Research as Hypermedia Narrative

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Nuts & Bolts of Research Methods: Doctoral Training Conference The Open University, March 22nd 2011

Simon Buckingham Shum

Knowledge Media Institute
Open University UK

http://simon.buckinghamshum.net

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Research as Hypermedia Narrative

  1. 1. Nuts & Bolts of Research Methods: Doctoral Training ConferenceThe Open University, March 22nd 2011Research asHypermedia NarrativeSimon Buckingham ShumKnowledge Media InstituteOpen University UKhttp://simon.buckinghamshum.net http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.0/uk 1
  2. 2. 70-strong lab (Berrill top floor)near future (2-5 yrs) R&D for Open U and researchpartners — next generation internet, and tools forlearning, sensemaking, collaboration and search
  3. 3. make the invisible visiblemake the opaque permeablemake the ephemeral persistent by using digital tools to craft narrative around ideas + documents + multimedia 3
  4. 4. “We may some day click off arguments ona machine with the same assurance that wenow enter sales on a cash register.”Vannevar Bush, 1945http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/1945/07/as-we-may-think/3881 4
  5. 5. http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/1945/07/as-we-may-think/3881 5
  6. 6. http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/1945/07/as-we-may-think/3881 6Possibly based on the work of Emanuel Goldberg: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emanuel_Goldberg
  7. 7. “Wholly new forms of encyclopedias willappear, ready made with a mesh ofassociative trails running through them,ready to be dropped into the memex andthere amplified.”http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/1945/07/as-we-may-think/3881 7
  8. 8. “There is a new profession of trail blazers,those who find delight in the task ofestablishing useful trails through theenormous mass of the common record.The inheritance from the master becomes,not only his additions to the worlds record,but for his disciples the entire scaffoldingby which they were erected.”http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/1945/07/as-we-may-think/3881 8
  9. 9. A simple but powerful conceptHypertext: coherent trails and webs Ideas, Discussions, Theories, Evidence, Arguments, Concepts, Data, Documents, Group Processes… …all can rendered as networks of nodes in meaningful relationships 9
  10. 10. Compendium software (open source) visual hypermedia for managing the connections between ideas flexibly http://compendium.open.ac.ukBuckingham Shum, S., Selvin, A., Sierhuis, M., Conklin, J., Haley, C. and Nuseibeh, B. (2006). Hypermedia Support forArgumentation-Based Rationale: 15 Years on from gIBIS and QOC. In: Rationale Management in Software Engineering 10(Eds.) A.H. Dutoit, R. McCall, I. Mistrik, and B. Paech. Springer-Verlag: Berlin. http://oro.open.ac.uk/3032
  11. 11. Compendium software (open source) visual hypermedia for managing the connections between ideas flexibly http://compendium.open.ac.ukBuckingham Shum, S., Selvin, A., Sierhuis, M., Conklin, J., Haley, C. and Nuseibeh, B. (2006). Hypermedia Support forArgumentation-Based Rationale: 15 Years on from gIBIS and QOC. In: Rationale Management in Software Engineering 11(Eds.) A.H. Dutoit, R. McCall, I. Mistrik, and B. Paech. Springer-Verlag: Berlin. http://oro.open.ac.uk/3032
  12. 12. e-Dance Project: Choreography practice as research, &the transformative role of digital mediae-Dance Project — in collab. with:Helen Bailey (Univ. Bedfordshire)Sita Popat (Univ. Leeds)Martin Turner (Univ. Manchester) 12
  13. 13. e-Dance Project: Choreography practice as research, &the transformative role of digital media 13
  14. 14. This theatre, Nov. 2008… 14
  15. 15. e-Dance Project: Choreography practice as research, &the transformative role of digital media 15
  16. 16. Multimedia presentations for a multimedia disciplinehttp://projects.kmi.open.ac.uk/e-dance/2009/09/14/choreographic-video-annotationhttp://podcast.open.ac.uk/oulearn/computing-and-ict/podcast-e-dance (Start: 2.15) 16
  17. 17. Browsing the replay of a meeting by time, speaker and typeof contribution (CoAKTinG/NASA field trials) Copyright, 2004, RIACS/ NASA Ames, Open University, Southampton University Not to be used without permission RIACS/NASA Ames Research Center Mobile Agents Project Maarten Sierhuis KMi Open University CoAKTinG Project Simon Buckingham-Shum & Al Selvin Southampton University CoAKTinG Project Kevin Page Danius Michaelides Dave De Roure Nigel Shadbolthttp://kmi.open.ac.uk/projects/coakting/nasa 17
  18. 18. If you’d been my PhD student online, then we’d berecording supervisions in Compendium… (thanks Jack Park!)e-PhD workshop: http://kmi.open.ac.uk/projects/e-phd/UKGRAD/OU-wkshp-Feb05.html 18
  19. 19. Visualizing therapeutic group dynamicsWhich behaviours do two patients share?Tags shared in common are orange, tags from one patient in greenhttp://people.kmi.open.ac.uk/sbs/2010/03/compendium-mapping-group-dynamics 19
  20. 20. Replaying an election debate with sync’d maphttp://people.kmi.open.ac.uk/sbs/2010/04/debate-replay-with-map 20
  21. 21. Mapping your PhD as a hypermedia network ofideas + documents + multimedia (Al Selvin, KMi) 21http://knowledgeart.blogspot.com/2011/02/using-compendium-for-research.html
  22. 22. Using Compendium to visualize and challenge racist argumentation on the NetBuckingham Shum, S. (2007). Undermining Mimetic Contagion on the Net: Argumentation Tools as Critical Voices.COV&R 2007: Colloquium on Violence & Religion, Amsterdam Vrije Universiteit July, 4-8 2007http://www.bezinningscentrum.nl/teksten/girard/c/c2007_Buckingham-Shum_Simon_abstract.htmhttp://www.slideshare.net/sbs/undermining-mimetic-contagion-on-the-net-argumentation-tools-as-critical-voicesInteractive Web Maps: http://bit.ly/aP4M0P (View in Safari)
  23. 23. Example: a scientific argument on NationalFront website We argue, for example, thatWest Indian and otherNegroes will never fit in, as multiracialistsclaim, to become equal and integratedmembers of a predominantly White society.This is because they are inherently unfitted to do sointellectually, and are thus condemned to exist in White society as apermanent underclass, confined to the lower social strata and,not unnaturally, bitterly resentful of the alien society in which they are thustrapped. This resentment will inevitably explode intoviolence, rioting and crime. 23
  24. 24. Example: a scientific argument on NationalFront website What are the facts? Over almost seventy years, in study after study, conducted byscientists and educationalists in numerous countries, studies conducted by such bastions ofracial rationalism as the Inner London Education Authority, the US Army, and Harvard and on every measure of intellectualOxford Universities,ability and educational attainment Blacksperform significantly worse, on average, thanWhites. In the case of average IQ, forexample, the average Negro figure is only85% of the White average. In fact the higher the proportion ofWhite genes the higher the intelligence: a pure-bred Negro freshout of Africa scores nearer 70%. Readers can consult Race by Dr. John R. Baker, former Reader in Cytology at Oxford University, published by the Oxford University Press, or The Testing of Negro Intelligence, an exhaustive review of hundreds of studies demonstrating racial differences in intellectual ability by Dr. Audrey M. Shuey, and of course there is The Bell Curve by Herrnstein and Murray. 24
  25. 25. 25http://bit.ly/aP4M0P (View in Safari)
  26. 26. Refuting the NF negro intelligence argumentusing argument mapping http://bit.ly/aP4M0P (View in Safari) Red link= challenges Green link= supports Hyperlink to evidence on a website 26
  27. 27. http://bit.ly/aP4M0P (View in Safari)
  28. 28. Refuting the NF negro intelligence argumentusing argument mappinghttp://bit.ly/aP4M0P (View in Safari)
  29. 29. Importing theoreticallygrounded, practical Argumentation Schemes as visual templates(Imported as XML files from prior work atUniversity of Dundee, demonstrating the power of collaborative, interdisciplinary, computational argumentation research) 29
  30. 30. Refuting the NF negro intelligence argumentusing argument mapping http://bit.ly/aP4M0P (View in Safari) 30
  31. 31. Refuting the NF negro intelligence argumentusing argument mapping http://bit.ly/aP4M0P (View in Safari) The structure of an “Argument from Bias” can be exposed.. 31
  32. 32. Refuting the NF negro intelligence argumentusing argument mapping http://bit.ly/aP4M0P (View in Safari) The structure of an “Argument from Bias” can be exposed.. 32
  33. 33. Refuting the NF negro intelligence argumentusing argument mapping http://bit.ly/aP4M0P (View in Safari) The structure of an “Argument from Bias” can be exposed.. The structure of an “Argument from Analogy” can be exposed.. 33
  34. 34. Template for an Argument from Analogy Instantiating the “Argument from Analogy” template 34http://bit.ly/aP4M0P (View in Safari)
  35. 35. Template for an Argument from Analogy Instantiating the “Argument from Analogy” template 35http://bit.ly/aP4M0P (View in Safari)
  36. 36. Template for an Argument from Analogy Instantiating the “Argument from Analogy” template 36http://bit.ly/aP4M0P (View in Safari)
  37. 37. Template for an Argument from Analogy Instantiating the “Argument from Analogy” template 37http://bit.ly/aP4M0P (View in Safari)
  38. 38. (in the talk I didn’t get time to show the web-based Cohere knowledge mapping tool – following slides) 38
  39. 39. a prototype infrastructure forcollective intelligence/social learning http://cohere.open.ac.ukConvergence of…web annotationsocial bookmarkingconcept mappingstructured debate 39
  40. 40. Structured deliberation and debate in whichQuestions, Evidence and Connections arefirst class entities (linkable, addressable, embeddable, contestable…) 40
  41. 41. Structured deliberation and debate in whichQuestions, Evidence and Connections arefirst class entities (linkable, addressable, embeddable, contestable…) 41
  42. 42. — web annotation of OER (Firefox extension)
  43. 43. Analyst-defined visual connection language 43
  44. 44. Concept SocialNetwork Network Social Discourse Network
  45. 45. Structured deliberation and debate in whichQuestions, Evidence and Connections arefirst class entities (linkable, addressable, embeddable, contestable…) 45
  46. 46. — discourse-centric analytics Does the learner compare his/her own ideas to that of peers, and if so, in what ways?De Liddo, A., Buckingham Shum, S., Quinto, I., Bachler, M. and Cannavacciuolo, L.(2011). Discourse-CentricLearning Analytics. Proc. 1st Int. Conf. Learning Analytics & Knowledge. Feb. 27-Mar 1, 2011, Banff
  47. 47. — discourse-centric analytics Does the learner act as a broker, connecting the ideas of his/her peers, and if so, in what ways?De Liddo, A., Buckingham Shum, S., Quinto, I., Bachler, M. and Cannavacciuolo, L.(2011). Discourse-CentricLearning Analytics. Proc. 1st Int. Conf. Learning Analytics & Knowledge. Feb. 27-Mar 1, 2011, Banff
  48. 48. seeing the connections people make asthey annotate the web using Cohere Visualizing all the connections that a set of analysts have made — but unfiltered, this may not be very helpful
  49. 49. — semantic filtering of connections Visualizing multiple learners’ interpretations of global warming sources Connections have been filtered by a set of semantic relationships grouped as ConsistencyDe Liddo, A. and Buckingham Shum, S. (2010). Cohere: A prototype for contested collective intelligence. In: ACM Computer Supported Cooperative Work(CSCW 2010) - Workshop: Collective Intelligence In Organizations, February 6-10, 2010, Savannah, Georgia, USA. http://oro.open.ac.uk/19554
  50. 50. — web annotation for sensemaking
  51. 51. Structured deliberation and debate in which Questions, Evidence and Connections are first class entities (linkable, addressable, embeddable, contestable…)http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Fcn2ab9PYo4 51
  52. 52. Virtual Ethnography: a solution to the challenge of analysing online activity in situ CAQDA proprietary tools such as ATLAS.ti, NVivo, Transana, etc require raw data to be analyzed offline. This implies: •  ethical issues of permissions and privacy •  legal issues related to copyright regimes •  practical issues of cleaning and converting data to appropriate format •  issues of context: The analyst looses potentially useful hints to make sense of the content they analyze •  issues of fast obsolescence of dataDe Liddo, Anna and Alevizou, Panagiota (2010). A method and tool to support the analysis and enhance theunderstanding of peer--to--peer learning experiences. In: OpenED2010: Seventh Annual Open EducationConference, 2-4 Nov 2010, Barcelona, Spain. http://oro.open.ac.uk/23392 52
  53. 53. §  Map of the main categories, sub categories, and the relationship between them.
  54. 54. §  Network of memos showing what people contributed to within the pink group and the nature of the contribution.§  Icons represent main code sub-categories (purple lines overwrites participants names)
  55. 55. §  Coupled search of memos by code and semantic connection.
  56. 56. stepping back from the examples… 56
  57. 57. Where our tools fit… Given a wealth ofdocuments… 57
  58. 58. Where our tools fit… Given a wealth ofdocuments, and tools to detect and renderpotentially significant patterns… 58
  59. 59. Where our tools fit… Given a wealth ofdocuments, and tools to detect and renderpotentially significant patterns… 59
  60. 60. Where our tools fit: making meaningfulconnections between information elements… 60
  61. 61. Where our tools fit: making meaningfulconnections between interpretations interpretation interpretation interpretation interpretation 61
  62. 62. Where our tools fit: making meaningfulconnections between interpretations interpretation interpretation interpretation(a hunch – no grounding evidence yet) interpretation interpretation interpretation 62
  63. 63. Where our tools fit: making meaningfulconnections between information elements interpretation Is pre-requisite for interpretation interpretation(a hunch – no grounding evidence yet) causes predicts interpretation interpretation interpretation 63
  64. 64. Where our tools fit: making meaningfulconnections between information elements interpretation Is pre-requisite for prevents interpretation interpretation(a hunch – no grounding Is inconsistent with evidence yet) causes predicts challenges interpretation interpretation interpretation 64
  65. 65. Where our tools fit: building the story that makessense of the evidence… i.e. plausible arguments Question responds to motivates Answer Assumption supports challenges Supporting Challenging Argument… Argument… 65
  66. 66. Where our tools fit: building the story that makessense of the evidence… i.e. plausible arguments Question responds to motivates Answer Hunch supports challenges Supporting Challenging Argument… Argument… 66
  67. 67. Where our tools fit: building the story that makessense of the evidence… i.e. plausible arguments Question responds to motivates Answer Data supports challenges Supporting Challenging Argument… Argument… 67
  68. 68. “There is a new profession of trail blazers, those who finddelight in the task of establishing useful trails through theenormous mass of the common record. The inheritancefrom the master becomes, not only his additions to theworlds record, but for his disciples the entire scaffoldingby which they were erected.” 66 years later… we now have those toolshttp://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/1945/07/as-we-may-think/3881 68
  69. 69. Articles, books, news, movies, software,user/developer community…http://projects.kmi.open.ac.uk/hyperdiscourse Compendium
 Institute 69
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