Knowledge Mapping for  Open Sensemaking Communities Simon Buckingham Shum & Alexandra Okada OpenLearn 2007 Conference, Mil...
Overview <ul><li>Stepping out of Gutenberg’s shadow </li></ul><ul><li>Spatial maps </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Maps </li><...
In Gutenberg’s shadow   (or standing on his shoulders) <ul><li>Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London M...
We want to change cognition <ul><li>The most reproduced photo in the world (?). Transformed how we saw ourselves. </li></ul>
We want to change cognition <ul><li>One way to do this is through visualizations of thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Computer-su...
The power of maps (1) <ul><li>Aesthetic appeal </li></ul><ul><li>Use of landmarks for shared orientation </li></ul><ul><li...
The power of maps (2) <ul><li>User-controlled views and detail </li></ul><ul><li>Context + focus (Shneiderman) </li></ul>h...
The power of maps (3) <ul><li>Multiple points of entry </li></ul><ul><li>Topography not geography </li></ul><ul><li>A plat...
Geographical maps help… <ul><li>transcend the limitations of private, individual representations of terrain in order to au...
Open Sensemaking Communities <ul><li>OPEN to…  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>people and perspectives </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SENSEM...
Knowledge  maps (1) <ul><li>“ Foundational concept, fragmented thinking, line of argument, blue skies research, peripheral...
The challenge <ul><li>What sensemaking infrastructure will enable us to do something like this… </li></ul>… for intellectu...
Chaomei Chen: visualization of trends in a literature (terrorism) Q2: Previous hot topic? Q3: Turning point? Q4: Transitio...
Knowledge maps (2) <ul><li>information visualization: representing spatially, intellectual worlds that have no intrinsic s...
Knowledge mapping as sensemaking <ul><li>Clarify the intellectual moves and commitments at different levels.  </li></ul><u...
Web maps Web Map about mapping tools with  Nestor Web Cartographer
Mindmaps Mind Map created with Buzan’s iMindmap
Concept maps Concept Map created with CMap Tools
Evidence maps Using  SEAS  to map the strength of evidential support  for an answer to a question
Argument maps  ( Reason!Able )
Argument maps  (Rationale) www.austhink.com
Literatures as discourse networks: Don’t try this in Google…
Don’t try this in Google…
What if we could get search results like this?… <ul><li>One of seven maps in the  Mapping Great Debates: Can Computers Thi...
Horn (zoomed in) MacroVU Press. www.macrovu.com
Argument mapping Detailed argument map of an author’s article www.kmi.open.ac.uk/projects/compendium/iraq
Dialogue maps Dialogue Map created  in  Compendium  (OpenLearn’s knowledge mapping tool)
Dialogue maps: JSB’s keynote http://kmi.open.ac.uk/people/sbs/news
Dialogue maps: JSB’s keynote http://kmi.open.ac.uk/people/sbs/news
Real time mapping to scaffold learning conversations… (e-PhD mentoring video)
KM Tool 1:  Compendium <ul><li>Desktop Java application, with active user community:  CompendiumInstitute .org   </li></ul...
Compendium + Moodle
Compendium + Moodle
Compendium + Moodle <ul><li>Compendium software downloads: encouraging </li></ul>
Compendium + Moodle <ul><li>XML downloads: small  (not the same as just viewing a map)  </li></ul>
Compendium + Moodle <ul><li>Compendium map uploads: very small  </li></ul>
Recent map upload stats
Example maps Cameron Esslemont:  http://openlearn.open.ac.uk/file.php/2825/kmap/1183035112/Trachoma.html
Example maps Alan Farrar:  http://openlearn.open.ac.uk/file.php/1646/kmap/1189665565/Natural%20Selection.html
Knowledge Maps by f-f Educators <ul><li>Student assignments: lecture classes + homework </li></ul><ul><li>UC Berkeley exam...
Knowledge Maps by f-f Educators <ul><li>Student assignments: lecture classes + homework </li></ul><ul><li>UC Berkeley exam...
Knowledge Maps by f-f Educators <ul><li>Planning a new course on Corporate Social Responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>(Mark A...
Knowledge Maps by f-f Educators <ul><li>A professor dialogue maps the concept of a ‘disagreement space’ in conversation wi...
Knowledge Maps  for  Educators <ul><li>Learning Design Patterns: mapping the learner’s workflow in e-learning activities  ...
Knowledge Maps for Educators <ul><li>Learning Design Patterns: mapping the learner’s workflow in e-learning activities  (G...
Next steps…
Web  Compendium initiatives <ul><li>EU Project CoPe_it! has implemented a web-centric IBIS tool, interoperable with Compen...
KM Tool 2: <ul><li>Web tool for connecting ‘Ideas’ </li></ul><ul><li>“ From tag clouds to tag webs” </li></ul><ul><li>Gene...
Cohere  Idea cloud <ul><li>Created by the user, possibly seeded by a bookmark RSS feed (e.g. del.icio.us, CiteULike, etc.)...
Editing a connection <ul><li>Forging links between ideas </li></ul>
Cohere  Connection Net <ul><li>Self-organising graph generated from personal, or world’s, connections </li></ul><ul><li>Co...
Cohere  snippets Embedding Ideas/Maps in other websites for viral spread Click target icon to view Knowledge Map http://co...
Knowledge Cartography <ul><li>Due 2008 (Springer) </li></ul><ul><li>Leading researchers and practitioners in mapping intel...
Conclusions <ul><li>Knowledge mapping has a central role to play in weaving narrative connections between OERs </li></ul><...
To know more… <ul><li>KMi’s scholarly software R&D </li></ul><ul><li>Hypermedia Discourse project   www.kmi.open.ac.uk/pro...
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Knowledge Mapping for Open Sensemaking Communities

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Knowledge Mapping for Open Sensemaking Communities

  1. 1. Knowledge Mapping for Open Sensemaking Communities Simon Buckingham Shum & Alexandra Okada OpenLearn 2007 Conference, Milton Keynes, UK, 30-31 Oct. 2007 Knowledge Media Institute, Open University, UK
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Stepping out of Gutenberg’s shadow </li></ul><ul><li>Spatial maps </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Maps </li></ul><ul><li>Sensemaking infrastructure for structured discourse </li></ul>
  3. 3. In Gutenberg’s shadow (or standing on his shoulders) <ul><li>Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London March 1665 </li></ul><ul><li>Le Journal des S ça v ans January 1665 </li></ul>Newspapers + Invisible Colleges = Scholarly Journals
  4. 4. We want to change cognition <ul><li>The most reproduced photo in the world (?). Transformed how we saw ourselves. </li></ul>
  5. 5. We want to change cognition <ul><li>One way to do this is through visualizations of thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Computer-supported knowledge mapping is one way to slow people down and get them to reflect on what they are thinking and saying </li></ul>
  6. 6. The power of maps (1) <ul><li>Aesthetic appeal </li></ul><ul><li>Use of landmarks for shared orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Selective hiding and highlighting of detail for a specific purpose </li></ul>http://flickr.com/photos/hooly/473301482/
  7. 7. The power of maps (2) <ul><li>User-controlled views and detail </li></ul><ul><li>Context + focus (Shneiderman) </li></ul>http://flickr.com/photos/revdancatt/40617383/
  8. 8. The power of maps (3) <ul><li>Multiple points of entry </li></ul><ul><li>Topography not geography </li></ul><ul><li>A platform for collaboration in the digital world </li></ul>http://flickr.com/photos/wttw/14763924/
  9. 9. Geographical maps help… <ul><li>transcend the limitations of private, individual representations of terrain in order to augment group planning, reasoning and memory </li></ul><ul><li>open new possibilities for collective attention, re-living the past, envisaging new scenarios, coordinating actions and making decisions </li></ul><ul><li>mediate the inner mental world and outer physical world </li></ul><ul><li>make sense of the universe at different scales, by overlaying meanings onto that world </li></ul><ul><li>remember what is important, and explore possible configurations of the unknown </li></ul>
  10. 10. Open Sensemaking Communities <ul><li>OPEN to… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>people and perspectives </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SENSEMAKING… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpreting, patterning, redressing surprise, externalising understanding, constructing plausible narratives about the world (Karl Weick, 1995) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>COMMUNITIES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>learners and ‘professional’ analysts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>predefined communities or emergent </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Knowledge maps (1) <ul><li>“ Foundational concept, fragmented thinking, line of argument, blue skies research, peripheral work”… </li></ul><ul><li>… we spatialise the world of ideas all the time </li></ul><ul><li>Maps can be used to make such configurations tangible, whether sketched on a napkin or modelled in software </li></ul>
  12. 12. The challenge <ul><li>What sensemaking infrastructure will enable us to do something like this… </li></ul>… for intellectual landscapes over OERs?
  13. 13. Chaomei Chen: visualization of trends in a literature (terrorism) Q2: Previous hot topic? Q3: Turning point? Q4: Transition path? Q1: Current hot topic?
  14. 14. Knowledge maps (2) <ul><li>information visualization: representing spatially, intellectual worlds that have no intrinsic spatial properties </li></ul><ul><li>mapping as an intrinsic part of personal and collective sensemaking </li></ul><ul><li>mapping the structure of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>physical phenomena (e.g. a biological process) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>intellectual artifacts (e.g. a curriculum) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>intellectual processes of inquiry (e.g. a meeting discussion, or a scientific or public debate). </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Knowledge mapping as sensemaking <ul><li>Clarify the intellectual moves and commitments at different levels. </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporate further contributions from others, whether in agreement or not. </li></ul><ul><li>Provoke, mediate, capture and improve constructive discourse. </li></ul><ul><li>Maps are narratives </li></ul>
  16. 16. Web maps Web Map about mapping tools with Nestor Web Cartographer
  17. 17. Mindmaps Mind Map created with Buzan’s iMindmap
  18. 18. Concept maps Concept Map created with CMap Tools
  19. 19. Evidence maps Using SEAS to map the strength of evidential support for an answer to a question
  20. 20. Argument maps ( Reason!Able )
  21. 21. Argument maps (Rationale) www.austhink.com
  22. 22. Literatures as discourse networks: Don’t try this in Google…
  23. 23. Don’t try this in Google…
  24. 24. What if we could get search results like this?… <ul><li>One of seven maps in the Mapping Great Debates: Can Computers Think? Series. </li></ul><ul><li>MacroVU Press. www.macrovu.com (Horn, 2003; Yoshimi, 2006) </li></ul>
  25. 25. Horn (zoomed in) MacroVU Press. www.macrovu.com
  26. 26. Argument mapping Detailed argument map of an author’s article www.kmi.open.ac.uk/projects/compendium/iraq
  27. 27. Dialogue maps Dialogue Map created in Compendium (OpenLearn’s knowledge mapping tool)
  28. 28. Dialogue maps: JSB’s keynote http://kmi.open.ac.uk/people/sbs/news
  29. 29. Dialogue maps: JSB’s keynote http://kmi.open.ac.uk/people/sbs/news
  30. 30. Real time mapping to scaffold learning conversations… (e-PhD mentoring video)
  31. 31. KM Tool 1: Compendium <ul><li>Desktop Java application, with active user community: CompendiumInstitute .org </li></ul><ul><li>Publishes read only HTML maps + XML to the OER web environment (Moodle) </li></ul><ul><li>Moodle PHP open source code to manage Compendium maps </li></ul>
  32. 32. Compendium + Moodle
  33. 33. Compendium + Moodle
  34. 34. Compendium + Moodle <ul><li>Compendium software downloads: encouraging </li></ul>
  35. 35. Compendium + Moodle <ul><li>XML downloads: small (not the same as just viewing a map) </li></ul>
  36. 36. Compendium + Moodle <ul><li>Compendium map uploads: very small </li></ul>
  37. 37. Recent map upload stats
  38. 38. Example maps Cameron Esslemont: http://openlearn.open.ac.uk/file.php/2825/kmap/1183035112/Trachoma.html
  39. 39. Example maps Alan Farrar: http://openlearn.open.ac.uk/file.php/1646/kmap/1189665565/Natural%20Selection.html
  40. 40. Knowledge Maps by f-f Educators <ul><li>Student assignments: lecture classes + homework </li></ul><ul><li>UC Berkeley example: </li></ul>
  41. 41. Knowledge Maps by f-f Educators <ul><li>Student assignments: lecture classes + homework </li></ul><ul><li>UC Berkeley example: </li></ul>
  42. 42. Knowledge Maps by f-f Educators <ul><li>Planning a new course on Corporate Social Responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>(Mark Aakhus, Rutgers University) </li></ul>
  43. 43. Knowledge Maps by f-f Educators <ul><li>A professor dialogue maps the concept of a ‘disagreement space’ in conversation with a student </li></ul><ul><li>(Mark Aakhus, Rutgers University) </li></ul>
  44. 44. Knowledge Maps for Educators <ul><li>Learning Design Patterns: mapping the learner’s workflow in e-learning activities (see OpenLearn’07 paper by Gr áinne Conole, IET, Open University) </li></ul>
  45. 45. Knowledge Maps for Educators <ul><li>Learning Design Patterns: mapping the learner’s workflow in e-learning activities (Gr áinne Conole, IET, Open University) </li></ul>
  46. 46. Next steps…
  47. 47. Web Compendium initiatives <ul><li>EU Project CoPe_it! has implemented a web-centric IBIS tool, interoperable with Compendium (see left) </li></ul><ul><li>http://copeit.cti.gr </li></ul><ul><li>Also… </li></ul><ul><li>Conzilla now supports Dialogue Mapping </li></ul><ul><li>GlaxoSmithKline have piloted a web-centric extension to Compendium </li></ul><ul><li>Rutgers University is experimenting with Citrix to provide shared web access to Compendium </li></ul>
  48. 48. KM Tool 2: <ul><li>Web tool for connecting ‘Ideas’ </li></ul><ul><li>“ From tag clouds to tag webs” </li></ul><ul><li>Generate maps from personal and the world’s connections </li></ul><ul><li>Embed maps in other websites </li></ul><ul><li>RSS feeds and URLs </li></ul><ul><li>cohereweb.net </li></ul>
  49. 49. Cohere Idea cloud <ul><li>Created by the user, possibly seeded by a bookmark RSS feed (e.g. del.icio.us, CiteULike, etc.) </li></ul>
  50. 50. Editing a connection <ul><li>Forging links between ideas </li></ul>
  51. 51. Cohere Connection Net <ul><li>Self-organising graph generated from personal, or world’s, connections </li></ul><ul><li>Controls for adjusting scale, link-length and gravity </li></ul><ul><li>Click Ideas and Connections to edit </li></ul><ul><li>Can be filtered and searched by keyword, or connection structure on user-specified links </li></ul>
  52. 52. Cohere snippets Embedding Ideas/Maps in other websites for viral spread Click target icon to view Knowledge Map http://cohereweb.net/x/y/z <iframe>xyz</iframe> Full Screen Knowledge Map Get URL Get Snippet Code < > 8
  53. 53. Knowledge Cartography <ul><li>Due 2008 (Springer) </li></ul><ul><li>Leading researchers and practitioners in mapping intellectual worlds </li></ul><ul><li>Shared focus on mapping as sensemaking </li></ul><ul><li>Conceptual foundations and practical tools with vibrant user communities </li></ul>
  54. 54. Conclusions <ul><li>Knowledge mapping has a central role to play in weaving narrative connections between OERs </li></ul><ul><li>Moreover, we currently lack infrastructures for large scale, structured discourse and visualization </li></ul><ul><li>We are working towards a social-semantic web environment for learners and other analysts to weave and contest the connections between ideas </li></ul>
  55. 55. To know more… <ul><li>KMi’s scholarly software R&D </li></ul><ul><li>Hypermedia Discourse project www.kmi.open.ac.uk/projects/hyperdiscourse </li></ul><ul><li>Open Sensemaking Communities project www.kmi.open.ac.uk/projects/osc </li></ul>

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