerous chemicals and this cannot be changed. The goal of clean coal technology is to capture these chemicals.
  • 124. Clean Coal Technology In the past, the main concern in (http://ucsusa.org). Coal companies are cleaning up coal has been the removal of attempting to solve this problem through the particulates and sulfur due to their dangers in process of carbon sequestration. This I done by causing acid rain and other sorts of pollution. chemically treating and capturing the carbon Coal can be chemically washed or ―scrubbed‖ to dioxide emitted and then compressing the remove impurities before it is burned. Coal's captured carbon dioxide into a liquid. The liquid gases that result from its burning may also be is injected into porous rock layers treated with steam in order to remove the sulfur underground, often in coal streams that cannot dioxide from the emissions be mined. Liquid carbon dioxide can be stored (http://www.fossil.energy.gov). Coal companies this way for many years, and this process is the coal companies‘ best solution to the problem of have done much in the past forty years to eliminate these pollutants from the coal burning the large amount of carbon dioxide emissions process. Great advances have been made in caused by burning their product cleaning coal of this problem, however, the (http://www3.imperial.ac.uk). current trouble with coal lies elsewhere. This solution, however, is not likely The current problem that is facing to solve the problems caused by coal. The first coal companies is the high levels of carbon problem with solving this issue is that coal dioxide that are produced by the burning of coal. companies refuse to acknowledge the fact that Coal is the fossil fuel that produces the most the carbon dioxide released into the air by coal carbon dioxide of all the fossil fuels when contributes to global warming burned, which is serious due to large amounts of (http://thisisreality.org). coal used to produce electricity
  • 125. Clean Coal Technology If coal company officials cannot salvaged if those in power are in denial recognize the problem, then it will about the problem. never be solved. This problem has been Secondly, even if the problem is related to the investigation into big recognized, and an effort to sequester tobacco companies and their claims that coal to is made, it will most likely not nicotine isn‘t addictive, or that they be possible. One ton of coal burned were not scientists and could not yields 2.5 tons of carbon dioxide, which definitively say whether or not it was takes up about 500 cubic meters of addictive. And, of course, it is now space (http://business.theage.com). known that nicotine in cigarettes is Considering the millions of tons of coal addictive, and measures have been burned per year, this results in massive taken to stop America from smoking. amounts of carbon to compress and The EPA, the authority on store. Even if the carbon is compressed environmental pollutants, has even many times, it will still require large declared carbon dioxide and other amounts of space in which to be stored. greenhouse gases as pollutants that are Finding space in which to store these dangerous to human health large amounts of carbon would (http://nytimes.com). It seems that undoubtedly be difficult. global warming is no longer a weak And, transporting the compressed liquid theory, but a real problem. Global carbon is a treacherous matter, for it warming is a reality that must be must be handled with care. faced, and the environment cannot be
  • 126. Clean Coal Technology Overall, carbon sequestering is not a reality because coal companies are not willing to take Further, the effects of burying compressed on the costs of this process, and it is terribly carbon underground could be damaging. inefficient. Coal companies do not feel that it is When carbon dioxide dissolves in water, it can their responsibility to shoulder the burden of erode minerals and rocks, potentially allowing underground liquid carbon to leak into the protecting the environment. Despite their large ground (http://wiseenergyforvirginia.org). The profits per year, they refuse to utilize these effects this could have on soil and water is profits to clean up coal emissions and unknown for this is something that has not been done on a realistic scale. If large potentially save their industry. If the amounts of carbon escape while stored government continues to restrict carbon underground, this could be dangerous to dioxide emission levels, coal will eventually be humans, and defeat the original purpose of finding a place for the carbon by allowing it to eradicated as an energy source. The costs are so enter the atmosphere. Additionally, the high that finding alternative energy sources is a technique used for storing the carbon more realistic and cost efficient option. underground is mining, which releases carbon into the atmosphere Initiatives to find cleaner sources of energy are (http://wiseenergyforvirginia.org). already underway, and the government has been looking into wind, solar, water, and Also, clean coal technology is wildly nuclear energy to power the world in a expensive. Currently, coal burning plants with cleaner, more eco-friendly way. coal sequestering capabilities have only been accomplished on a small scale, and this is Because clean coal is not a reality, this could even after billions of dollars of federal cause a collapse scenario in two ways. First, it government money being put into producing this technology (http://economist.com). Not a would cause an environmental collapse for single large scale plant exists that captures its Appalachia in terms of the pollution and other carbon dioxide emissions. The recent stimulus harmful effects of coal's use as an energy package allotted 3.4 billion earmarked for spending on clean coal technology to add to source. The observed clean coal trends indicate the billions already spent that it is not a reality, and that the coal industry (http://economist.com). The problem lies in has a slim chance of survival due to its high the fact that clean coal burning plants are expensive to build and operate. Then, the levels of pollution. Second, it would cause an transporting and storing of carbon is difficult economic collapse for the Appalachian region and expensive. due to the coal industry's vitality in keeping Appalachia's economy alive. Because the
  • 127. Clean Coal Technology In terms of the economy of Appalachia, coal will likely collapse due to the non reality of clean coal and the growing push to stop greenhouse gas emissions and thus global warming. Because coal is the majority industry keeping Appalachia‘s The first portion of Appalachia's future that would collapse would be its environment. If coal is still used as the nation‘s struggling economy afloat, when it fails, Appalachia‘s economy does as well. A majority main energy source, the air, water and land will continue to be of jobs and money found in the Appalachian region polluted. The damage caused by coal mining techniques could are a result of coal mining and burning. If the EPA essentially ruin the Appalachian landscape, causing it to be a cracks down on pollution and, more flat, barren land. The flooding caused by mountain top importantly, carbon emissions, coal will not be able removal's alteration of stream flow would alter the land to survive. In 1995 two scholars at Harvard, Sachs significantly. Pollutants in the air and water would destroy and Warner, did a study that found a negative wildlife and plant life, making the region an ecological relationship between natural resource based export wasteland. With the land so destitute, it could become economies and GDP growth. Appalachia cannot essentially worthless to the Appalachian people. Without survive on a coal export based economy as it is, and sustainable land or clean drinking water, people could not if this last leg of economic support crumbles, the survive, and the area would be abandoned. economy is almost nonexistent. Appalachians will lose their jobs and their livelihood. The already low Most importantly, it is not clear the effects that carbon dioxide quality of life for Appalachians will be drastically emissions would have on the environment, or what the long reduced, and the federal government would become term effects of global warming caused by these emissions less and less willing to aid a region that seems could do. If carbon dioxide continues to be released into the unsalvageable, causing a majority to flee the area. atmosphere by burning coal, the entire environment could be This would a result in a collapse of the altered by rising temperatures and countless unforeseeable region, leaving it as a series of ghost towns. troubles. This is the main concern with the continuation of burning coal to create electricity. When coal burning for When coal is found to be too costly for the electricity generation makes up the largest portion of environment, government funding will be removed contributors to carbon dioxide emissions, this is clearly a large from initiatives to clean it up. Regulations will likely problem. To make the enormity of this issue clear, the amount be put in place that will cause coal to be unusable as of carbon dioxide emitted by a 500 megawatt coal burning an energy source in order to protect the struggling power plant in one year is equivalent to that of six hundred environment. Because coal will thus die out, other thousand cars in the same time span. This is even more industries will not be able to survive due to a mass immense when the number of coal power plants in the United migration of coal industry workers to other regions States alone is considered. If coal use is continued as the to find other work. The region will be left as a major energy source for the United States, it will decimate the vast, barren land with no economic Appalachian environment. The government is likely to, in the opportunities, and the only people left behind will be future, ban coal as a major energy source due it its detrimental
  • 128. Clean Coal Technology In conclusion, clean coal is not a reality for coal plants. Carbon dioxide cannot be efficiently collected and stored. The federal government will realize that their money is better spent on other cleaner energy sources; sources which will not require the collection of carbon emissions. Because of this, the sustainability of coal as a major energy source is not possible. In, the future, coal will be forced out as the number one energy source, leaving Appalachia in the dust.
  • 129. Chapter Seven Works Cited quot;The Costs of Coal.quot; Union of Concerned Scientists. 21 Nov. 2006. 30 Apr. 2009 <http://www.ucsusa.org/clean_energy/technology_and_impacts/impacts/the-costs-of-coal.html>. quot;A brief history of coal use.quot; Fossil Energy. 9 Oct. 2008. Department of Energy. 30 Apr. 2009 <http://www.fossil.energy.gov/education/energylessons/coal/coal_history.html>. This Is Reality. Weblog. 30 Apr. 2009 <http://thisisreality.org>. Broder, John M. quot;E.P.A. Clears Way for Greenhouse Gas Rules.quot; The New York Times 17 Apr. 2009. New York Times. 30 Apr. 2009 <http://www.nytimes.com/2009/04/18/science/earth/ 18endanger.html?_r=2&ref=earth>. quot;The Illusion of Clean Coal.quot; Economist 5 Mar. 2009. Economist.com. 30 Apr. 2009 <http://www.economist.com/research/articlesBySubject/ displayStory.cfm?story_id=13235041&subjectID=348924&fsrc=nwl>. quot;Another Blow Against the House of Cards That Claims Coal Can Be Clean.quot; Wise Energy for Virginia. 30 Apr. 2009 <http://wiseenergyforvirginia.org/2009/03/ another-blow-against-the-house-of-cards-that-claims-coal-can-be-clean/>. Manning, Paddy. quot;Coal's Push for Carbon Storage an Impossible Dream.quot; theage.com.au. 30 Apr. 2009 <http://business.theage.com.au/business/ coals-push-for-carbon-storage-an-impossible-dream-20090426-ajed.html>.
  • 130. Energy and its Affect on the Future of Appalachia Chapter 8: A Dark Cloud Blocks the Sun BY: SHEA SHEPPARD
  • 131. Introduction impoverished regions in the United Within the last century the world States. Although seemingly has witnessed an unprecedented beneficial, it has become more and expansion in industrialization. As more apparent within the last thirty industries grew it soon became apparent years that coal is creating more that traditional sources of energy (such problems than benefits. Not only has as water and wind mills, and other the advent of strip mining quickly forms of mechanical power) could no destroyed the land of the region, the longer adequately supply the energy nation as a whole has become aware of necessary for the manufacturing of the large scale impact coal has on the goods. For that reason, there was an environment. As public opinion on coal explosion in the use of fossil fuels to has waned, there has been an increase fill this new void. in the popularity of alternative and As the demand for fossil fuels renewable, sources of energy. Not since rose, areas around the world raced to the first energy crisis of 1973 has so increase supply. One such area was the much investment and research gone Appalachian Mountains, home to one into the renewable energy industry, and of America‘s largest coal seams. Since this time it appears as if the the turn of the twentieth century the commitment is here to stay. coal industry has provided this region with thousands of jobs, and has brought industrialization to one of the most
  • 132. Introduction A failure of the Appalachian region to jump on board with renewable energy could create devastating economic and health consequences for the area. For as the rest of the country moves away from coal, demand for the resource will certainly fall. Such a drop would create an economic disaster in Appalachia given the regions extraction based economy. In addition, as the rest of the country enjoys the benefits of cleaner energies, the Appalachian region will continue to feel the poor health effects of burning and mining coal. Appalachia in Future: The Rest of the United States: Fig. 8.1 Coal Power plant Fig. 8.2 Bangui Bay
  • 133. The Impact of Alternative Energies For a region so heavily dependent on coal it would be an economic disaster if the United States embraced alternative energies. Thus, we must establish the recent trends in the alternative energy industry to see how likely this is. To begin it is important to have a clear understanding of what constitutes as alternative energy. The term is difficult to define, since it is often value laden. However, for our own purposes we will stick to the United States‘ federal government definition: ―The term ‗alternative energy facility‘ means a facility for producing electrical or thermal energy if the primary energy source for the facility is not oil, natural gas, coal, or nuclear power.‖ U.S. Code Title 26, Chapter 29, section 7701 While roughly a dozen forms of alternative energy exist under this definition, for the purpose of this project we will limit the discussion to the three most popular: solar energy, wind energy and geo-thermal energy. By providing an overview of how each one works, and tracking their current trends, we can forecast the potential impact of each.
  • 134. Solar Energy • Every day the sun radiates enough energy upon the Earth that if captured, would provide a year‘s worth of energy for the entire world. The only problem is that capturing this energy, and transforming it into electricity, is a difficult process. • Currently photovoltaic (PV) cells are used to capture solar energy and convert it into electricity. A PV cell is essentially a semiconductor, which means that electrons in the material must be stimulated by energy in order to flow. In a PV cell, electrons in the silicon semiconductors are excited by the impact of solar radiation, and thus begin to flow. Eventually these electrons collect in metal strips embedded in the semiconductor and from there move as an electrical current away from the panel and into come electrical storage facility (Simon 43). Fig. 8.3 Solar Panel Diagram Source: Available at http://www.solarpanels365.com/uploaded_images/how-do- solar-panels-work-778912.jpg
  • 135. Solar Energy Efficiency ratings for solar panels have steadily improved since the 1990s and the prospect for continued improvement in PV cell efficiency remains viable (Simon 91). Current efficiency is at approximately twenty percent, and is expected to max out around thirty percent in the near future. As the panels become more efficient, the economies of solar power will improve, increasing its role in producing energy supplies for the 21st century. One of the greatest challenges facing solar energy is its large costs. The panels, while always expensive, have actually increased in price as supply has failed to keep up with growing demand. However, with the aid of federal and state programs, the industry has continued to expand. Fig. 8.4 Solar Panels being installed Source: Available at
  • 136. Solar Energy Examples of government aid include: • The federal Solar Energy Technology Program (STEP) seeks to streamline market processes to advance solar energy potential in the near future. In addition to coordinating the solar panel industry, STEP has offered resources and financial incentives to promote the use of solar energy. An example of this is their Million Solar Roofs Initiative, which has helped pay for 350,000 solar roof installments since 1997 (Simon 97). • Several states have also gotten on board, with California leading the way. They lead the nation in purchasing solar energy systems, and now offer property tax incentives to energy producers who use solar power (Simon 97). State involvement has not been limited to the sunny west, however. New Jersey implemented a widely successful rebate system, which initially offered to cover up to 60% of solar panel installation costs. Demand for the rebates became so high that the states was forced to lower the rebate offered, however despite this drop, the program remained quite popular. Today, instead of offering rebates, the state issues credits to solar energy producers, which are worth up to $200 on the Clean Power Market (Simon 46). • Today, with the help of such government investment and increasing demand, dozens of new solar panel manufacturers are starting up across the United States. Thus if these trends stay on target, the amount of electricity generated by solar power can be expected to grow from 0.1% of the total supply, to perhaps 10%.
  • 137. Wind Energy While photovoltaic cells are a relatively new technology, wind power has been around since the Persian Empire (500-900 B.C.) (Simon 46). For centuries these early windmills were mainly used for processing grain corps, but starting in 1888, windmills have been used to generate electricity. The idea didn‘t really catch on however, until the 1973 oil embargo. It was at that time the United States, along with other industrial powers, greatly expanded their development of modern wind technology systems.
  • 138. Wind Energy • Wind power systems have at least three parts: propeller blades, rotors, and support towers. The rotor is the central feature of the system, containing a system of gears that mechanically increase the rotation speed of the electrical generator. The energy produced by this generator is then transferred onto the electrical grid (Simon 106). • Wind power has become much more feasible and economical as technological advances have allowed for lighter, and larger blades, and more efficient rotors. In addition to advances in the design of windmills, technology has also improved the process of selecting potential energy sites for wind (Simon 110). If these trends hold the energy output of windmills will vastly increase in the future. Fig. 8.5 How Wind Power Works Source: Available at http://static.howstuffworks.com/gif/wind-power-horizontal.gif
  • 139. Wind Energy As with solar energy the federal government is actively involved in trying to increase the amount of wind energy being used in the United States. • The most recent development has been the creation of Wind Power America (WPA), a U.S. Department of Energy renewable energy policy that emerged in 1999. Like STEP, WPA was designed to promote cooperation and collaboration in the energy industry (Simon 114). The implementation of wind energy will be extremely complicated, given that the establishment of wind farm infrastructure, power transmission, and political/public support will all take time. Thus a program like WPA should prove extremely helpful. • Since the resent oil crisis the future of wind power is again looking up. The federal government recently announced its intention in providing $80 billion in stimulus money to kick start investment in renewable research.
  • 140. Geothermal Energy • Although often overshadowed by solar and wind energies, geothermal energy presents great potential in delivering large amounts of clean energy across the globe. Already it‘s use is expanding in homes and farms across the country. • Geothermal energy uses the heat of the Earth to produce energy. The Earth‘s mantle is composed of superheated rock and metals that rise in some places through the crust and near groundwater sources. By drilling near these sites this hot water and steam can be extracted and used to operate high-efficiency turbines which create electricity (Simon 51). The water can then be reinjected into the aquifer, close to where it wasFig 8.6 How Geothermal Power Works extracted. Source: Available at http://www.greenhabitatdesign.com/Alternative%20Energy%20Geothermal.gif
  • 141. Geothermal Energy • Currently the largest use of geothermal energy is found at the residential level. Since the 1970s geothermal heat pumps have become quite popular, and have great potential for reducing thermal heating costs through large scale system design (Simon 125). • Geothermal energy is also expanding in the agriculture industry. Fish farmers and hydroponic farmers are using geothermal means to heat their greenhouses and fish ponds. Fig. 8.7 Diagram of Geothermal Heat Pump Source: Available at http://climateprogress.org/wp- content/uploads/2008/08/geothermal-pump.jpg
  • 142. Geothermal Energy Once again the Department of Energy is involved in pushing for alternative energy. Their Geothermal Program involves allocating federal grants for conversion technology, drilling technology, energy systems, exploration technology, geo-powering the west, geosciences projects, and reservoir technology (Simon 136). They also offer a Renewable Energy and Production Tax Credit (enacted in 1978) that offers a 10% tax credit for corporations that ―invest in or utilize solar or geothermal energy property in the United States‖ (Simon 137).
  • 143. The Future of Alternative Energies Overall, based on the above trends, it appears as entrepreneurs and investors would force the if the future for these alternative energies is region to remain an extraction based economy. quite bright. It is clear the industry is improving, offering us new and better ways to Despite these trends, Central Appalachia shows bring us renewable energy. Furthermore, the no signs of adopting alternative energies. federal government, and many state Instead the region seems to be firmly governments, have clearly committed entrenching itself with the coal industry. Many themselves to providing a sizable amount of people in the region claim that coal is vital to money to help kick start investment, and it the region, and argue that coal is not harming appears to be working. Within the last few years their lives or the environment. While there have a number of the energy firms have started been claims that the coal industry is indeed up, and thus in turn the number of people cleaner, the trends so far show that coal employed by these firms now outnumber the extraction, and burning, continues to cause mining industry. Thus in addition to providing further environmental and health collapse in the safe, and clean, energy the development of such region. systems will help drive economic development, and bring highly educated people to where they‘re manufactured. By sticking to traditional coal mining and coal-fired electricity, the Appalachian region could miss out on these opportunities. Instead of attracting young, educated professionals interested in new and growing fields, they will only see their own brightest minds continue to leave. A continued brain drain in Appalachia would lead to certain economic collapse, for an absence of local
  • 144. Clean Coal Technology • For years the industry has been claiming that an era of clean coal technology is close at hand. In fact, several ―clean‖ practices are already in operation. • Take, for example, the washing of coal. Before the coal is sent to the power plant to be burned, it must first be taken to a preparation plant where the coal is washed. As the coal is being washed, it is simultaneously ground into smaller pieces to remove unwanted matter, and to make the coal burn more efficiently. The principle benefit of this process is a reduction in sulfur dioxide emissions Fig 8.8 Coal Washing Diagram and higher thermal efficiencies in Source: Available at coal-fired boilers, which reduces http://newsimg.bbc.co.uk/media/images/41065000/gif/_41065516_coal_was carbon dioxide emissions (Couch). hing_416.gif
  • 145. Truth and Consequences of Clean Coal • However, what the coal companies fail to mention about this cleaning process is that it leaves behind tons of dirty water that must be stored. Known as coal slurry, this water contains dozens of toxic carcinogens, and is often stored in abandoned mine shafts, or man-made holding ponds. These holding cells are Fig. 8.9 A scene from Appalshop‘s movie Sludge, a not perfect, and since the documentary about the Martin County spill. Source: Available at 1970s a number of them have http://appalshop.org/newsletter/2008harrimandisaster.php failed, resulting in huge environmental disasters. One such accident occurred in 2000 in Martin County, Kentucky.
  • 146. Truth and Consequences of Clean Coal • Another clean coal technology that is often air, this radiation is normally not a problem. mentioned is pollutant scrubbers. These are machines However, with such a concentrated amount being to limit the amount of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide exposed to the environment in a spill, there is a very and particulates released into the atmosphere as the high likelihood that the surrounding area will be coal is burned. While the sulfur dioxide and nitrogen radioactively contaminated. Thus, the land will prove oxide scrubbers appear to operate without to be virtually unusable, and unlivable, for years to drawbacks, the process of removing particulates has come (Hvistendahl). shown some major flaws. As with coal slurry, when the particulates are removed from the coal emissions they must be collected and stored in some form. Often this ash is moved through channels of water to an ash pond, where the solids collect at the bottom until the pond if full. Like slurry ponds, sometimes these ponds fail, releasing millions of gallons contaminated water. The most recent disaster occurred on December 22, 2008 at the Kingston Fossil Plant in Harriman, Tennessee. Government officials are now calling it the largest environmental disaster of its kinds, with 5.4 million cubic yards of wet coal ash being spilled. In addition to destroying a nearby neighborhood, much of the ash flowed into the Emory River. A test of this river water showed elevated levels of lead and thallium, both of which can cause birth defects and nervous and reproductive system disorders (Dewan). • Furthermore, scientific evidence has shown that coal ash carries high amounts of radioactive materials Fig. 8.10 Flooded Home in Harriman, Tennessee such as uranium and thorium. Considering that 99% Source: http://www.treehugger.com/files/2009/01/tennessee-toxic- of the ash is normally scrubbed out of the flue ash-spill-prevented-fixes-rejected-officials.php
  • 147. The Future of the Coal Industry Based on these recent accidents (and the many more not discussed), it can be said that clean coal technologies are not the final solution to coal‘s problems. For on its current path, coal is clearly not enriching lives and the environment, instead it is destroying them. While some of the techniques have proven to be beneficial, they continue to have adverse effects on both the regional environment and the region‘s general health. For years the federal government and the general population have ignored these negative consequences, holding on to the hope that one day coal would be truly clean. While many in Appalachia continue to have this hope, both the government and the national population have become increasingly aware that coal‘s problems are becoming larger, not smaller.
  • 148. The Future of the Coal Industry: Increased Government Regulation For that reason, after years of deregulation and little oversight, the Obama administration has moved to tighten down on the coal industry. If these trends continue the coal industry will be forced to downsize as costs rise. - Since President Obama has taken office the Environmental Protection Agency has issued several proclamations that will likely force the coal industry to undertake drastic changes in their operations. - Most recently the EPA has concluded that carbon dioxide, along with five other greenhouse gases, are indeed a danger to the public‘s health and welfare, and thus must be regulated by the federal government under the Clean Air Act (Eilperin). - A month earlier, in March, 2009 the EPA announced that it would begin scrutinize permits for mountain top removal mining, stating that there needed to be more reviews on how the technique affects local streams and wetlands. - Congress is also looking to implement greater environmental standards, and will likely consider imposing an economy-wide cap on greenhouse gas emission. Furthermore, industries will be given the ability to trade emission allowances to help mitigate the costs of transforming to cleaner energy (Broder).
  • 149. Making the Connection: How Energy will affect the future of Appalachia Having laid out many of the current trends in energy, we now must consider how these trends will affect the livelihood of the Appalachian region. In a word, if Appalachia stays on its current path, collapse is an almost certainty. Since Appalachia has focused its economy on the mining, and use, of natural resources, it has become increasingly difficult for the region to break away from them. When its extraction economy was first created, the mining jobs brought high wages and economic stability to the area. Although initially beneficial, these high wages tended to drive out other businesses who couldn‘t match the local wage expectations. Furthermore, most mining jobs didn‘t require much skill, thus investment in education was minimal. For these reasons, many Appalachian counties currently find themselves lacking alternative job opportunities as they realize the mining industry is shrinking. The public is slowly moving away from fossil fuels as they recognize their consequences, and become introduced to the better alternatives. The government is following the public‘s lead, and is slowly endorsing the alternative fuels, while further regulating the coal industry. Such regulation will certainly cause the coal industry‘s operating costs to increase, forcing them to cancel plans of opening new power plants. Already 95 proposed coal-powered plants have been cancelled or postponed in the United States since 2007 (Dorn). Those put on hold have been awaiting the EPA‘s ruling on carbon dioxide emissions, and given that ruling, they too will likely be cancelled. If this trend of government regulation continues, then eventually the increased costs of operating will force the coal companies to shut down their smaller mining operations. Only the largest mines will be kept open, and what few jobs remain will probably be mechanized to further lower costs.
  • 150. Making the Connection Meanwhile, the rest of the country will be turning toward alternative fuels. Already both the United States and the European Union have made it clear that they wish to have at least 20% of their energy provided by alternative sources of power by 2030 (Mouawad). While this goal might be a little farfetched, based on current trends it is entirely possible for that percentage to be reached by 2050 (Wald). As the usage of alternative energies increase around the country, demand for coal will certainly fall, creating only more problems for regions dependent upon coal. Thus, by 2050 it is entirely possible that the coal industry will only be employing only a few thousand people, many of them in offices. Given the current dependence Central Appalachia has on coal, such a reduction in jobs would lead to a major economic collapse. Those businesses that had catered to mine workers will be forced to close, driving more people away from the region. Those who can afford to leave the region will do so, seeking better economic opportunities elsewhere. Meanwhile, those forced to stay will likely continue to face health risks from the damage the mines left behind.
  • 151. Final thoughts: The Future is not Set in Stone Overall, the future of Central Appalachia would be very grim indeed if they stick with the coal industry. This region‘s only hope for avoiding collapse is to break away from its extraction economy. This will require a massive undertaking, but a potential course is already laid out for them, investment in alternative energy. Already it is clear that the nation is on board with the idea, and thus missing the boat could prove devastating. If the region were to take advantage of the opportunities they have now (existing power infrastructure, prime areas for wind farms) they could reverse their fates. Goodbye to this: Hello to this: Fig. 8.11 Coal power plant Fig. 8.12 Windmill Farm Source: http://coalgossip.wordpress.com/ Source: http://planetsave.com/files/2007/07/wind-farm.jpg
  • 152. Chapter Eight Works Cited Broder, John M. quot;E.P.A. Clears Way for Greenhouse Gas Rules.quot; New York Times 17 Apr. 2009. New York Times Company. 23 Apr. 2009 <http://www.nytimes.com/2009/04/18/science/earth/18endanger.html?_r=1&hp>. Couch, Gordon R. Opportunities for Coal Preparation to Lower Emissions. IEA Coal Research, 2000. Dewan, Shaila. quot;Tennessee Ash Flood Larger Than Initial Estimate.quot; New York Times 26 Dec. 2008. New York Times Company. 20 Apr. 2009 http://www.nytimes.com/2008/12/27/us/27sludge.html. Dorn, Jonathan G. quot;Earth Policy Insitute: End of an Era- Closing the Door on Building New Coal-fired Power Plants in America.quot; Weblog post. Sustainablog. 31 Mar. 2009. 2 Apr. 2009 <http://sustainablog.org/2009/03/31/earth-policy- institute-the-end-of-an-era-closing-the-door-on-building-new-coal-fired-power-plants-in-america>. Eilperin, Juliet. quot;EPA Says Emissions Are Threat To Public.quot; Washington Post 18 Apr. 2009. Washington Post Company. 23 Apr. 2009 <http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/04/17/AR2009041701453.html>. Hvistendahl, Mara. quot;Coal Ash Is More Radioactive than Nuclear Waste.quot; Scientific American 13 Dec. 2007. 20 Apr. 2009 http://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?id=coal-ash-is-more-radioactive-than-nuclear-waste. Mouawad, Jad. quot;Offshore Wind Gets Major Boost.quot; Weblog post. Green Inc. 22 Apr. 2009. 24 Apr. 2009 http://greeninc.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/04/22/offshore-wind-gets-major-boost/. Simon, Christopher A. Alternative Energy: Political, Economic, and Social Feasibility. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield, 2007. Wald, Matthew. quot;Energy Outlook 2050: Lower Carbon, But Not So Renewable.quot; Weblog post. Green Inc. 8 Apr. 2009. 11 Apr. 2009 <http://greeninc.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/04/08/energy-outlook-2050-lower-carbon-but-not-so-renewable/>.
  • 153. The Future of Environmental Legislation in Appalachia Chapter 9: Choking on Coal BY: CULLEN YOUNGER
  • 154. Origins of Mountaintop Removal decision likewise overturned a ruling saying creating Appalachia has long had issue with its environment. ponds in streams to control sediment violated the Surface mining and processes like it have devastated Clean Water Act.2 If these types of rulings continue to many a mountain top and ruined many a hill. The Surface and Reclamations Act was passed in 1977.1 occur, then the likelihood of new legislation to stop these processes is not good. The Appalachian This should have improved the environmental situation environment cannot continue to withstand the of Appalachia, but in actuality it only opened the pounding it is taking from the coal industry. If the floodgates for a new type of mining. mining of coal continues to expand, more land will be required, more land will be destroyed and more of the Mountaintop Removal emerged through a loophole in environment will be polluted. This is surely leading the Surface and Reclamations Act. Since the practice Appalachia to destruction and eventually to collapse. began, countless mountaintop removal sites have appeared. These sites lay waste to landscapes, pollute If current trends continue, collapse is inevitable. If air and rivers, and destroy homes. If you were to wreck someone‘s house or dump toxic waste into the laws continue to allow these processes to go on, there will be little left of the beautiful Appalachian river, would you not go to jail? The answer is landscape. In West Virginia alone, over three hundred definitely yes. But Mountaintop Removal and other thousand acres of land have received surface mining damaging processes still go on today. The laws that permits. Less than one percent of mined land is reused regulate these processes are often ignored. New for development purposes. 3 Even more legislation is often shot down or never comes up at all. shocking, greater than seven percent of Appalachian And even if victories are won, they often are short forests were cut down, and more than twelve thousand lived. Only recently, a lower court decision which miles of streams were buried or polluted between 1985 would have required more extensive environmental and 2001.4 If this trend continues a significant source reviews of mountaintop removal sites was appealed of water will be unusable in Appalachia, and nearly a and overturned by a three judge panel in United States quarter of its forests will be gone. Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit, a federal court located in Richmond, Virginia.2 This court has appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in portions of South Carolina, North Carolina, Maryland, Virginia, and West Virginia. The
  • 155. MTR Drivers So what is driving these terrible trends? What factors are operations. In pushing Appalachia down the path of destruction? There West Virginia, $1,512,903 dollars were contributed to elections in the state from 1999-2005.7 Former West are several reasons. Virginia Governor Bob Wise received $176,450 dollars from the coal industry for his campaign to office.7 First, there is a myth that the coal industry provides a Current Governor Joe Manchin received $208,593!7 great deal of wealth to the region it is in, as well as many Since coal the coal industry has such considerable influence with politicians, there is little incentive to jobs. However, this is not necessarily true. In the 1950‘s change legislation even if it will better the environment the coal industry in West Virginia employed between one of Appalachia. hundred and twenty-five thousand and one hundred and forty-five thousand jobs. In 2004, the coal industry Third, Appalachia does not seem to be following the employed sixteen thousand, but yet coal production has quot;greenquot; trend other states seem to be following. increased.6 The vast majority of the wealth generated by Especially in coal mining areas, legislation seems to be staying the same, or possibly becoming more anti- the industry goes to a select few while many are left in environmental. poverty. McDowell County, West Virginia has produced more coal than any other county in the state.6 Yet the Finally, there are the rulings and laws which allow average income for a family in McDowell is $19,931 these companies to carry out their mining operations dollars and thirty-seven percent of residents live in with little or no legal resistance. An example would be poverty.6 the earlier mentioned court case which was overturned in the Unite States Circuit Court of Appeals. Secondly, coal companies provide money to help get state officials elected, so that legislation will be friendlier to their
  • 156. Senge’s Shifting the Burden and Appalachian Environmental Law The situation of environmental law in symptoms. The real problem continues to Appalachia fits perfectly into a system grow worse, unnoticed due to the lack of archetype which author Peter Senge refers to symptoms, and the system loses its ability to as ―Shifting the Burden.‖17 solve the problem. There is a specific Before I explain this relationship, it is first structure which exists in a ―Shifting the Burden‖ archetype. There are two balancing necessary to explain first what a system archetype is and secondly what is meant processes which are both trying to correct by ―Shifting the Burden.‖ A system the same problem. The top loop is archetype is like an overarching pattern representative of the symptomatic which helps us to identify structures which solution, the quick and easy solution. The exist in a system. These archetypes suggest bottom circle has a delay present in it, and it that not all problems are unique, but in fact a represents a fundamental solution to the pattern does exist. They help us to see that problem, one which may take much longer simplicities exist under even the most but is also much more effective. There are complex of problems, and most importantly usually reinforcing side effects as help us identify leverage points within a well, which makes it even more difficult to system. In a ―Shifting the Burden‖ implement the fundamental solution.17 The archetype, there is an underlying problem leverage point in a ―Shifting the Burden Scenario‖ lies in weakening the which needs immediate attention. But the underlying problem is very difficult to systematic solution while slowing bringing correct, so people use solutions which in the fundamental solution.
  • 157. Senge’s Shifting the Burden and Appalachian Environmental Law So how does this apply to Appalachia? In to stop the damage being done to the Appalachia the problem symptom lies environment is to stop these processes with mining processes. The way in all together. Although the processes which mining processes are carried out would be slow, as the state economy in the region is very destructive and cannot immediately turn away from also contaminates the landscape. The coal, but it would slowly have to phase Symptomatic solution lies in passing away from it. It is the only way to ensure we don‘t see complete regulatory legislation which is not enforced or is full of exceptions. This environmental collapse in Appalachia creates a side effect. By allowing in the future. The leverage point this processes such as mountain top removal system lies in phasing out ineffective to continue and only taking minor steps legislature, strengthening to stop it (such as creating post-mining regulations, and slowly bringing an end lands, passing deceptively harmful to these destructive processes once and legislation etc.), the states are allowing for all. the environment to be further damaged and more land continues to be lost. The fundamental solution lies in the stopping of processes like mountaintop removal all together. The only true way
  • 158. Appalachian Environmental Legislation System’s Map ( Figure 9.1)
  • 159. MTR Legislation exceptions is that the company has purposed a Existing legislature is big contributing industrial, commercial, agricultural, resid problem to the environmental situation in ential, or public facility use for the land.8 Appalachia. As previously Another is that the whole upper part of a mentioned, there are many laws and mountain coal seam is mined and a rulings on the books which allow these ―gently rolling plateau‖ is created. 8 This processes to occur. For of course is only an excerpt of the example, Kentucky administrative exceptions. There are 11 altogether. If regulation 405 KAR 8:050. says that a laws make it so simple to use mountain permit to allow for strip mining will only removal, and so easy to avoid the work be given if certain conditions are that should be done afterwards, it is no met, including detailed plans to control surprise that it is being used so often. for waste and plans for the restoration of Mountaintop removal will continue to the land after the mining operations are ruin the environment of Appalachia until completed.7 However, taking a closer effectively enforced legislation is passed look at 405 KAR 20:050 reveals that which will hold these coal companies there are a number of exceptions accountable for the damage that they are regarding whether the mining company causing. actually has to return the land to its original contour. 8 One of these
  • 160. New MTR Legislation Perhaps you may think that these laws are just three parts. First, the Transmission Line Tax bill outdated. Perhaps the legislators of Appalachia are would allow the building of more power lines and considering sweeping reforms which will save the would help enable the burning of more coal. area from total collapse. But this does not seem to Second, the Coalfield Community Development be the case. bill would promote clean coal plants as a reasonable use for post-mining land. Finally, the Carbon Sequestration Bill would facilitate the Recently in West Virginia House Concurrent burning of more coal.14 Sadly, it appears Resolution came up in the house. 10 This legislation is pulling away from environmental resolution was in support of a project called the concerns, not embracing them. Coal River Wind Project. This project looked to provide an alternative energy source to the mountaintop removal site at Coal River by A very similar situation recently occurred in creating a wind farm. This farm would be able to Tennessee as well. A bill was brought before the produce enough energy to power one hundred and legislature which would impose stricter fifty thousand homes, create two hundred local restrictions on mountaintop removal in eastern employment jobs during construction and fifty Tennessee. The bill went to a house subcommittee permanent jobs.11 This form of energy production and was struck down. The vote was three in favor is much cleaner giving off nothing toxic to the and five opposed. The subcommittee closed for environment and destroying no land. 11 This the year after the meeting, allowing no chance for sounds like a great advancement for the state; the bill to be revived this year. Although however, this hopeful prospect will not be environmentalists argued heavily for the bill, it realized. After reviewing the bill, the house sent it seems the legislators were influenced by the to the Rules committee where it was bottled up. President of National Coal Company. His The members of the committee refused to even let statement that the passage of the bill would cause it reach the floor.10 While this bill failed, the the company to drop thirty-million dollar governor‘s so called alternative energy bill expansion plan for the state and take its business elsewhere.12 Is money more important than continued to move forward. So how can an livability in Appalachia‘s future? Actions such as alternative energy bill possibly be bad? Well, the bill did not actually suggest moving towards these would suggest so. This is a disturbing alternative energy sources; instead, the bill was realization indeed. fixed to help the coal company. The bill contained
  • 161. MTR Legislation, cont’d-Cullen One again looking at West Virginia, Senator John Hunter tried to pass a bill which basically would Even more disturbing than the lack of action that seems have ended the practice of mountaintop removal by to be present in the higher rungs of Appalachian making it illegal to dump excess rock and sediment society is the sense of indifference, and the refusal into streams.13 The bill, of course, did not pass, but of some officials to admit that anything is actually what is really shocking to observe is the reaction of wrong. Recently, the Environmental Protection those close to the coal industry. The following clip Agency announced it would delay and review two shows reactions of Coal officials and their mountaintop removal permits and investigate attorneys at a public hearing concerning the issues hundreds of pending valley fill permits.14 Reactions surrounding the bill. from coal officials in West Virginia who work closely with legislative officials were shocking. These officials called the Environmental Protection Video concerning hearing surrounding purposed Agency‘s reactions too harsh, as well as saying the bill (View 0- 1:10) 13 EPA was just looking for any little detail they could find to pick on the coal industry. Other comments were that ―this had come out of nowhere‖ and the coal industry would ―slowly choke to death‖ without valley fill permits.15 Video of Reactions to EPA announcement (View 00:16- 1:06, 1:31-2:10)15
  • 162. MTR Legislation, cont’d-Cullen Considering the opinions of these coal officials (whether all of the states considered to be part of the Appalachia they were what they or not), and the fact that these region fell into the lower half of the ranking, with the people are so closely tied with those working in the big coal producers being ranked even lower. Tennessee legislature, it is no wonder that the environment of ranked forty third, Kentucky ranked forty fifth, and West Virginia was ranked fifty, dead last. 16 With the Appalachia continues to be ravaged. These officials employ truly believed distractions and other techniques recent scares over global warming, many states have in an attempt to convince people it is necessary, and to taken the initiative to begin to change. States have keep them from opposing it. You can see in the video implemented many policies to cut back on carbon clip when Bill Ramey, president of the West Virginia emissions, clean up streams, reduce wastage, and stop Coal Association, is speaking about new issues brought big corporations from polluting our water and our land. But in Appalachia things don‘t seem to be changing, at up by the EPA and he tries to shift the focus to try to convince the public that this new EPA enforcement is least not for the better. Mountaintop removal not only bad, even though this is really not the case. He says ―If continues to ravage the environment, but actually keeps there are new issues, well, let‘s look at them, but let‘s expanding and engulfing everything which stands in its not keep people from going to work.‖ There are way. As previously shown, in some Appalachian states statistics earlier in this essay which poke a lot of holes even getting a bill passed on the congressional floor in his logic, especially those proving that coal that could help with the problem can be a very difficult production has increased while mine employment has thing for one to do. decreased. Appalachia is dragging far behind the rest of the nation in terms of implementation of so called ―green‖ laws and other environmentally friendly policies. Just how badly? In 2007, Forbes ranked America‘s states on how green that they were. States were measured on various factors including carbon footprint, policies to cut back on emissions and clean up the environment, amount of air pollution etc. Nearly
  • 163. The Future of Appalachia? So what does the future have in store for Appalachia? entrepreneurships will have ceased to exist. Only major Based on the current trends I have identified I can tell corporate business will be left in the area, and those you if nothing changes it is going be pretty grim. If will slowly fade away as well. Processes like what is happening now stays constant, the mountaintop removal will continue to expand and the environmental legislation will only continue to get Appalachian Mountains will mostly be flattened. Water worse. Because of their considerable influence now, the will become so polluted that potable water will become coal companies and their officials will eventually a valued commodity. Air quality will deteriorate due to become the people in the legislature. The political the ever increasing amount of coal being burned. The system of Appalachia will become like a dictatorship aquatic wildlife of Appalachia will be mostly wiped out with coal officials at the helm. With their influence and other wildlife will have dire problems due to loss legislation will be tailored to fit the needs of the coal of habitat. Although Appalachia will continue to use industry and mining processes will continue to expand. coal, the rest of the nation will move towards cleaner Educated people who could have headed movements energy. Since coal will no longer be so highly against these processes will have gone away from demanded, jobs in the coal industry will be lost. Appalachia will have few residents left, as it won‘t be a Appalachia due to its lack of industry and opportunity. Likewise, the wealthy will move away due to the very desirable place to live. Those who do remain will deteriorating condition of the area. Central Appalachia have been subject will largely become a dumping will be the most populated area, as it has the poorest ground for the US. And hopefully after its collapse, it people and they will be not have means to move. will become an example of why strict environmental Illegal drugs use in the area will be heavy, because of legislation is important. earlier health care focus on the outer Appalachian regions, not where it was needed. Because of this lack of health care, a large percentage of this population will be wiped out by disease. In sense, the stereotypical poor, dirty hillbilly will have become a reality. But sympathy for Appalachia from the outside will have waned by this point. All small business and
  • 164. The future of the Appalachian Do we really want them all to Mountains? (Figure 9.2) end up this way? If environmental legislation in Appalachia does not change , this The Beautiful Appalachian is their future.19 Mountains18
  • 165. A Future Toxic Wasteland? (Figure 9.2) One of the Beautiful What mountaintop removal does to a stream. A look into the possible future of the Appalachian Water Appalachian Rivers20 Supply21
  • 166. Whatever happened to the fresh, clean mountain air? (Figure 9.2) The Bright Blue Skies of The effects of the Air pollution given Appalachia22 off by coal burning power plants23
  • 167. Endangered Appalachian Animals? (Figure 9.2) Processes like Mountaintop …And Aquatic Animals in removal are a threat to both Land Appalachia 25 24
  • 168. MTR Conclusion Appalachia is currently on the path for disaster. If the pattern of legislation continues in the direction it is currently going, then the only future for Appalachia lies in ruin or in total collapse. With economic and social problems, there is always time to correct for error. But concerning the environment, we only have one chance. Once it has been destroyed, we cannot get it back. A decisive change must occur in the minds of the legislators. Coal cannot rule state governments. The people must press for change. Without change, Appalachia‘s future is looking pretty dark.
  • 169. Chapter Nine Works Cited 1. Ronald , Eller. Uneven Ground. 2008. Lexington, KY: University of Kentucky Press, 2008. Print. 2. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2009/02/13/court-rules-in-favor-of-m_n_166856.html 3. http://www.appvoices.org/index.php?/mtr/myths_and_facts/ 4. http://www.appvoices.org/index.php?/mtr/environmental_impacts/ 5. http://www.appvoices.org/index.php?/site/air_overview/ 6. http://www.appvoices.org/index.php?/mtr/economics/ 7. https://www.policyarchive.org/bitstream/handle/10207/5835/200606011.pdf?sequence=1 8. http://www.lrc.ky.gov/kar/405/008/050.htm 9. http://www.lrc.ky.gov/kar/405/020/050.htm 10. http://blogs.wvgazette.com/coaltattoo/2009/04/10/wva-house-leaders-lets-not-talk-about-wind-vs-coal/ 11. http://www.coalriverwind.org/ 12. http://www.knoxnews.com/news/2008/apr/02/legislators-kill-bill-stop-mountain-top-removal-co/ 13. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=36IpeUknnIE 14. http://www.wvgazette.com/Opinion/OpEdCommentaries/2009032 15. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SiKxSlxN1AA 16. http://www.forbes.com/2007/10/16/environment-energy-vermont-biz-beltway-cx_bw_mm_1017greenstates.html 17. Senge, Peter. The Fifth Discipline . 2nd. Random House, 2006. Print. 18. http://www.bethechangeinc.org/changewire/wp-content/uploads/2008/06/mtn.jpg 19. http://www.reynoldsrap.com/photogallery/Calvary/Mountain%20Top%20View.jpg 20. http://www.fws.gov/southeast/climate/images/Appalachian%20River.jpg 21. http://www.bankstreet.edu/images/ce/3.jpg 22. http://farm2.static.flickr.com/1015/623103071_d8a510ab6d.jpg?v=0 23.http://www.sfgate.com/blogs/images/sfgate/green/2008/08/28/coal_power_plant350x323.jpg 24. http://www.cameohoa.org/images/deer.jpg 25. http://www.cnr.vt.edu/efish/families/images/jpegs/appalachia.jpg
  • 170. Future of Entrepreneurship in Appalachia Chapter 10: Smiley Faces of Doom BY: JOSH TAYREE
  • 171. Entrepreneurial Collapse: Introduction Small, homegrown businesses play an 1992 and 1996 and were responsible for important role in creating self-sustaining 87 percent of the new high wage local economies and improving the jobs, those that pay $29,191 or more (2). quality of life in Appalachia‖ (1). The Melissa Taylor, of the Kentucky Long- words ring out from the website of the Term Policy Research Center (KLTPRC) Appalachian Regional Commission‘s writes bluntly that ―Entrepreneurship Entrepreneurship Initiative. For the should be a vital component of any economic development strategy‖ (3). It is ARC, and other community organizations throughout central safe to say, then, that as goes Appalachia, Entrepreneurship must play a entrepreneurship in Appalachia, so goes central role in the local economy if the economic future, and ultimately the Appalachia is to become a comprehensive future of the region. thriving, autonomous region and However, as has been the case in much of surmount the poverty and vast the history of these and other unemployment that have for so long organizations aimed at revitalizing impeded significant progress in the area. Appalachia, there is a great schism According to Cognetics, a research firm between what is understood to be best for specializing in entrepreneurship, small the region, and what actually takes place. businesses were responsible for almost 84 percent of the jobs created between
  • 172. Entrepreneurial Collapse: History The need for entrepreneurial diversity in Appalachia is not a new one. Coal ―Total frame of reference‖ (6) for the miner. camps, which date all the way back to the Little was known outside the sphere of the latter half of the nineteenth century seized camp. Citizens of a coal camp in Wise upon an opportunity to create local County, Virginia recall life in company- economies which were controlled entirely by maintained coal camp houses: ―Housing was the corporation. William Graebner, of the owned by the coal company, which charged American Organization of Historians refers the miner rent to live there, and also required to this as a ―One crop economy‖ (4). Mine utility payments be made directly to the coal operators ―discouraged other economic company‖ (7). A store called a activity that might provide alternative ―Commissary‖ was set up in this, and most employment and possibly a more benign local communities. At the Commissary, a business model,‖ (5) Graebner goes on to type of General store, miners and their write. That is to say, coal camps, as they family members could purchase moved in to small Appalachian food, supplies, and other necessities. While communities, not only moved in and many members of these communities found dominated the industrial sector, but also the Commissary to be a great benefit, upon created and dictated a local economy which further review we can see the cold-hearted was far less than welcoming to the entrance capitalism involved and the firm hold the of (other) entrepreneurs. Graebner describes coal companies had on the miners and the Coal Company Camp as the families, as well as the entire community
  • 173. The ―Payroll office‖ at the camp kept miners, rent which continued to provide track of the wages paid to the miner. income for the mine companies after Deductions were taken out for the cost of construction was paid off. rent, utilities, doctor‘s services and By building a commissary in the camps other community fees (i.e. company- where miners could spend their remaining ―wages‖ coal companies provided housing for the doctor, minister, and company officials were able to give the illusion of as well as other company expenses economic independence, when in fact which miners ultimately bore the they were manipulating the personal burden for). In many instances, the finances of their employees. As money balance of the miner‘s ―pay‖ was rarely entered the hand of the miner (and if it did, it was usually a ‗scrip‘, a simply credited to the Commissary, the only place the remaining wages could company-developed currency worthless be spent. In this sense, Coal companies outside the camp) the coal company created throughout America, but continued to profit while many principally in Central Appalachian miners were happy just to Appalachia, ―circular economies.‖ ―get by.‖ Graebner writes ―Mining These circular economies exploited the villages were occupational miners, forcing them to work in unsafe communities. They existed only to meet the needs of the town‘s employer, the and unhealthy conditions for what was mine. Many ‗camps‘ were totalitarian in many cases negligible pay. While there was initial expense for the societies molded by the mine operator companies to build to his goal of making a profit from his investment‖ (8). mines, roads, homes, stores, etc., this was paid by charging rent to the
  • 174. Consider this 1853 Report to Cumberland Coal and Iron Stock Company: “There have been erected on the land of the company 152 dwelling- houses for miners; two churches, one of stone; one large brick schoolhouse; a handsome stone dwelling and outhouses, for the residence of the engineer; 6 large stables, 3 granaries, 1 large machine shop, 5 blacksmith shops, 6 offices, 1 large stone house, 1 large lumber house, 2
  • 175. The company owned every building in the camp! Perhaps reporter Wythrop Lane, writing during a 1920s West Virginia strike best summed up the coal camp system set up by the companies: “The operators are in the position of power. Their power comes chiefly from their ownership of property…The operators are not only the miners employer; they are his landlord, his merchant, the provider of his amusements, the sanitary officer of the town, sometimes the source of his police protection and the patron of his physician, his minister, and his school
  • 176. However, it is integral to note professionals such as doctors that not only were local lived away from the lowly ―camp houses‖ of the miners) miners affected by the mine companies‘ stranglehold on entry into the system was the local economy, but local difficult, and success even entrepreneurs were more so. For nearly a century influenced as well. With the in some areas company stores coal company‘s management and company manipulated of the local economy, it was economies while miners, their nearly impossible, especially families, and the better part of in the early years of coal the community lived week-to- camps, for an entrepreneur to week, hoping to work enough enter and be successful in the to make a payment on his local economy. With a tightly company debts, never controlled economy, based receiving money to save or around a rigid class structure contribute to any personal (As managers and company endeavors. officials, as well as
  • 177. As has been the case throughout the 1950s, many small Appalachian history of coal mining towns began to see a period of Appalachia, the market wavered. As economic progress. Main streets in the absentee owners and these towns were lined with stockholders extracted as much businesses and with people ―black‖ gold as possible from the spending money to buy, eat, and be region, they eventually saw entertained. For those who could decreasing profits, and many of afford the initial investment, it was these companies moved out of the a brief period of entrepreneurial region, or developed new mines in entry in Appalachia. (It is important the communities. Coal camps to note, however, that Appalachia remained (as they do to this day in has never been a region thriving most cases) with the companies with full economic progress. While eventually selling the homes and the middle of the twentieth century other buildings to local residents. brought a visible difference from With coal camps a thing of the the previous century under coal past, residents of Appalachia were camp control, a widening gap could left to develop a lifestyle with much also be seen between the more ―independence‖ than they had controlling elite who often owned known in coal camps. Local many of the businesses and the business sprung up and as the rest working poor who continued to of America thrived in the strive simply for survival.)
  • 178. Passing the torch Yet as one domineering owner. (This phenomenon is economic power (the coal camp) being seen across America, not was phasing out of the region just in Appalachia, and has another future superpower was accordingly seen a great deal just getting its start outside the more press.) The following region in Arkansas. Wal- video provides a visual Mart, born in 1962 and owned illustration for the spread of by entrepreneur Sam Wal-Mart over the past 47 years. Walton, has in the eyes of many Notice the concentration of ―green‖ representing Wal-Mart taken the place of the coal camp and continued to trend of stores in the eastern United economic domination by an states and specifically the absentee central Appalachian region.
  • 179. Wal-Mart stores entered the Walmartization filled the economies of much of America region with stores providing an with a resounding thud. assortment of needs. As Wal- Yet, nowhere was the impact Mart stores entered the region of the chain store‘s entrance and were able to provide into the local economy felt cheaper more heavily than in clothing, electronics, and Appalachia. Just as so-called necessities than local ―Mom and Pop Stores‖ were businesses, they quickly began making headway in their to steal away their clientele. communities, Wal-Mart stores During this first wave, many began to enter and throughout local businesses closed, and the next forty years went on to those that remained often crush the hopes and dreams of found themselves mired in many small-time significant financial turmoil entrepreneurs. which would be nearly impossible to recover from. The ―First Wave‖ of
  • 180. However, it was simply not enough for Wal-Mart to enter the region. The goal of the corporation was to systematically push other businesses out of the local economy, even building stores close One observer described this Wal-Mart enough to one another that they Phenomenon: competed against themselves (11). People are surprised that Wal-Mart Their sole goal was to push everyone would even want to locate a store at else out of the economy. With this Ashland, with another one 10 miles accomplished to an acceptable away. But that's part of the Wal-Mart degree, Wal-Mart was then able to close saturation strategy. They place their the excess stores and cut the stores so close together that they workforce, leaving many Appalachian become their own competition. Once towns with a double loss in everybody else is wiped out, then employment. they're free to thin out their stores. Wal-Mart has 390 empty stores on the market today. This is a company that has changed stores as casually as you and I change shoes. -Al Norman, Sprawl Busters(12)
  • 181. If the ―First wave‖ of stores, shoe stores, office supply Walmartization was bad for stores, delicatessens, optometrist local entrepreneurs, The offices, hair and nail ―Second wave‖ of salons, photo studios, gas Walmartization was ghastly. stations, and many, many other businesses – all housed under While the original Wal-Mart stores entered local communities one roof! In Whitesburg, KY with a variety of goods (Letcher County), for offered, when these original example, the last ten years have stores began being replaced by seen the closing of ―Supercenter Wal-Marts‖ they Dawahare‘s, a family clothing truly became ―one-stop shops. store founded in the county, a Jewelry store, numerous restaurants and gas stations, a These new Wal-Mart local drugstore, as well as the Supercenters serve as: clothing better half of the stores located stores, drugstores and on the ―Main Street Strip.‖ To pharmacies, electronics be sure, Wal-Mart is having an stores, jewelry stores, grocery impact on countless stores, auto stores and Appalachian communities like garages, home repair Whitesburg.
  • 182. Yet, the iniquities of Wal-Mart do not stop there. While the coal companies were strong anti-union campaigners in the first half of the 20th century, Wal-Mart has taken on that mantra and made it a part of company policy into the 21st century. Take for example this training video from the 1990s on unions:
  • 183. While there are no instances invites workers to share their like that of Bloody Harlan in opinions and findings with the 1920s – 1940s when coal supervisors who are supposed to always have an ―open bosses and local elites door.‖ One Wal-Mart (through police control) suppressed union employee shares the viability of this The open door policywas program which is organization, Wal-Mart has token at best:higherthat you can supposed to be so done its part to smother low- complain to managers if wage workers‘ chances of you have a problem with one of the lower managers. The uniting to demand better associates joke sometimes that pay, benefits, and treatment. the open door policy is really Wal-Mart has instead the quot;open your mouth and they'll show you the door implemented what it calls its policy.quot; For example, this guy ―Open Door Policy‖ which who worked in the parking lot at our store, when it got hot in the summer, he wanted to transfer inside and when he
  • 184. Even expression of the promote explicitly arts has been censored conservative values not by this mega-store held in many cases by based in the Bible Belt the majority of state of Arkansas. A Americans, Wal Mart is PBS Report states: contributing to the ―[Wal Mart] refuse[s] cultural homogeneity of to carry CDs with cover Appalachia by art or lyrics deemed explicitly limiting their overtly sexual or exposure to other dealing with topics cultures, viewpoints, an such as d ideas. abortion, homosexualit y or Satanism‖ (14). Thus, in their attempt to
  • 185. The Future As Appalachia moves forward (at least employers will remain in the region: the chronologically), the impact of government (strapped because of a entrepreneurial suppression, first by Big decreasing tax base and depleted Coal through Coal Camps, and now population), healthcare companies (employing mainly ―brain drain‖ through megastores such as Wal-Mart has left a lasting and far-reaching professionals from other countries as impact. Americans are apprehensive about entering the region), and Mega- corporations, such as Wal-Mart. Local Thirty years from now, Appalachia will entrepreneurs will be non-existent as be a barren land because of the cost of acquiring goods became uncontrolled environmental unreachable compared with the vast degradation. Culturally, the region will resources of the Wal-Mart corporation. be almost exclusively separated from Wal-Mart will become the ―new coal the rest of the United States because of camp‖, restricting local residents both increased perpetuation of the through low-paying Appalachian stereotype and through jobs, entrepreneurial restriction, and increased corporate censorship from the union opposition. Wal-Mart corporation. The economy will lay in shambles. Only three main
  • 186. Chapter Ten Works Cited 1.) ARC Entrepreneurship Initiative; http://www.arc.gov/index.do?nodeId=19 2.) Mike McNamee, quot;Good News from Small Biz,quot; Business Week 1 Sept. 1997: 24.; http://www.businessweek.com/archives/1997/b3542071.arc.htm 3.) KLTPRC – Promoting Entrepreneurship in Central Appalachia; http://www.kltprc.net/foresight/Chpt_9.htm 4.) William Graebner, ―Fire in the Hole: Miners and Managers in the American Coal Industry‖ University Press of Kentucky, 1985 5.) Ibid 6.) Ibid 7.) ―The Coal Camps‖ from The Heritage of Wise County and the City of Norton – Volume I, compiled by Wayne Duncan http://homepages.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~duncanrw/coal_overview.html 8.)Graebner, op cit. 9.) Ibid 10.)Ibid 11.)―Store Wars: When Wal-Mart Comes to Town,‖ – PBS http://www.pbs.org/itvs/storewars/stores3.html 12.)ibid 13.)ibid 14.)ibid
  • 187. Forecasting the Future Chapter 11: The Final Countdown BY: BLAKE GERUGHTY
  • 188. Central Appalachia: 2020 The college students that are leaving the region are We see Appalachia collapsing by 2040. beginning to see that there is a better life out there for Collapse happens when a system cannot them, but there is still a minority returning to the region. sustain itself. There are many drivers that With the cause trends to make us believe this. The return rate of college graduates dwindling and having a fields we have looked at in-depth are less educated, undertrained workforce, new businesses that may education, internet have once thought about locating a plant in the region connectivity, entrepreneurship, mountaintop are choosing not to do so. As this trend continues the removal, alternative region will be devastated by collapse. energy, economics, poverty, stereotypes, illeg The economy in 2020 is also beginning to start a al drugs, religion, socioeconomic, political downward spiral. No new businesses want to expand corruption, and environmental degradation. into the region because of the uneducated workforce. The trends that are shown in these fields will Wal-Mart has stores in the region that are undercutting the prices of local independent or ―mom and pop‖ lead to Appalachia‘s collapse by 2040. We stores, making it hard for them to stay afloat. The are going to look at Appalachia as we see it in internet boom has also taken its toll on the region with 2020, 2030, and 2040. people choosing to stay at home and buy their things instead of purchasing items locally. We see mom and pop stores starting to close down because these two factors have forced them to that point. Both of these In 2020 aspects are taking money out of the region instead of reinvesting in it. The economy is slowly becoming we forecast that Appalachia will be closer to collapse then stagnant and the future is looking bleak. we today. In education we are seeing Appalachia lose more college graduates then they are retaining. By 2020 we see this trend still increasing and Appalachia become less
  • 189. Central Appalachia: 2020 The country is beginning to use alternative energy blasting used in mountaintop removal, the sources, which is cutting back on coal exports from region as a whole is still habitable, but it is the region. Coal companies begin cutting back on heading toward disintegration. their workforce; for many Appalachians this means they are out of jobs and lack the education or We see in 2020 that illegal drug usage is on the opportunity to obtain another one. Unemployment rise because people are resorting to this to handle and poverty in the region will continue to their problems, like unemployment and health grow, making their already high rates even more issues Methamphetamine manufacturing and use problematic. Appalachia does not know how to is on the rise, as is use of pain killers and anti- survive without coal and the economy will start anxiety medicines. People are becoming addicted dwindling unless it can replace the amount of money physically and psychologically. As more and coal brought in with new industries. more people are turning to this so called solution, the health of the region will continue to Coal companies are still using mountaintop worsen and slowly push it into a collapse removal to excavate coal and in turn flattening scenario. mountains, polluting streams, and damaging house foundations. In 2020 there are still mountains in central Appalachia, which will not be there if this trend continues. Pollution from mining waste and slurry ponds have reached just a few water sources and contaminated them but most people can still use their wells for drinking water. Some houses in the region have been damaged by
  • 190. The political structure that we envision in 2020 is one that still has democracy but is slowly moving to a dictatorship. The educated elites in the region have created a more oppressive form of government that they can control politics and begin using government aid to benefit themselves, instead of the region collectively. With aspects of a dictatorship starting to come to the fore front, we know that it will not be long before the region has many facets of a third world county. With all of these trends persisting, collapse is an inevitable ending.
  • 191. Central Appalachia: 2030 We next forecast Appalachia, economy will break down. in the year 2030. The federal government is pushing the nation to cleaner, renewable resources and coal exports are a fraction of the several thousand tons they produced in 2007. Many coal companies have completely shut down and left Appalachians Appalachia is still hanging in there, but the jobless and searching for new means of trends are pushing closer and closer to complete employment. There are still companies collapse. The return rate of college graduates is employing a few people, but unemployment and diminishing and the percent of college degree poverty in the region has increased significantly holders in the population is nearing zero. Now in the past decade. If Appalachia does not hurry we see the region as having a very drab future and get on the alternative energy bandwagon turning to reality. with the rest of the nation then it will soon be in ruins. In the economic sector, Appalachia is continuing its downward spiral. Only about a dozen local mom and pop stores remain in each Central Appalachian state. Wal-Mart continues their profits as competition disappears.There is little money in the region for residents to spend causing the citizens to have limited purchasing power. If something does not happen soon the
  • 192. Central Appalachia: 2030 Mountaintop removal has devastated the region. only element of a democracy that is left. Slurry ponds and other toxins from mining have tainted almost all water sources. It will be about We forecast that that as these trends carry on a century before the topsoil can even come they will push Appalachia to complete collapse close to its original health and fertility. This in the next ten years. Appalachia will not leaves Appalachians wondering how to survive survive unless it takes drastic measures and with a lack of usable water. More houses have makes an 180o turnaround, but we believe that been destroyed from mining blasts, with very is has sunk too far into the depths of collapse to few that are even livable now. make a change. By 2040 it will just be a dumping field for the rest of the nation. Illegal drug use is still on the rise in the region with even more people turning to this answer for their problems. Drug use becomes more prevalence in the schools, which increases the drop-out rate. Pharmacies see more prescriptions for pain killers and anti-anxiety pills than they ever have before and the health of the region enters danger conditions. Dictatorship almost has a complete death grip on the region in 2030. The elites have almost completely played the system in their favor. The region is still having elections, which is the
  • 193. Central Appalachia: 2040 In 2040, Appalachia will be essentially non-existent. We see all of our aforementioned poverty level, there is little in the way of local trends explode and Appalachia as a whole government money. mirrors the third-world countries of Africa. All of the college bound kids have left the Mass consolidation of k-12 schools has taken region, without any thought of returning. There hold. There is no more than one k-12 school in is no reason for an educated college kid to each Central Appalachian county, but it is not come back to a region that lacks the uncommon for two or three counties to share resources, jobs, environment they need to one school. Students and families have to succeed, or even live. commute up to two hours to get an education. Many students are dropping out because they Without educated people this region has no do not have the time or resources to make this hope of ever surviving. Lacking the return of commute which inhibits them from even college degree holders, the region will have to having the chance to attend college. The few make sacrifices in many areas, with one of parents that care about a formal education may these being losing teachers to retirement decide to home school their children instead of without having any to replace them. This leads having them make the commute. These parents to consolidation of schools, leaving many may have the passion to teach their children but children. Another sacrifice is the evaporation of they are not qualified and do not have the Central Appalachia‘s tax base. The higher resources, so this sets up their child to fail in a educated population would be the population college atmosphere. So, just like a third world that had money to be spend and pay income country Appalachia lacks educated people to
  • 194. An example of college graduates that will not be returning to Appalachia: http://fp.academic.venturacollege.edu/womensbasketball/Artwork/07_Grads.jpg Figure 11.1
  • 195. Central Appalachia: 2040 The economy of Appalachia also mirrors that of a third world country. All of the educated With all of the country using alternative energy by people that would help the economy thrive 2040 Appalachia‘s coal exports suffer. The have left leaving the region in a downward country has turned to cleaner, cheaper, renewable spiral of economic depression that it may energy, leaving coal out of this equation. never overcome. The Appalachian internet Appalachia has relied on coal for many years and boom was a big factor, everyone found it more with the country turning to alternative energy they convenient to sit at home and surf the internet lose their number one export. Coal companies for the goods they wanted or needed, but they were spending money they didn‘t have. They will be nonexistent and so will the thousands of jobs many Appalachians rely on. With these jobs were trying to fit into what they stood to be a gone Appalachian unemployment will increase true American culture. exponentially, as will poverty in the region. Central Appalachia will have the highest poverty They did not consider that the money that they rates in the country and will even surpass poverty spent on the internet did not come back in the rates of developing countries like South Africa. form of taxes to help their region. It also took This will push them to third-world country status. money out of their local economy and sent it With no coal industry and all of the mom and pop all over the world. Now they are suffering the stores closing an Appalachian economy will be consequences of this action, every mom and absent. Government assistance will be the only pop store has closed down and they have put lifeline for the few residents that are still surviving fellow Appalachians out of jobs. With these in this region, and now that the Appalachian stores closed there is no chance of people stereotype is so widely believed as fact, the federal being able to make money and of government is hesitant to waste money on a ―lost course, spend money that the community cause.‖ needs, and this continues the downward spiral
  • 196. What we forecast Appalachia‘s economy to look like by 2040. Figure 11.2
  • 197. Sources of Alternative Energy that the US will be using instead of coal in 2040 http://www.power-talk.net/images/alternative-energy-22.jpg Figure 11.3 http://www.greenprogress.com/images/alternative-energy-3.jpg Figure 11.4 http://hidden-technology.org/images/pics%20for%20site/NY_Hydro_Electric_Plant.JPG Figure 11.5
  • 198. Central Appalachia: 2040 In 2040 we picture Appalachia as being a practically level and unusable land. The mountaintop removal trend pushes The residents of the region will be so us to trust this forecast. As mountaintop removal continues traumatized by what they have lived through we will see a complete region of the United States as that they will turn to illegal drug usage to uninhabitable. The beautiful mountains of the region will all remedy their problems. Methamphetamine be flattened because of greedy coal companies looking to manufacturing and use will be rampant make a dollar. The Appalachian Mountain range will run throughout the region, as will prescription from northern Georgia to southern Tennessee, then there will drug use. We see pharmacies filling more be a break in the chain with the mountains picking back up in prescriptions for pain killers and anti-anxiety southern Pennsylvania and continue to Maine. pill because people that have prescriptions are selling them to the ones that cannot get the Some of you might think that you can reclaim the land that prescriptions. Since the economy has become is left over from mountaintop removal, but you cannot. The absent and most people have lost their jobs soil will be too ravaged and toxic to sustain any sort of this is the only way that they find feasible to life, not to mention the water in the region. Water will be make money. These drugs are highly contaminated by the toxins from mining equipment, slurry addictive and the people that are hooked on spills, and waste that the coal companies have pushed into them will do anything to get them. The state streams over the years. Slurry ponds will also allow toxins to and federal government will then have to pour seep into the ground infecting well water and other water more money into the region to try and combat sources for the region. Water in the region will not be this epidemic and the region will become a potable and will deteriorate the health of the inhabitants left further burden. in the region. Residents that are left will have to filter or boil water for daily use. The blasting from mountaintop removal has also damaged many foundations in the region beyond repair. Many of these houses are not fit to live in and could collapse (like the region) on their residents. The region will
  • 199. What Central Appalachia will look like in 2040 http://www.ohvec.org/galleries/mountaintop_removal/007/29a.jpg Figure 11.6
  • 200. Central Appalachia: 2040 Our scenario for Appalachia in 2040 is at collapse. There will be many What little political structure that is left developing, third-world countries in Appalachia will be extremely corrupt. ahead of Appalachia in several areas. The few educated people will know how College graduates, mom and pop to work the system to get the stores, and an economy will be non- government money to benefit them existent in Appalachia. Coal will no instead of actually helping the region. longer be the chosen energy source of The rich will be getting richer, while the the United States and coal will be no poor are getting poorer. They will also longer mined in Appalachia, like there have a strangle hold on the political will be any left to mine. The Central scene. The rich are the ones in politics Appalachian Mountains will be level and they are in it for the money. These and that ground will not be able to people will drive Appalachia to a sustain life. Blasts from mountaintop dictatorship by doing what they want removal have damaged many homes and not what is good for the region. beyond repair. Slurry ponds and spills have ruined water sources for the Elites are dominating politics because region. Drug usage will be extensive they have money and there is no longer and crime rates will rise from addicts democracy. Without democracy the region‘s political structure will also struggling to get more and the region will be under dictator rule instead of resemble that of a third world country. having a democracy. Even most developing third world countries have some form of democracy.
  • 201. Elites leading Appalachia to collapse Representative Hal Rogers (R-KY 5th district) West Virginia Governor Joe Manchin http://www.wvdjs.state.wv.us/Portals/0/JoeManchin.jpg Figure 11.7 http://newsinitiative.org/media/2/image/hal_rogers_parkway.jpg Figure 11.8
  • 202. Present -the region as we see it today Timeline of Appalachian Collapse 2030 2020 •less college graduates returning than before •losing more college graduates than they are •almost all mom and pop stores closed retaining •Wal-Mart pushes out competition •no new businesses expanding into the region •federal government pushing harder for •mom and pop stores beginning to close alternative energy •U.S.A. turning to alternative energy sources like •Limits demands of coal solar, wind and geothermal •coal exports almost non- •coal companies begin downsizing existent •unemployment and poverty on the rise •more houses are being destroyed by blasting •coal is still being removed by mountaintop removal •almost all water is toxic and undrinkable •House‘s and infrastructure‘s foundations are •more residents resorting to illegal drugs damaged, few streams polluted, and hundreds of •dictatorship has taken a stronger hold with mountains leveled few aspects of democracy left •residents turning to illegal drug use •democracy dwindling with elements of dictatorship 2040 taking hold •Appalachia has become a third -world region •Illegal drug usage will be rampant and affect •there are no college graduates returning everyone‘s lives in some way •all mom and pop stores are closed •Strong presence in schools too •economy will be completely absent •Dictatorship is the only political structure in the •US has turned completely to alternative energy region •US will no longer need coal •Pandemic can easily wipe out much of the region •Central Appalachian Mountains will be completely •Schools take hours to get to for the majority of flattened because they continued to mine as people people and are not really beneficial turned to new energy resources •All houses and infrastructures are damaged beyond Figure 11.9 repair, the lucky people live in trailers •Slurry ponds and spills have ruined all water sources with no usable water in the region •Water has to be shipped in