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Gcse science a physics electricity
Gcse science a physics electricity
Gcse science a physics electricity
Gcse science a physics electricity
Gcse science a physics electricity
Gcse science a physics electricity
Gcse science a physics electricity
Gcse science a physics electricity
Gcse science a physics electricity
Gcse science a physics electricity
Gcse science a physics electricity
Gcse science a physics electricity
Gcse science a physics electricity
Gcse science a physics electricity
Gcse science a physics electricity
Gcse science a physics electricity
Gcse science a physics electricity
Gcse science a physics electricity
Gcse science a physics electricity
Gcse science a physics electricity
Gcse science a physics electricity
Gcse science a physics electricity
Gcse science a physics electricity
Gcse science a physics electricity
Gcse science a physics electricity
Gcse science a physics electricity
Gcse science a physics electricity
Gcse science a physics electricity
Gcse science a physics electricity
Gcse science a physics electricity
Gcse science a physics electricity
Gcse science a physics electricity
Gcse science a physics electricity
Gcse science a physics electricity
Gcse science a physics electricity
Gcse science a physics electricity
Gcse science a physics electricity
Gcse science a physics electricity
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Gcse science a physics electricity

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  • 1. P1.4 Methods we use togenerate electricityAQA GCSE Science A
  • 2. Various energy sources can be used togenerate the electricity we need. We mustcarefully consider the advantages anddisadvantages of using each energy sourcebefore deciding which energy source(s) itwould be best to use in any particularsituation.Electricity is distributed via the NationalGrid.
  • 3. Candidates should use their skills, knowledge andunderstanding to:■ evaluate different methods of generatingelectricity■ evaluate ways of matching supply withdemand, either by increasing supply or decreasingdemand■ compare the advantages and disadvantages ofoverhead power lines and underground cables.
  • 4. P1.4.1 Generating electricitya) In some power stations an energy source is usedto heat water. The steam produced drives a turbinethat is coupled to an electrical generator.Energy sources include:■ the fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas) which areburned to heat water or air■ uranium and plutonium, when energy fromnuclear fission is used to heat water■ biofuels that can be burned to heat water.
  • 5. b) Water and wind can be used to driveturbines directly.P1.4.1 Generating electricity
  • 6. c) Electricity can be produced directly from theSun’s radiation.P1.4.1 Generating electricity
  • 7. d) In some volcanic areas hot water and steamrise to the surface. The steam can be tappedand used to drive turbines. This is known asgeothermal energy.P1.4.1 Generating electricity
  • 8. e) Small-scale production of electricity may beuseful in some areas and for some uses, eghydroelectricity in remote areas and solar cellsfor roadside signs.P1.4.1 Generating electricity
  • 9. f) Using different energy resources hasdifferent effects on the environment. Theseeffects include:• the release of substances into the atmosphere• the production of waste materials• noise and visual pollution• the destruction of wildlife habitats.P1.4.1 Generating electricity
  • 10. P1.4.2 The National Grida) Electricity is distributed from power stationsto consumers along the National Grid.
  • 11. There are four main stages:the fuel is burned to boil water to make steamthe steam makes a turbine spinthe spinning turbine turns a generator which produces electricitythe electricity goes to the transformers to produce the correctvoltage
  • 12. P1.4.2 The National Gridb) For a given power, increasing the voltagereduces the current required and this reduces theenergy losses in the cables.
  • 13. P1.4.2 The National Gridc) The uses of step-up and step-downtransformers in the National Grid.A transformer is an electrical device that changesthe voltage of an alternating current (ac)supply, such as the mains electrical supply. Atransformer changes a high-voltage supply into alow-voltage one, or vice versa.A transformer that increases the voltage is calleda step-up transformer.A transformer that decreases the voltage is calleda step-down transformer.
  • 14. 1. Why are coal, oil and natural gas non-renewable resources?A They contain carbon compounds.B They cannot be replaced, except overmillions of years.C Once used, they cannot be used again.
  • 15. 1. Why are coal, oil and natural gas non-renewable resources?AB They cannot be replaced, except overmillions of years.C
  • 16. 2. For a given amount of energyreleased, which fuel releases the mostcarbon dioxide?A CoalB OilC Natural gas
  • 17. 2. For a given amount of energyreleased, which fuel releases the mostcarbon dioxide?A CoalBC
  • 18. 3. Which type of power station takes theleast time to start up?A Gas-fired power stationB Nuclear power stationC Coal-fired power station
  • 19. 3. Which type of power station takes theleast time to start up?A Gas-fired power stationBC
  • 20. 4. What problem does sulfur dioxide cause?A It contributes to global warming.B It harms the ozone layer.C It contributes to acid rain.
  • 21. 4. What problem does sulfur dioxide cause?ABC It contributes to acid rain.
  • 22. 5. Why are uranium and plutonium used asnuclear fuels?A They are metals.B They release a lot of heat when they burn.C They are radioactive.
  • 23. 5. Why are uranium and plutonium used asnuclear fuels?ABC They are radioactive.
  • 24. 6. Which of the following is an advantage ofnuclear fuels?A They are renewable energy resources.B They do not emit harmful radiation.C They do not produce greenhouse gases.
  • 25. 6. Which of the following is an advantage ofnuclear fuels?ABC They do not produce greenhouse gases.
  • 26. 7. Which of the following is a disadvantage ofwind farms?A They use a renewable energy resource.B They are noisy and unsightly.C They do not produce electricity at night.
  • 27. 7. Which of the following is a disadvantage ofwind farms?AB They are noisy and unsightly.C
  • 28. 8. Which of the following is a disadvantage ofhydroelectric power produced by using a dam?A The power station only works when the tide comesin.B River valleys and farmland are flooded by the dam.C The power station only works on rainy days.
  • 29. 8. Which of the following is a disadvantage ofhydroelectric power produced by using a dam?AB River valleys and farmland are flooded by the dam.C
  • 30. 9. Where does the heat energy for geothermalenergy resources come from?A From radioactive decay in rocksB From hot water and steam in the power stationC From the Sun warming the ground
  • 31. 9. Where does the heat energy for geothermalenergy resources come from?A From radioactive decay in rocksBC
  • 32. 9. Where does the heat energy for geothermalenergy resources come from?A From radioactive decay in rocksB From hot water and steam in the power stationC From the Sun warming the ground
  • 33. 10. Which of the following is a disadvantage ofsolar cells?A They can supply electricity in remote areas.B They do not produce electricity at night.C They need complex moving parts.
  • 34. 10. Which of the following is a disadvantage ofsolar cells?AB They do not produce electricity at night.C
  • 35. Label and identify parts of the nationalgridWhy are transformers an important partof the national grid?

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