LAK12 Learning Dispositions and Transferable Competencies


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LAK12 Learning Dispositions and Transferable Competencies

  1. 1. Learning Dispositions andTransferable Competencies:Pedagogy, Modelling and Learning AnalyticsSimon Buckingham Shum and Ruth Deakin CrickThe Open University & University of Bristol, UK@sbskmi @ruthdeakincrick / 1
  2. 2. The story in 1 slide… Learning dispositions matterThey can be modelled as “Learning Power” A platform hosts apps, pools data, generates real time analytics and manages permissions Criteria for validating Learning Analytics — context Ongoing/future directions 2
  3. 3. learningdispositions matter 3
  4. 4. Why do dispositions matter? “Knowledge of methods alone will not suffice: there must be the desire, the will, to employ them. This desire is an affair of personal disposition.” John DeweyDewey, J. How We Think: A Restatement of the Relation of Reflective Thinking to theEducative Process. Heath and Co, Boston, 1933 4
  5. 5. Why do dispositions matter? “educational philosophy and theory face the unfamiliar and challenging task of theorising a formative process which is not guided form the start by the target form designed in advance” Zygmunt Bauman Zygmunt Bauman, 2001: The Individualised Society, Cambridge, Polity Press. 5
  6. 6. Why do dispositions matter?§  Widening disconnect between what engages many young people, and their experience of schooling: §  Canadian Education Association: intellectual engagement falls during the middle school years and remains at a low level throughout secondary school §  English Department for Education: 10% of students “hate” school, with disproportionate levels amongst less privileged learners §  US study across 27 states: 49% students felt bored every day, 17% in every class 6
  7. 7. C21 competencies (we’ve all got a list)Reflects the urgent need to build learners’ capacity tocope with unprecedented uncertainty and challenge Sensemaking Authentic purpose Learning for teaching as designing Curriculum as narration rather than script Learning how to learn Creativity Entrepreneurialism Team work Problem solving Citizenship 7
  8. 8. What do we mean by “disposition”?a relatively enduring tendency to behave in a certain way there are varying conceptions as to how fixed or malleable dispositions areOur focus is on malleable dispositions that are important for developing intentional learners, and which,critically, learners can recognise and develop in themselves 8
  9. 9. From transmission to learning designThe Knowledge-Agency Window Expert  led  enquiry    Student  led-­‐enquiry     co-generation     Teaching  as   Authenticity,   knowledge agency, learning     identity and use design                           Repetition, Pre-scribed     Knowledge   abstraction,     acquisition       Expert  led  teaching   Student  led  revision   Teacher  agency   Student  agency  
  10. 10. Learning is complex: moving between personal+ public, via different ways of knowing Public Practical Competence in the world Knowledge skills & Propositional understanding Learning power values attitudes & dispositions Presentational Identity story, desire, motivation, relationships Personal ExperientialDEAKIN CRICK, R. 2012. Student Engagement: Identity, Learning Power and Enquiry - a complex systems approach. In:CHRISTENSON, S., RESCHLY, A. & WYLIE, C. (eds.) The Handbook of Research on Student Engagement New York: SpringerHERON, J. & REASON, P. 1997. A Participatory Inquiry Paradigm. Qualitative Inquiry, 3, 274-294.
  11. 11. dispositions can be modelled: “learning power” 11
  12. 12. Competencies and skills for employability Personal Development: Learning Knowledge, Skills andValues, Attitudes, Dispositions, Power Understanding Identity, Story
  13. 13. Where did this construct come from?3 year project to identify the most important qualities shown byeffective learners, and then devise a valid assessment tool Experts & Practitioners consulted on overall process Meta-analysis of the literature (empirical + theoretical) Expert Workshops (policymakers + scholars) Leading Practitioner input to survey questions Survey design iterations and refinement Factor analysis on survey data (N=2000) Seven factors identified 13
  14. 14. In your experience, what are the qualities shownby the most effective learners? Think about the most effective learners you’ve met/ mentored/taughtNot necessarily the highest grade scorers, but the ones who went on to do well in real world learning What qualities/dispositions/attitudes did they bring? Tweet them now on #lak12 #dispositions 14
  15. 15. Learning to Learn: 7 Dimensions of Learning Power Being Stuck & Static Changing & Learning Data Accumulation Meaning Making Passivity Critical Curiosity Being Rule Bound Creativity Isolation & Dependence Learning Relationships Being Robotic Strategic Awareness Fragility & Dependence Resilience
  16. 16. Learning to Learn: 7 Dimensions of Learning PowerFactor analysis of the literature plus expert interviews: identified sevendimensions of effective learning power , since validated empirically withlearners at many levels. (Deakin Crick, Broadfoot and Claxton, 2004)
  17. 17. Learning to Learn: 7 Dimensions of Learning PowerFactor analysis of the literature plus expert interviews: identified sevendimensions of effective learning power , since validated empirically withlearners at many levels. (Deakin Crick, Broadfoot and Claxton, 2004)
  18. 18. Learning Warehouse:analytics platform 18
  19. 19. Learning Warehouse 2.0 User experience: Research-validated assessment tools Researcher interface Learning Communities Analytics: Real time ELLI Analytics reports Bespoke research reports Datasets: >40,000 ELLI profiles (data from other hosted apps)
  20. 20. ELLI: Effective Lifelong Learning InventorySee the paper for examples of questions loading onto each dimension of Learning Power 20
  21. 21. Immediate feedback enabling timely reflection andinterventions, via a mentored discussionELLI profile showing pre/post change 21
  22. 22. Cohort analytics foreducators andorganizational leaders 22
  23. 23. The Learning Warehouse manages permissionsfor different stakeholders§  Learners sign in to complete the right version of the ELLI questionnaire (e.g. Child or Adult) and receive their personal ELLI visual analytic§  Administrators can upload additional learner metadata or datasets§  Educators/organisational leaders access individual and cohort analytics, scaling to the organisation as a whole if required§  Researchers can see all of the above, together with other datasets and institutions (depending on permissions) 23
  24. 24. Additional Analytics services currently providedthrough Vital Partnerships (social enterprise spinout fromU. Bristol)§  Bespoke organisational analyses to inform leadership §  a gender cohort in a school; a marketing department in a bank; underachieving students; or measures of change over time in a school§  Analysis of data across a cohort of organisations §  the impact of Learning Futures pedagogies on student engagement in learning§  Collaborative research data analysis service §  researchers who wish to use the instruments in their research projects or to avail themselves of secondary datasets§  Secondary analysis of large-scale datasets §  see paper for details of correlations found between ELLI and other cross-dataset measures of attainment, teacher attitudes and student engagement 24
  25. 25. validatinglearning analytics context context context 25
  26. 26. When we use the same data for different purposes, weneed different ‘truth paradigms’/forms of rationality (Habermas) IndividualLearners (Emancipatory)Teachers Group/CommunityAdministrators (Hermeneutical)Leaders System WideResearchers (Empirical/Analytical)Policymakers …so Learning Analytics MUST be interdisciplinary + methodologically plural = painful + challenging!
  27. 27. Quality Criteria – how can we be confident in ourmeasurement model?Empirical analytical criteria§  Reliability – are the results repeatable?§  Validity – does it measure what it says it does?§  Internal validity – do the research results mean what they appear to?§  External validity – can the results be generalised to other settings (ecological validity) and to other populations (population validity)? Deakin Crick, R., Broadfoot, P. and Claxton, G. Developing an Effective Lifelong Learning Inventory: The ELLI Project. Lifelong Learning Foundation, Bristol, 2002. Deakin Crick, R. and Yu, G. The Effective Lifelong Learning Inventory (ELLI): is it valid and reliable as a measurement tool? Education Research, 50, 4, (2008), 387–402.
  28. 28. Interpretive/Hermeneutic Criteria§  Reliability and validity are replaced with trustworthiness. §  Extrinsic trustworthiness: credibility, transferability, contextual transparency, verifiability. §  Intrinsic trustworthiness: fairness, authenticity, internal ethics. Ren, K. Could Do Better! So Why Not? An Exploration of the Learning Dispositions of Underachieving Students Doctoral Dissertation, Graduate School of Education, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK, 2010. Deakin Crick, R., Jelfs, H., Ren, K. and Symonds, J. Learning Futures. Paul Hamlyn Foundation, London, 2010. Students, W. I. Taronga Zoo Break Out. Singleton High School Ka Wul Centre, Singleton, 2010.
  29. 29. Emancipatory Criteria§  Positionality – researcher declares a standpoint§  Attention to voice – who speaks for whom?§  Critical reflexivity – researcher self-awareness§  Reciprocity – trust and mutuality - dialogue§  Potential for emancipation and action§  Undistorted communication§  Substantive contribution§  Persuasiveness of discursive critique§  Participatory ethics§  Narrative evidence – aesthetic merit / impacts on reader / communicated ‘lived experience’Millner, N., Small, T. and Deakin Crick, R. Learning by Accident. Report No. 1,ViTaL Development and Research Programme, University of Bristol, 2006.Deakin Crick, R. and Bond, T. Its like a Gift: How to get a long life easier: Narratives of Personalisation,2012. Submitted to Education Other
  30. 30. ongoing/future trajectories 30
  31. 31. Learning Warehouse 2.0 (3.0) Learning App Store Learning Communities Collective Intelligence Learning Analytics System Simulations Recommendation Engines Data Sets + Data Streams
  32. 32. EnquiryBlogger: ELLI Wordpress pluginsFerguson, R., Buckingham Shum, S. and Deakin Crick, R.(2011). EnquiryBlogger: using widgets tosupport awareness and reflection in a PLE Setting. In: 1st Workshop on Awareness and Reflectionin Personal Learning Environments. PLE Conference 2011, 11-13 July 2011, Southampton, UK.Eprint: 32
  33. 33. ELLIment: scaling up ELLI mentoringThomas Ullman, KMi: 33
  34. 34. ELLI-based analytics for a social learningplatform
  35. 35. Using ELLI dimensions to classify online activity§  Time-spent in different parts of applications §  Might repeated attempts to pass an online test load onto Resilience? §  Might the sharing of good resources from eclectic domains load onto Meaning Making?§  Discourse analytics to detect ‘exploratory talk’ and argumentation in online spaces §  Might the presence of questioning and challenging in discourse load onto Critical Curiosity?§  Social network analytics §  Might different SNA patterns in different contexts load onto Learning Relationships? 35
  36. 36. ELLI-based Recommendation Engine?Could we connect learners to each other, and toeducational resources, based on similar orcomplementary strengths on different dimensions? However, there are many reasons why a profile may be as it is, so beware simplistic interpretation and intervention — ethical criteria paramount 36
  37. 37. To join the global community… 37