Group e


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Group e

  1. 1. Group E<br />By: Cassandra Taraska<br />Samantha Brown <br />Evelyn Sotis<br />Matthew Ledburry<br />Taylor Merloni<br />
  2. 2. DNA<br />DNA- Deoxyribonucleic Acid, DNA is a nucleic acid and is the hereditary material in all humans.  DNA is located in the cell nucleus. It is a double helix formed by the bases and a sugar phosphate backbone. <br />
  3. 3. DNA stores information in a special code using the four types of bases.<br />                        -Thymine<br />                        -Cytosine<br />                        -Adenine<br />                        -Guanine<br />Thymine pairs with Adenine and Cytosine pairs with Guanine.<br /> <br />
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  5. 5. Replication<br />-DNA is replicated during Interphase of the cell cycle.  Interphase is when a cell is prepared to duplicate and copy most of its contents.<br />-Helicase separates the strands of the DNA molecule<br />-When the DNA strand unwinds the bases of nucleotides break apart from eachother<br />DNA Polymerase brings new nucleotides to form pairs with the existing bases.<br />-This creates two DNA molecules.<br />-DNA is replicated so that cells can divide and create new cells.  New cells are used when an organism is growing.<br />
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  7. 7. TRANSCRIPTION and TRANSLATION<br />Bookdefinition- manufacturing a complementary RNA from DNA<br />Literal definition – acquiring information from DNA in order to make proteins by using RNA<br />
  8. 8. STEPS OF TRANSCRIPTION and TRANSLATION <br />Specific DNA sequences outside the actual genes signal the enzyme RNA polymerase to put the nitrogen bases in the right order to make a specific protein and create (messenger RNA) mRNA by pairing the nitrogen bases together.<br /> RNA polymerase where the information begins/ends as well as the correct direction to read the sequence. <br />Once RNA polymerase has attained the code, mRNA is formed and transcription is complete.<br />mRNA carries the gene’s message out of the nucleus through pores to the large and small ribosome’s where the sequence will be decoded to synthesize proteins. (reason- protein synthesis occurs in the cytoplasm and your DNA is found inside the cells nucleus) <br />Codonswhich are sets of three nucleotides of a mRNA molecule corresponding to a particular enzyme, when at the ribosome will be translated from "the language of nucleic acids to the language of amino acids". Translation is complete when this process is complete. <br />
  9. 9. Cont.<br />The codons provide the information as to where the gene starts. The universal start code is AUG. <br />tRNAbrings amino acids together into a polypeptide that will later fold up to be an active protein. <br />Ribosomes attach complementary anticodon sequences of mRNA to RNA to decode the DNA sequences.<br />mRNA travels through the endoplasmic reticulum and is read b the ribosomes.<br /> <br />
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  11. 11. Mitosis<br />A process by which a cell separates the chromosomes into 2 identical sets.<br /> There are 6 steps for this cell division.<br />
  12. 12. Interphase<br />DNA has replicated, but has not formed the condensed structure of chromosome. <br />
  13. 13. Prophase <br />The DNA molecules progressively shorten and condense by coiling, to form chromosomes.<br />
  14. 14. Metaphase<br />The spindle fibres attach themselves to the centromeres of the chromosomes and align the the chromosomes at the equatorial plate.<br />
  15. 15. Anaphase<br />The spindle fibres shorten and the centromere splits, separated sister chromatids are pulled along behind the centromeres.<br />
  16. 16. Telephase<br />The chromosomes reach the poles of their respective spindles. Nuclear envelope reform before the chromosomes uncoil. The spindle fibres disintegrate.<br />
  17. 17. Cytokinasis<br />This is the last stage of mitosis. It is the process of splitting the daughter cells apart. A furrow forms and the cell is pinched in two. Each daughter cell contains the same number and same quality of chromosomes.<br />
  18. 18. Meiosis<br />The process of cell division in sexually reproducing organisms that reduces the number of chromosomes in reproductive cells from diploid to haploid, leading to the production of gametes in animals and spores in plants.<br />There are 2 types – Asexual and Sexual<br />There are 9 steps in Meiosis’s cell division.<br />
  19. 19. Cont. <br />Fertilization - combination of genetic information from two separate cells that have one half the original genetic information. <br />Gametes for fertilization usually come from separate parents <br />Female- produces an egg <br />Male produces sperm<br />Both gametes are haploid, with a single set of chromosomes <br />The new individual is called a zygote, with two sets of chromosomes. <br /> Reproductive<br /> Asexual <br />produces its own<br />plants are asexual, they produce on their own<br />Produces only genetically identical offspring since all divisions are by mitosis.<br />-Sexual <br />  -Formation of new individual by a combination of two haploid sex cells.<br />
  20. 20. Cont.<br />Chromosome/Chromatids: A threadlike linear strand of DNA and associated proteins in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells that carries the genes and functions in the transmission of hereditary information.<br />Kinetochores/centromere: The most condensed and constricted region of a chromosome, to which the spindle fiber is attached during mitosis.<br />Cell Division: The process by which a cell divides to form two daughter cells. Upon completion of the process, each daughter cell contains the same genetic material as the original cell and roughly half of its cytoplasm.<br />
  21. 21. Cell Division <br />In Meiosis there are 2 divisions. <br />The first division has 5 steps and which its consider Mitosis. <br />In Meiosis its called Meiosis 1 <br />And then there's Meiosis 2<br />
  22. 22. Meiosis 2- Prophase 2<br />The nuclear membrane and nuclei break up while the spindle network appears. <br />Chromosomes do not replicate any further in this phase of meiosis.<br />
  23. 23. Meiosis 2 – Metaphase 2<br />The chromosomes line up at the metaphase II plate at the cell's center.<br />The kinetochores of the sister chromatids point toward opposite poles.<br />
  24. 24. Meiosis 2 – Anaphase 2<br />The sister chromatids separate and move toward the opposite cell poles.<br />
  25. 25. Meiosis 2 – Telephase 2<br />Distinct nuclei form at the opposite poles and cytokinesis occurs.<br />At the end of meiosis II, there are four daughter cells each with one half the number of chromosomes of the original parent cell.<br />