Using Source MaterialEffectively and Responsibly
What Is Plagiarism? Definition: Using another person’s ideas or words without giving proper credit by citing Different cultures view intellectual property in different ways In the U.S., especially in academics, journalism, etc., plagiarism is viewed very negatively
What Can Happen If I Get Caught Plagiarizing? You will be reported to the Dean of Students who will investigate the issue Failure of Assignment Failure of Class Suspension or Expulsion Loss of your own ethos
What Counts as Plagiarism? An entire essay written by someone else, including those bought online, shared by a friend, etc. “Cutting and pasting” from the internet or copying from a print source - using whole paragraphs, sentences, phrases written by someone else Paraphrasing without providing a citation
What Counts as Plagiarism? A paraphrase that is too close to the original source Not using quotation marks and an in-text, parenthetical citation for direct quotes Misquoting someone Giving credit for a quote or idea to the wrong person/ source Not including enough citation information so the reader can find the original source
What Needs to Be Cited? Direct Quotations Facts Not Widely Known Arguable Statements Judgments, Opinions, Claims of Others Images, Statistics, Charts, Tables, Graphs, Numbers Results of Studies Collaboration with Others
What Does Not Need to Be Cited? Common Knowledge Facts Available from a Wide Variety of Sources Your Own Findings from Field Research
Direct Quotes People own both their original ideas AND the expression of those ideas, the way those ideas are written down. You MUST use quotation marks to indicate a direct quote, even if the information in the quote is “common knowledge” as well as provide a parenthetical citation. A direct quote is 3 or more words in a row taken directly from the source (does not include terms that are more than 3 words, such as “The United States of America.”)
Paraphrasing or Summarizing If information that needs to be cited (the results of a study, for example) is put into your own words, that is called paraphrasing or summarizing, and you do not need to use quotation marks. However, you DO need to include a parenthetical citation.
Tips for Avoiding Plagiarism Let the sources support YOUR ideas, instead of the other way around Make sure you completely understand what the source is saying Take notes from the sources, extracting only the essential information If you must copy an entire sentence, put it in quotation marks immediately and be sure to copy it exactly as it appears in the original source Indicate in your notes which source the information came from (author, title, page number)
Summarizing This is when you write the main idea of the source in your own words.
Paraphrasing This is when you include the details and examples of the original source, but rewrite them in your own words and sentence structures Be careful not to change the meaning intended by the author Be sure to cite with a parenthetical citation
Direct Quotes This is when you copy the exact words of the author. You need to include quotation marks around the quoted words AND a parenthetical citation
When to Use Direct Quotes If the quote can not be paraphrased effectively If the author said it “just right” If it is a specific definition If quoting the author (say, your interviewees) can help your ethos
How to Use Direct Quotes Effectively Make the quote as short as possible Only include the elements you need; you often do not need to include the whole sentence Introduce the quote with your own language Be sure to include a parenthetical citation with author’s last name, year, and page number For quotes over 40 words long, use the block quote format (on Purdue OWL, under “In-text Citations: The Basics,” entry “Long Quotations”)
Avoid “Floating Quotes” Do not just drop a quote into your paper You should ALWAYS introduce the quote with your own words Oftentimes, you will need to explain or interpret the quote for your audience, explaining how it supports your points
Use Signal Phrases Best to use when you know the author’s name Always use the author’s full name the first time you use it; then, use only the last name each time afterwards Make sure to use a verb that accurately describes what the author is doing in the quote In academic writing, the signal phrase usually comes at the beginning of the sentence In APA style, verbs in a signal phrase should be in the past tense (-ed)
Example Signal Phrases Smith (2008) noted Jones (2010) asserted Gomez (2011) contended Baker (2009) suggested You can often use a “that” after the verb: Smith (2008) noted that “poverty is a global problem” (p. 28).
Introduce Quotes with a Whole Sentence Another way to introduce quotes is with an entire sentence of your own, followed by a colon (:) A number of side effects make HIV especially painful: “fatigue, nausea, and dehydration can cause patients with HIV considerable pain and discomfort” (Smith, 2008, p. 12).
Integrating Quotes into Your Own Sentence You can add or change words in the quote that help to make the sentence grammatically correct or to clarify pronouns, but do not make changes that change the meaning of the quote. Use brackets [ ] around words that are added or changed in any way
Examples Original Quote: “They often suffer from dehydration as a result of their disease” (Smith, 2008, p. 12). Your sentence: Smith (2008) pointed out that “[children with HIV] often suffer from dehydration as a result of their disease” (p. 12). Original Quote: “The problem is that HIV causes many serious side effects” (Smith, 2008, p. 12). Your sentence: HIV can “[cause] many negative side effects” (Smith, 2008, p. 12).
Integrating Quotes into Your Own Sentence You can also omit words that are unnecessary, but do not take out words that are important to the meaning of the quote Use ellipses (three periods in a row . . .) to indicate space where words have been omitted
Example Original Quote: “Dehydration, or a severe depletion of fluids in the human body, is one serious side effect of HIV” (Smith, 2008, p. 12) Your Sentence: Smith (2008) explained that “dehydration . . . is one serious side effect of HIV” (p. 12).
Using Sources Summary Avoid plagiarism and its negative consequences Remember what does and does not need to be cited Direct Quotes are 3 or more words in a row taken directly from a source and need both quotation marks and a parenthetical citation Be sure paraphrases are different enough from the original You can change or omit words from a quote, but be sure not to change the meaning of the quote Use signal phrases to introduce quotes