Argument Mapping overview

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  • 1. Young Foundation, The Open University, 1st March 2012Argument Mapping Simon Buckingham Shum Knowledge Media Institute The Open University W: simon.buckinghamshum.net E: s.buckingham.shum@open.ac.uk T: 0770 212 5734 Tw: @sbskmi 1
  • 2. Argument Mapping is part of a broader researchprogramme …Developing 21st Century capacities in children and adultsOur capacities to cope with Applied to…complexity… •  Future of school/uni/•  Deep Learning societal learning•  Sensemaking •  Participatory urban•  Resilience planning•  Complexity Thinking •  Climate change•  Critical Thinking •  Evidence-based policy•  Collective Intelligence •  E-Democracy…and how to spot the above through web analytics 2 http://people.kmi.open.ac.uk/sbs/tag/learning-analytics
  • 3. In a nutshell… Argumentation is tough: • hard to learn for children and adults • hard to grasp the arguments in complex debates (critical for engaged citizenship) Arguments can be visually mapped in order to clarify who is saying what and why Web tools help make this an interactive experience and a collective endeavour The evidence is that argument mapping can improve learning (but not always) 3
  • 4. Mapping the UK election TV debateshttp://people.kmi.open.ac.uk/sbs/2010/04/debate-replay-with-map 4
  • 5. Mapping a nuclear power debate on a blog
  • 6. Mapping a nuclear power debate on a blogThanks to Anna De Liddo for mapping this Mark Lynas blog debate
  • 7. Mapping a nuclear power debate on a blogThanks to Anna De Liddo for mapping this Mark Lynas blog debate
  • 8. Journalist mapping a public policy sciencedebate in Germanyhttp://news.kmi.open.ac.uk/rostra/news.php?r=55&t=2&id=47
  • 9. Mapping Queensland’s environmental publicconsultationhttp://news.kmi.open.ac.uk/rostra/news.php?r=55&t=2&id=26
  • 10. Mapping community views for participatoryurban planninghttp://www.sevensigma.com.au/what-we-have-done/case-studies.html
  • 11. Example: a scientific argument on NationalFront website What are the facts? Over almost seventy years, in study after study, conducted byscientists and educationalists in numerous countries, studies conducted by such bastions ofracial rationalism as the Inner London Education Authority, the US Army, and Harvard and on every measure of intellectualOxford Universities,ability and educational attainment Blacksperform significantly worse, on average, thanWhites. In the case of average IQ, forexample, the average Negro figure is only85% of the White average. In fact the higher the proportion ofWhite genes the higher the intelligence: a pure-bred Negro freshout of Africa scores nearer 70%. Readers can consult Race by Dr. John R. Baker, former Reader in Cytology at Oxford University, published by the Oxford University Press, or The Testing of Negro Intelligence, an exhaustive review of hundreds of studies demonstrating racial differences in intellectual ability by Dr. Audrey M. Shuey, and of course there is The Bell Curve by Herrnstein and Murray. 11
  • 12. Analysing the NF negro intelligence caseusing argument mapping http://bit.ly/aP4M0P (View in Safari) Red link= challenges Green link= supports Hyperlink to evidence on a website 12
  • 13. 13http://bit.ly/aP4M0P (View in Safari)
  • 14. http://bit.ly/aP4M0P (View in Safari)
  • 15. Refuting the NF negro intelligence argumentusing argument mappinghttp://bit.ly/aP4M0P (View in Safari)
  • 16. Mapping the Iraq pre-emptive strike argument Mapping the ideas, themes and arguments in a complex debate (Iraq) An overview map of pro- invasion authors www.kmi.open.ac.uk/projects/compendium/iraq 16
  • 17. Mapping the Iraq pre-emptive strike argument Detailed argument map of an author’s article www.kmi.open.ac.uk/projects/compendium/iraq 17
  • 18. Teaching Yr 8’s evidence-based scientific deliberation through Dialogue MappingOkada, A. and Buckingham Shum, S. (2008). Evidence-Based Dialogue Maps as a Research Tool to Investigate the Quality of School Pupils’ 18Scientific Argumentation, International Journal of Research and Method in Education, 31(3), pp. 291–315 (Special Issue: Coffin, C. and O’Halloran,K.A, (Eds.) Researching Argumentation in Educational Contexts: New Methods, New Directions). Article PrePrint: http://oro.open.ac.uk/11773
  • 19. 19
  • 20. Once the structure of the argument is clear(even if the answer isn’t) students produce an argumentative text 20
  • 21. Argument Mapping meets Web 2.0 http://cohere.open.ac.ukConvergence of…web annotationsocial bookmarkingconcept mappingstructured debate 21
  • 22. directly annotate any website to serve as evidence in an argument map Highlighted text becomes a new source for an idea, annotated in the margin, which becomes a node in an argument map (private or shared)De Liddo, A., Sándor, Á. and Buckingham Shum, S. (2012, In Press). Contested Collective Intelligence: Rationale, Technologies, and a Human- 22Machine Annotation Study. Computer Supported Cooperative Work. Eprint: http://oro.open.ac.uk/31052
  • 23. — multiple learners/analysts building a mapDe Liddo, A. and Buckingham Shum, S. (2010). Cohere: A prototype for contested collective intelligence. In: ACM Computer Supported Cooperative Work 23(CSCW 2010) - Workshop: Collective Intelligence In Organizations, February 6-10, 2010, Savannah, Georgia, USA. http://oro.open.ac.uk/19554
  • 24. ConnectionNet visualization: 11 Apr 2011After about a month’s work, a set of islands... “This is indicative of the stage Ive got to — I havent seen the other connections yet”
  • 25. ConnectionNet visualization: 31 May 2011A few weeks later, and more connections are visible… “I ve gradually managed to make more connections between different ideas” 25
  • 26. ConnectionNet visualization: 01 June 2011It’s now a complex network of interconnected ideas… “I began looking for ‘nexus points’ by which I mean those ideas/concepts around which there is a cluster of connections ” 26
  • 27. Mapping the Deeper Learning literature‘Learner autonomy emerges as a key idea (strongly connected) “‘Learner autonomy’ represents a variety of overlapping and effective learning practices, and implies the learner can give meaning to learning and create new learning tools” Webcast: http://olnet.org/node/610 27
  • 28. Evidence Hubs: based on Cohere, but tuned for acommunity of inquiry, e.g. the OER movement: ci.olnet.org 28
  • 29. Evidence Hub concept now being generalised to other communities (e.g. Vital) 29
  • 30. LearningEmergence.nethttp://International network of researchers and practitioners working on deeplearning, leadership, complex systems thinking and knowledge media 30
  • 31. Educational FuturesThematic Research Network ork A  new  OU  network  connec-ng  researchers,  prac--oners,  futures  analysts  and  other  stakeholders     to  envision  and  create  be<er  educa-onal  futures  
  • 32. Articles, books, news, movies, software,user/developer community…http://projects.kmi.open.ac.uk/hyperdiscourse Compendium
 Institute 32