The Reversal Of The College GenderPresentation Transcript
The Homecoming of American College Women: 06/01/09
Unraveling the Knot of Privilege, Power, and Difference Allan G. Johnson, PhD
Proportion of 18-to-24-Year-Old Men and Women Enrolled in College, 1967-2005 06/01/09 Source: U.S. Census Bureau.
U.S. College Enrollment Rates by Race and Ethnicity, 2005 06/01/09 Note: Data reflect persons ages 18-24 enrolled in college, graduate, or professional school. Source: U.S. Census Bureau.
The Transylvanian Gender Gap 06/01/09
The Three Sections of this article….
Discussion regarding the historical and comparative evidence.
Explanation of how we got to where we are.
Attempt to understand the trends.
Historical and Comparative Evidence 06/01/09
Parity in the 1900 - 1930 06/01/09
Widening the Gap 1930– 1950 06/01/09
THE REVERSAL 06/01/09
We know where we stand, but do we know why?
Unequal College Preparation
Girls achieve higher grades in high school
Girls have widen their lead in Reading and lessened the gap in Math
Girls are now taking as many science and math courses.
Expansion of proximate variable analysis
High school rank
Aptitude measured from standardized tests
High school courses
“Whereas almost none of the gender gap
favoring males could be explained for the
1957 and 1972 graduating classes, about
40 percent of the female advantage can be
explained through the combined impacts
of test scores, grades, and courses in
1992.” – page 144
Understanding the Trends: Cost Benefit Analysis of attending college 06/01/09
Outlay for College
Labor market return
Health and Parenting Skills
Marriage Market return
Three Factors that differ by sex and can help explain the gap…
Expectations of future labor force participation
Age at first marriage
Behavior issues at young ages
Why did expectations change?
Increase in labor participation
Increase into previously male-dominated fields.
Ability to “plan” future due to birth control
Increased payoff for college degree
Higher divorce rates and greater financial responsibility for children
Why have boys not responded?
Lower nonpecuniary (effort) costs for girls:
Higher instance of behavioral problems.
2 to 3 times the rate of ADHD
Spend fewer hours doing homework
Higher arrests and school suspension
Later maturity and higher rate of impatience
Now lets return to Allan Johnson….
Examining Pay Equity….
The Crossover in Female-Male College Enrollment Rates By Mark Mather and Dia Adams Population Reference Bureau
“ In 2005, the median weekly earnings for women
working full-time were $585, compared with $722
for men.6 Part of this difference reflects the
higher concentration of men in higher-paying
fields, including the natural and physical
sciences, mathematics, and engineering . At the
college level, fewer women than men take
courses in science-related fields.
The U.S. economy can benefit greatly from women’s
educational gains, but only if women are working in
occupations that can use their specialized knowledge and
I’m Jonathan Rauch… and I think Allan Johnson is an idiot! WHAT?!
The Coming American Matriarchy
“Projections by the National Center for Education Statistics show a 22 percent increase in female college enrollment between 2005 and 2016, compared with only a 10 percent increase for men.”
“As the grandparents die off, every year the country’s college-educated population will become more feminized.”
“ A globalized labor market will cause a continuing rise in the relative premium commanded by a college diploma.”
“ A third of today’s college-bound 12 year-old girls to ‘settle’ for a mate without a university diploma.”
Psychological and emotional adjustments
06/01/09 “ No, men are not about to disappear into underclass status. They will not become mothers anytime soon, and they will not stop secreting testosterone. Men's ambition will ensure ample male representation at the very top of the social order, where CEOs, senators, Nobelists, and software wunderkinds dwell. Women will not rule men. But they will lead. Think about this: Not only do girls study harder and get better grades than boys; high school girls now take more math and science than do high school boys. If there is a "weaker sex," it isn't female.”