Cleanse DietsUBC Students for Science-Based Medicine               UBC SBM
Outline•   What is a cleanse?•   Evidence for cleanses•   Analysis of the claims of cleanses•   Potential Benefits/ Harms•...
Outline•   What is a cleanse?•   Evidence for cleanses•   Analysis of the claims of cleanses•   Potential Benefits/ Harms•...
What is a cleanse?A restrictive, temporary dietary practice(lasting 3 days to a month) that is most oftenclaimed to:  1) e...
Examples – The Juice Cleanse• Variety of practices and timeframes• Based on the idea of eating only raw,  juiced fruits an...
Examples – The Master CleanseExpanded in popularity by Beyonce.Consists of:• No food• Lemon juice mixed with cayenne peppe...
Examples – “Wild Rose Cleanse”• “The Wild Rose Cleanse”• 12 day diet• 4 supplements (that you buy)     including a laxati...
Examples – “Isagenix”• Choice of 30 day or 9 day kit, including:   – “Ionix” Supplements   – “Isalean shake” Protein   –...
Examples – Elimination Diets• Examples:no caffeine, no alcohol,no candy, no fast food• This is just healthy eating• Would ...
Outline•   What is a cleanse?•   Evidence for cleanses•   Analysis of the claims of cleanses•   Potential Benefits/ Harms•...
Evidence for Cleanses• There is no published research• UBC SBM members were unable to find  evidence one way or the other ...
Outline•   What is a cleanse?•   Evidence for cleanses•   Analysis of the claims of cleanses•   Potential Benefits/ Harms•...
Claims made about Cleanses?Many!1. Detoxify your body2. Lose weight3. Remove caked-on fecal material from  your intestines...
1. Detoxify your body• What toxins? – The products almost never identify   the toxins they claim to be   removing. – If do...
1. Detoxify your body• Your body is very  good at getting rid  of toxins – your  liver, kidneys, gut  detoxify for you  al...
1. Detoxify your body• Sometimes the claims do not  make sense. – Wild Rose Cleanse claims to remove a   surplus of acid f...
2. Weight Loss• There is no evidence that cleanses  do or do not help with weight loss.• There are no published studies.• ...
2. Weight Loss: The Cautions1. Water Loss2. Sustainable Weight Loss                 UBC SBM
Caution - Water Loss• Your body balances salt and water• Total Body Water      Total Body Salt                      I lost...
Caution - Water Loss• Many of the cleanse products also act as  laxatives (even ones that claim they don’t!)• Laxatives al...
Caution - Sustainable Weight Loss     • Weight Gain and Weight Loss are about       your Calorie balance (calorie intake v...
Advice from the Dieticians of              CanadaA healthy weight loss program includes:1. Losing no more than 2 pounds pe...
3. Remove caked on fecal matter      from your intestines• Claim – You have up to 10 lb of old  fecal matter caked onto th...
3. Remove caked on fecal matter      from your intestines    Fluid               Movement through your  Semi-Fluid        ...
4. Revitalize your immune system• Cleanse makers claim the cleanses will  revitalize your immune system• There is no scien...
Outline•   What is a cleanse?•   Evidence for cleanses•   Analysis of the claims of cleanses•   Potential Benefits/ Harms•...
Potential Benefits• Potential weight loss (besides water  loss). No evidence either way.• Help you to start thinking about...
Potential HarmIf it hurts... It’s working? The “Healing crisis”                   UBC SBM
Potential Harm• Promotion of diarrhea  – There is a wide variation on the normal range    for how often you have a bowel m...
Potential Harm• Can make you feel awful – “healing  crisis” - and potentially keep you from  exercising during the cleanse...
Outline•   What is a cleanse?•   Evidence for cleanses•   Analysis of the claims of cleanses•   Potential Benefits/ Harms•...
How to Investigate a New Product• Who exactly should I believe?  –Canadian citizens today are   bombarded with advertiseme...
Investigating what you see on the       Internet: Credentials• Came across the “Provincial Flower  Cleanse” while preparin...
Investigating what you see on the       Internet: Credentials• PhD - Clinical  Herbalist• But from where?• It doesn’t say ...
Investigating what you see on the       internet: Credentials    Finding his PhD……              UBC SBM
Investigating what you see on the       internet: Credentials• Columbia Pacific University:• Has been closed down since 20...
Investigating what you see on the       internet: Credentials  http://www.americanlawreview.com/diploma_mill.html         ...
Investigating what you see on the              internetWatch out for:  – Questionable credentials  – No published research...
Take Away Messages• This presentation does not aim to promote or  discredit any specific product• Dozens advertised on the...
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Cleanse Diets

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  • This is not actually very straightforward. I have heard cleanses used to refer to any number of diets these days. But I’m going to go with the most common definition. I’m going to give you a few examples.
  • Intestinal blockage is serious. You will know something is wrong, and you should go to your doctor or the hospital if this happens to you.
  • Terry Willard is selling 10,000 wild rose cleanse kits per month at $30 a kit (http://www.albertaviews.ab.ca/2012/05/08/the-urge-to-purge-2/)
  • Cleanse Diets

    1. 1. Cleanse DietsUBC Students for Science-Based Medicine UBC SBM
    2. 2. Outline• What is a cleanse?• Evidence for cleanses• Analysis of the claims of cleanses• Potential Benefits/ Harms• How to investigate a new product UBC SBM
    3. 3. Outline• What is a cleanse?• Evidence for cleanses• Analysis of the claims of cleanses• Potential Benefits/ Harms• How to investigate a new product UBC SBM
    4. 4. What is a cleanse?A restrictive, temporary dietary practice(lasting 3 days to a month) that is most oftenclaimed to: 1) eliminate toxins from the body 2) help weight loss UBC SBM
    5. 5. Examples – The Juice Cleanse• Variety of practices and timeframes• Based on the idea of eating only raw, juiced fruits and vegetables• Example: “Fruit Flush”: any raw fruits juiced for 3 days Claim: you’ll lose 9 lb UBC SBM
    6. 6. Examples – The Master CleanseExpanded in popularity by Beyonce.Consists of:• No food• Lemon juice mixed with cayenne pepper,maple syrup, water – as much as you want• Laxative or “salt water flush” every morning• Duration:10 days or more UBC SBM
    7. 7. Examples – “Wild Rose Cleanse”• “The Wild Rose Cleanse”• 12 day diet• 4 supplements (that you buy) including a laxative• Restricted food intake:• Not allowed: flour, sugar, alcohol, meat, peanuts, grapes, mushrooms, tropical fruit• Allowed: vegetables, most fruit, fish, some nuts UBC SBM
    8. 8. Examples – “Isagenix”• Choice of 30 day or 9 day kit, including: – “Ionix” Supplements – “Isalean shake” Protein – “Cleanse for life” Supplements – “Accelerator” “Stimulates the body without stimulants”. (Ginseng is a stimulant) – “Isaflush” “Not a laxative”. (Magnesium is a laxative) UBC SBM
    9. 9. Examples – Elimination Diets• Examples:no caffeine, no alcohol,no candy, no fast food• This is just healthy eating• Would be recommended by virtually any health professional UBC SBM
    10. 10. Outline• What is a cleanse?• Evidence for cleanses• Analysis of the claims of cleanses• Potential Benefits/ Harms• How to investigate a new product UBC SBM
    11. 11. Evidence for Cleanses• There is no published research• UBC SBM members were unable to find evidence one way or the other to back up any of the claims made ??? UBC SBM
    12. 12. Outline• What is a cleanse?• Evidence for cleanses• Analysis of the claims of cleanses• Potential Benefits/ Harms• How to investigate a new product UBC SBM
    13. 13. Claims made about Cleanses?Many!1. Detoxify your body2. Lose weight3. Remove caked-on fecal material from your intestines4. Revitalize your immune system UBC SBM
    14. 14. 1. Detoxify your body• What toxins? – The products almost never identify the toxins they claim to be removing. – If do not know what the toxin is, you cannot know that you’re removing it. UBC SBM
    15. 15. 1. Detoxify your body• Your body is very good at getting rid of toxins – your liver, kidneys, gut detoxify for you all the time! UBC SBM
    16. 16. 1. Detoxify your body• Sometimes the claims do not make sense. – Wild Rose Cleanse claims to remove a surplus of acid from your body, HOWEVER: • Your body carefully controls its acid-base balance• One of the things that can cause you to be“acidic” is severe diarrhea • The Wild Rose cleanse causes diarrhea! UBC SBM
    17. 17. 2. Weight Loss• There is no evidence that cleanses do or do not help with weight loss.• There are no published studies.• Websites that make this claim have no evidence to back up the claim. UBC SBM
    18. 18. 2. Weight Loss: The Cautions1. Water Loss2. Sustainable Weight Loss UBC SBM
    19. 19. Caution - Water Loss• Your body balances salt and water• Total Body Water Total Body Salt I lost 1 kg!!!! 60 kg 59 kg 60 kg 30 kg water 29 kg water 30 kg water 3g salt/day Cleanse Diet Kidneys has WAY Adjust to new less salt Salt Intake UBC SBM Boron and Boulpaep. Medical Physiology. “Integration of Salt and Water Balance”. 2005. p.862
    20. 20. Caution - Water Loss• Many of the cleanse products also act as laxatives (even ones that claim they don’t!)• Laxatives also cause you to lose water; they dehydrate you I lost 1 kg!!!! 59 kg 29 kg water UBC SBM
    21. 21. Caution - Sustainable Weight Loss • Weight Gain and Weight Loss are about your Calorie balance (calorie intake versus calories burned) • If you return to a diet that has a Calorie excess after your cleanse you will just gain the weight back! • 1/3 to 2/3 of dieters gain MORE weight than they lost after they go off the diet 1 UBC SBM1. Medicare’s Search for Effective Obesity Treatments: Diets are not the Answer. American Psychologist. 2007. 62(3): p. 220-233.
    22. 22. Advice from the Dieticians of CanadaA healthy weight loss program includes:1. Losing no more than 2 pounds per week2. A balanced diet from all four food groups (including vegetables, fruits, whole grains, low fat dairy, protein sources, and healthy fats)3. Regular exercise4. A maintenance phase after the initial weight loss phase!http://www.dietitians.ca/Nutrition-Resources-A-Z/Factsheets/Weight-Loss-and- Control/Guidelines-for-Choosing-a-Weight-Loss-Program.aspx UBC SBM
    23. 23. 3. Remove caked on fecal matter from your intestines• Claim – You have up to 10 lb of old fecal matter caked onto the wall of your intestines that needs to be flushed out – There is no scientific basis for this UBC SBM
    24. 24. 3. Remove caked on fecal matter from your intestines Fluid Movement through your Semi-Fluid intestinal tract is Mush continuous. Constipation is caused by feces Semi-Solid becoming solid too soon in the intestine (not caked on Solid feces). UBC SBM
    25. 25. 4. Revitalize your immune system• Cleanse makers claim the cleanses will revitalize your immune system• There is no scientific evidence for this• The best way to make sure your immune system is healthy is to maintain a healthy life style (nutritious food, exercise, healthy weight, don’t smoke)http://www.health.harvard.edu/flu-resource-center/how-to-boost-your-immune-system.htm UBC SBM
    26. 26. Outline• What is a cleanse?• Evidence for cleanses• Analysis of the claims of cleanses• Potential Benefits/ Harms• How to investigate a new product UBC SBM
    27. 27. Potential Benefits• Potential weight loss (besides water loss). No evidence either way.• Help you to start thinking about your diet and your nutrition• Eliminating junk food and alcohol from your diet UBC SBM
    28. 28. Potential HarmIf it hurts... It’s working? The “Healing crisis” UBC SBM
    29. 29. Potential Harm• Promotion of diarrhea – There is a wide variation on the normal range for how often you have a bowel movement – There are some medical reasons to be on laxatives – If are wondering if you need a laxative, you should talk to your doctor UBC SBM
    30. 30. Potential Harm• Can make you feel awful – “healing crisis” - and potentially keep you from exercising during the cleanse• Could cause serious harm to those who are diabetic, have heart disease, have kidney disease, or are pregnant• Muscle breakdown, nutritional deficiencies...• $$$$ UBC SBM
    31. 31. Outline• What is a cleanse?• Evidence for cleanses• Analysis of the claims of cleanses• Potential Benefits/ Harms• How to investigate a new product UBC SBM
    32. 32. How to Investigate a New Product• Who exactly should I believe? –Canadian citizens today are bombarded with advertisements UBC SBM
    33. 33. Investigating what you see on the Internet: Credentials• Came across the “Provincial Flower Cleanse” while preparing for this talk• The inventor of the cleanse attaches the title “PhD in Clinical Herbalism” to his name UBC SBM
    34. 34. Investigating what you see on the Internet: Credentials• PhD - Clinical Herbalist• But from where?• It doesn’t say anywhere on the website UBC SBM
    35. 35. Investigating what you see on the internet: Credentials Finding his PhD…… UBC SBM
    36. 36. Investigating what you see on the internet: Credentials• Columbia Pacific University:• Has been closed down since 2000 for offering online bachelorette to doctoral degrees that are not compliant with educational standards• Has been ordered to refund tuition to all students who received a degree 1997-2000 UBC SBM
    37. 37. Investigating what you see on the internet: Credentials http://www.americanlawreview.com/diploma_mill.html UBC SBM
    38. 38. Investigating what you see on the internetWatch out for: – Questionable credentials – No published research – Use of “success stories” as evidence – Claims of no side effects – Claims of “Something for Nothing” ex: stimulate without stimulants – Claims to treat serious diseases like cancer, asthma, or HIV. This is illegal! UBC SBM
    39. 39. Take Away Messages• This presentation does not aim to promote or discredit any specific product• Dozens advertised on the web, many cost $$ $, and they may have side effects• Be sceptical of what people are trying to tell you, especially if they are selling it!!!!• And these days – google them!• You deserve to know what you are paying for UBC SBM

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