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The Earth’s Structure
The Earth’s Structure
The Earth’s Structure
The Earth’s Structure
The Earth’s Structure
The Earth’s Structure
The Earth’s Structure
The Earth’s Structure
The Earth’s Structure
The Earth’s Structure
The Earth’s Structure
The Earth’s Structure
The Earth’s Structure
The Earth’s Structure
The Earth’s Structure
The Earth’s Structure
The Earth’s Structure
The Earth’s Structure
The Earth’s Structure
The Earth’s Structure
The Earth’s Structure
The Earth’s Structure
The Earth’s Structure
The Earth’s Structure
The Earth’s Structure
The Earth’s Structure
The Earth’s Structure
The Earth’s Structure
The Earth’s Structure
The Earth’s Structure
The Earth’s Structure
The Earth’s Structure
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The Earth’s Structure

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Chemistry revision for AQA Core science Chemicstry !B

Chemistry revision for AQA Core science Chemicstry !B

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  • 1. The earth’s structure<br />
  • 2. The Earth has a layered structure. <br />Large-scale movements of the Earth’s crust can cause changes in the rocks. <br />The Earth’s atmosphere was originally very different from what it is today. It has been much the same for the last 200 million years and provides the conditions needed for life on Earth.<br />Recently human activities have produced further changes.<br />
  • 3. Aims<br />to explain why the theory of crustal movement (continental drift) was not generally accepted for many years after it was proposed<br />to explain why scientists cannot accurately predict when earthquakes and volcanic eruptions will occur<br />to explain and evaluate theories of the changes that have occurred and are occurring in the Earth’s atmosphere<br />to explain and evaluate the effects of human activities on the atmosphere.<br />
  • 4. • The Earth consists of a core, mantle and crust.<br />
  • 5. • Scientists once thought that the features of the Earth’s surface were the result of the shrinking of the crust as the Earth cooled down following its formation.<br />
  • 6. • The Earth’s crust and the upper part of the mantle are cracked into a number of large pieces (tectonic plates). Convection currents within the Earth’s mantle, driven by heat released by natural radioactive processes, cause the plates to move at relative speeds of a few centimetres per year. <br />
  • 7. Alfred Wegener’s theory of continental drift<br /><ul><li>Similar fossils and plants on opposite sides of the oceans
  • 8. Pieces fitted together like jigsaw
  • 9. Matching layers in the rocks of the different continents
  • 10. Fossils of tropical animals in arctic regions</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>His idea: one large supercontinent, he called Pangea.
  • 11. Broke into chunks and slowly drifted apart</li></li></ul><li>Why wasn’t the theory of crustal movement (continental drift) not generally accepted for many years after it was proposed?<br /><ul><li>The idea of ‘drifting’ wasn’t very convincing
  • 12. Wegener thought the continents were ploughing through the ocean causing tidal forces – other geologists said this was impossible
  • 13. Wegener used inaccurate data in his calculations – some of his predictions were rather wild
  • 14. In the 1950s ocean floor investigations found evidence to support Wegener’s theory.
  • 15. By the 1960s geologists were convinced – though Wegener wasn’t right about everything!</li></li></ul><li>• The movements can be sudden and disastrous. Earthquakes and/or volcanic eruptions occur at the boundaries between tectonic plates.<br />
  • 16. • For 200 million years, the proportions of different gases in the atmosphere have been much the same as they are today:<br />− about four-fifths (78%) nitrogen<br />− about one-fifth (21%) oxygen<br />− small proportions of various other gases, including <br /> carbon dioxide, water vapour and noble gases.<br />
  • 17. • The noble gases are in Group 0 of the periodic table. They are all chemically unreactive gases and are used in filament lamps and electric discharge tubes. Helium is much less dense than air and is used in balloons.<br />
  • 18. • During the first billion years of the Earth’s existence there was intense volcanic activity. This activity released the gases that formed the early atmosphere and water vapour that condensed to form the oceans.<br />
  • 19. <ul><li> Some theories suggest that during this period, the Earth’s atmosphere was mainly carbon dioxide and there would have been little or no oxygen gas (like the atmospheres of Mars and Venus today). There may also have been water vapour and small proportions of methane and ammonia.</li></li></ul><li>• Plants produced the oxygen that is now in the atmosphere.<br />
  • 20. • Most of the carbon from the carbon dioxide in the air gradually became locked up in sedimentary rocks as carbonates and fossil fuels.<br />
  • 21. • Nowadays the release of carbon dioxide by burning fossil fuels increases the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere<br />
  • 22.
  • 23. • The Earth consists of a _______, _______and _______.<br />
  • 24. • Scientists once thought that the features of the Earth’s surface were the result of the shrinking of the crust as the Earth cooled down following its formation.<br />
  • 25. • The Earth’s crust and the upper part of the mantle are cracked into a number of large pieces (_________). Convection currents within the Earth’s mantle, driven by heat released by natural radioactive processes, cause the plates to move at relative speeds of a few _________ per ________. <br />
  • 26. Alfred Wegener’s theory of continental drift<br /><ul><li>Similar _______ and ______ on opposite sides of the oceans
  • 27. Pieces fitted together like ________
  • 28. Matching ________ in the rocks of the different _________
  • 29. ________ of _______ animals in arctic regions</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>His idea: one large __________, he called ________.
  • 30. Broke into _______ and slowly ___________ .</li></li></ul><li>Why wasn’t the theory of crustal movement (continental drift) not generally accepted for many years after it was proposed?<br /><ul><li>The idea of ‘________’ wasn’t very convincing
  • 31. Wegener thought the continents were ploughing through the ocean causing ________– other geologists said this was ________
  • 32. Wegener used ___________in his calculations – some of his predictions were rather wild
  • 33. In the 1950s __________________found evidence to support Wegener’s theory.
  • 34. By the _______ geologists were convinced – though Wegener wasn’t right about everything!</li></li></ul><li>• The movements can be sudden and disastrous. ________ and/or __________occur at the boundaries between __________.<br />
  • 35. • For _______years, the proportions of different gases in the atmosphere have been much the same as they are today:<br />− about ________ (____%) nitrogen<br />− about _________(____%) oxygen<br />− small proportions of various other gases, including ___________, _________ and ______ gases.<br />
  • 36. • The _______are in Group __ of the periodic table. They are all chemically ________ gases and are used in _________ and _______tubes. ______ is much less dense than air and is used in _________.<br />
  • 37. • During the first billion years of the Earth’s existence there was intense _____ activity. This activity released the gases that formed the early atmosphere and water vapour that condensed to form the ________.<br />
  • 38. <ul><li> Some theories suggest that during this period, the Earth’s atmosphere was mainly ________and there would have been little or no _______ gas (like the atmospheres of Mars and Venus today). There may also have been ________and small proportions of ________ and ________ .</li></li></ul><li>• Plants produced the ________ that is now in the atmosphere.<br />
  • 39. • Most of the carbon from the _________in the air gradually became locked up in sedimentary ______ as carbonates and ________.<br />
  • 40. • Nowadays the release of _________by burning _________ increases the level of _________ in the atmosphere<br />

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