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  • 1. Grammar Activities That Really Grab Em © Sarah Glasscock, Scholastic Teaching Resources That Really Grades 3–5 SARAH GLASSCOCK SARAH GLASSCOCK New York  •  Toronto  •  London  •  Auckland  •  Sydney Mexico City  •  New Delhi  •  Hong Kong  •  Buenos Aires
  • 2. Grammar Activities That Really Grab Em © Sarah Glasscock, Scholastic Teaching ResourcesScholastic Inc. grants teachers permission to photocopy the reproducible pages from this book for classroom use. No other part of thispublication may be reproduced in whole or in part, or stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic,mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without written permission of the publisher. For information regarding permission,write to Scholastic Inc., 557 Broadway, New York, NY 10012.Editor: Sarah LonghiCopy editor: Jeannie HutchinsCover design: Maria LiljaInterior design: Melinda BelterISBN-13: 978-0-545-11265-9ISBN-10: 0-545-11265-6Copyright © 2009 by Sarah Glasscock.All rights reserved. Published by Scholastic.Printed in the U.S.A.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 40 16 15 14 13 12 11 10
  • 3. Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 All About Nouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 All About Pronouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 All About Verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17Grammar Activities That Really Grab Em © Sarah Glasscock, Scholastic Teaching Resources All About Adjectives and Adverbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 All About Prepositions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 All About Singular and Plural Nouns and Verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 All About Subjects and Predicates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 All About Phrases and Clauses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 All About Elaboration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 All About Sentences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
  • 4. IntroductionIt can be hard to convince students that grammar is a living, breathing thing that reflectsnot only the history of our language but also how language and its rules change in ourcontemporary lives. For example, today we try to use language more precisely to reflect thechanges in our society by replacing policeman or fireman with police officer or firefighter. (We’restill grappling with the wordiness of pairing everyone with the possessive pronouns his andher.) Grammar is simply a set of rules that helps us write and speak clearly so that others canunderstand what we mean. The aim of this book is to present an overview of major topics thatwill give your students tools to become better writers and speakers.How to Use This BookThe book contains a mini-lesson for ten important grammar topics: Grammar Activities That Really Grab Em © Sarah Glasscock, Scholastic Teaching Resources • Nouns • Singular and Plural Nouns and Verbs • Pronouns • Subjects and Predicates • Verbs • Phrases and Clauses • Adjectives and Adverbs • Elaboration • Prepositions • SentencesEach mini-lesson contains the following elements to support your teaching: 4 A teaching page that focuses on introducing and defining the topic, teaching it in conjunction with a model passage, and applying it. A quote related to the topic begins each lesson and can be used as a springboard for introducing, discussing, or applying the grammar topic. 4 A short model passage that shows important aspects of the grammar topic in action. You may want to display the passage onscreen to introduce or review the featured grammar points. Students can also keep this page in their notebooks or writing portfolios to guide them in their own writing. 4 Two writing prompts that encourage students to write and share their work. You can photocopy the prompts on card stock and then cut them apart for students, write the prompts on the board, or display them onscreen. With the Rest of the Class tips help students extend their thinking by sharing their work with their peers. 4 Three activities for the whole class, small group, pairs, or individuals that give students hands-on practice with the grammar topic. These activities require minimal preparation and appeal to a variety of learning styles; for example, students may play games, chant, or write ads and plays. Use the discussion tip With the Class to invite students to discuss the topic further. 4 A reproducible activity sheet that goes with the activity featured in the Apply section of each teaching page. You’ll find some overlapping of topics. It’s impossible, for example, to talk about subjects andpredicates without talking about nouns, pronouns, and verbs, and it’s impossible to talk aboutsentences without talking about all the other grammar topics in the book. Immerse your students in an overview of each grammar topic or dive more deeply into oneaspect. I hope this book encourages your students to see the powerful effect that grammar hason our words—and the effect we all have on our language. 4
  • 5. All About Nouns ] The adjective hasn’t been built that can pull a weak or inaccurate noun out of a tight place. —William Strunk, Jr. and E. B. White You could say that a sentence revolves around its nouns. They tell the who or the what of a sentence. This mini-lesson focuses on the following aspects of nouns: • singular and plural nouns • common and proper nounsGrammar Activities That Really Grab Em © Sarah Glasscock, Scholastic Teaching Resources • possessive nouns • descriptive nouns Introduction Begin the mini-lesson by writing a short definition and example of a noun on the board, for example, “A noun names a person, Ruby, a rub y-throated hummingbi flowers cau rd, darted animal, place, thing, or idea: Chester is a poodle. He loves the ght her atte 1 through ntion. Wit the garden Then, wit h her slen . The sag hout loo der bill, Rub e bushes king, the y sipped ’ red “Ouch! Ou tiny bird the nectar 2 zoomed out of the ch! OUCH backward !” Zeke, and ran SM flowers. “Sooo sor the bum ACK into freedom of chasing butterflies in the wheat field behind his ry,” the hum 3 blebee, bum a bumble mingbird bled. “W bee. a nearby hummed. atch where tree caught Then two you’re goi her attentio bird feeder ng!” Yellow pla n. One wa s in stic flowers s filled wit decorated h red sug doghouse.” one of the the feeder ar water. flowers to . The bird drink the slipped her Zeke lan 4 sugar wa bill through ded on the ter. flower’s feeder, too petals we . He tried 5 re too har to suck the “Plastic!” d. They we nectar out the bum re so har of a yellow blebee spa d that the flower. The Zeke slid t. Then he y bent his Grammar his long tasted the stinger and Teach tongue thro sugar wa made it cro Suddenly, ugh the ter on his oked. the bum center of tongue. Activities blebee hea the plastic Very care down to flower and fully, the grass. 6 rd an ang drank dee Above him ry hum, ply. felt a sha That Reall to thieves , the hum rp pain in ,” Ruby mingbird his side, hummed. flew around and tum 7 the feeder bled Zeke buz y Grab ‘Em!, zed in ang . “That’s er. He had what hap Fighting as much pens for his turn right to drin Distribute copies of the model passage “The Bumblebird and at the fee k from the the bee fou der seeme Grades 3–5 d only fair feeder as ght. Finally . Poking, that flighty 8 , they hit pushing, bird did. each oth prodding, er so har the bird d that the © 2010 by “That hur y both fell and ts!” the bee to the gro 8 the Hummingbee” on page 7 to students. Ask them to follow looked at hummed. und. each oth “That hur er in surpris ts!” the bird Sarah Glass Since tha e. buzzed. They t day, the bumblebird their foo and the hum cock, Schol d with eac 9 along as you read it aloud. Then use the teaching guide on h other. mingbee have alw 9 ays shared astic Teach ing Resou page 6 to discuss how the writer used nouns in rces the passage. (Also see the lessons on pronouns, pages 11–16; singular and plural nouns and verbs, pages 35–40; and elaboration, pages 53–58.) Name ___ ______ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _______ Date ___ ______ Apply ________ Who are you? Des cribe you rself. Use as many different nouns as you can. Hand out the Who Are You? reproducible on page 10. After going over the directions, model a few responses that describe yourself, for example, person, teacher, hiker, cook, reader, deejay, and so on. In your rces ing Resou response, include nouns that will encourage astic Teach cock, Schol students to realize how many different nouns Sarah Glass 2010 by they can use to describe themselves. © Grades 3–5 y Grab ‘Em!, That Reall Activities Grammar 5
  • 6. Singular and Plural NounsA singular noun refers to one person, place, animal, idea, or thing. A plural noun refers tomore than one.KEY POINTS TEACHING WITH THE MODEL PASSAGE•  egular plural nouns are formed by adding –s R 4 A sentence can have a combination of singular or –es to the end of a singular noun. and plural nouns in it. In this sentence, bird, bill,•  rregular plural nouns such as children, women, I one, and water are singular. Only the noun flowers men, activities, and sheep don’t fit this pattern. is plural.•  ake a class list of the irregular plural nouns M 7 Thieves is an irregular noun. The singular form that students come across in their reading. of this noun is thief. Instead of adding –s to the end of thief, you change the final f to v and add –es.Common and Proper NounsA common noun doesn’t refer to a specific person, place, animal, thing, or idea. A propernoun does. Grammar Activities That Really Grab Em © Sarah Glasscock, Scholastic Teaching ResourcesKEY POINTS TEACHING WITH THE MODEL PASSAGE•  common noun is preceded by a definite or A 3 The bumblebee’s name is Zeke, which is a indefinite article—the, a, an. proper noun.• A proper noun is always capitalized. 6 The writer used the common noun bumblebee•  common noun is only capitalized if it begins A here, but, for variety, she also could have used the a sentence. proper noun Zeke. 8 These two common nouns are parallel. It would be strange to use one common noun and one proper noun in this sentence.Possessive NounsA possessive noun tells who or what owns something.KEY POINTS TEACHING WITH THE MODEL PASSAGE•  ossessive nouns indicate ownership; the P 2 To make the plural noun, bushes, possessive, flower’s petals means the same as the petals of add an apostrophe: bushes’. the flower. 5 To make the singular noun, flower, possessive,•  ingular possessive nouns are formed by adding S add an apostrophe s: flower’s. ’s to the end of the singular noun: flower’s.•  lural possessive nouns are formed by adding P an apostrophe to the end of the plural noun: flowers’. Descriptive Nounsanimal dog poodle Chester: The more specific you are in describing someone orsomething, the more your reader will enjoy your words.KEY POINTS TEACHING WITH THE MODEL PASSAGEAsk students to think about a story that only 1 Instead of writing tiny bird, fast bird, or just bird,uses the bird for the main character. To be the writer tells exactly what kind of bird it is.more specific and descriptive, the writer could 9 The writer has made up two nouns—bumblebirdsubstitute the kind of bird it is—hummingbird— and hummingbee—to describe what happenedand give it a human name—Ruby. Then the when the bird and bee fought.writer could use three different nouns todescribe the bird. 6
  • 7. MODEL PASSAGE Nouns The Bumblebird and the Hummingbee Ruby, a ruby-throated hummingbird, darted through the garden. The sage bushes’ red 1 2 flowers caught her attention. With her slender bill, Ruby sipped the nectar out of the flowers. Then, without looking, the tiny bird zoomed backward and ran SMACK into a bumblebee. “Ouch! Ouch! OUCH!” Zeke, the bumblebee, bumbled. “Watch where you’re going!” 3 “Sooo sorry,” the hummingbird hummed. Then two bird feeders inGrammar Activities That Really Grab Em © Sarah Glasscock, Scholastic Teaching Resources a nearby tree caught her attention. One was filled with red sugar water. Yellow plastic flowers decorated the feeder. The bird slipped her bill through one of the flowers to drink the sugar water. 4 Zeke landed on the feeder, too. He tried to suck the nectar out of a yellow flower. The flower’s petals were too hard. They were so hard that they bent his stinger and made it crooked. 5 “Plastic!” the bumblebee spat. Then he tasted the sugar water on his tongue. Very carefully, Zeke slid his long tongue through the center of the plastic flower and drank deeply. Suddenly, the bumblebee heard an angry hum, felt a sharp pain in his side, and tumbled 6 down to the grass. Above him, the hummingbird flew around the feeder. “That’s what happens to thieves,” Ruby hummed. 7 Zeke buzzed in anger. He had as much right to drink from the feeder as that flighty bird did. Fighting for his turn at the feeder seemed only fair. Poking, pushing, prodding, the bird and 8 the bee fought. Finally, they hit each other so hard that they both fell to the ground. 8 “That hurts!” the bee hummed. “That hurts!” the bird buzzed. They looked at each other in surprise. Since that day, the bumblebird and the hummingbee have always shared 9 9 their food with each other. A noun names a person, place, animal, idea, or thing. In this passage, you’ll see: • common and proper nouns • singular and plural nouns • possessive nouns • descriptive nouns 7
  • 8. WRITING PROMPTS Nouns Teachers: Duplicate these prompts on sturdy paper and then cut them apart. You may also write the prompts on the board or display them onscreen. $ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ----------------------------------------------- - - - - - - -Name _______________________________________________________________ Date _______________ One or More Than One? Write! Think of something that you’d really, really, really, really love to have. Then answer this question: Would you like to have just one of these things—or would Grammar Activities That Really Grab Em © Sarah Glasscock, Scholastic Teaching Resources you like more than one? When you’ve finished writing, read over your work. Did you use Wr ite yo ur full resp on se singular nouns in the right places? Did you use plural nouns in the on a sepa ra te right places? Do all your subjects and verbs agree? sh eet of pa per. With the Rest of the Class: Talk about the different things that everyone wants. Decide how to sort them into groups. Who do you think is most likely to get his or her wish? Which wish is the most fantastic or fanciful?$ -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ----------------------------------------------- - - - - - - -Name _______________________________________________________________ Date _______________ Guess That Noun Write! Choose a person, animal, place, idea, or thing to write about. In other words, pick a noun. Write a description of it—but don’t use the noun in your writing. You can use synonyms for the noun or other parts Wr ite yo ur of speech to describe it. Exchange your description with full resp on se a partner. Are you able to guess which noun your on a sepa ra te partner is describing? sh eet of pa per. With the Rest of the Class: Talk about how you used the clues in your partner’s work to figure out what the noun is. 8
  • 9. Activities: Nouns Noun-Toss Ball Game Materials: tennis ball or other small ball Supply the group with a common noun for each round of play. To begin a round, say a common noun, such as building, and toss the ball to a student in the group. That student thinks of a more specific noun, such as house, and tosses the ball to someone else in the group. Then the second student thinks of another noun that’s even more specific—or a proper noun—and tosses the ball to someone else in the group. If that student can’t think of a noun, another round of play begins. The student holding the ball thinks of a new common noun, such as shoe, and tosses the ball. Record the nouns and keep score: Teams earn 3 points for a proper noun, 2 points for a more specific noun, 1 point for a new common noun.Grammar Activities That Really Grab Em © Sarah Glasscock, Scholastic Teaching Resources With the Class: Discuss which common nouns had the longest and shortest lists of specific nouns. Ask: Did you learn any new descriptive nouns that you’d like to use in your own writing? A Singular and Plural Picture Book Materials: drawing paper, colored markers or colored pencils, crayons, folder, hole punch Assign one or more different letters of the alphabet to each A is for aardvark. student. Then have your class write an alphabet animal picture book for younger readers. Each student should think of an animal whose name begins with each assigned letter. Encourage them to 1 aardvark think of unusual animals that younger readers might not know. Each page should also include the singular and plural forms of the noun that names the animal. Give students the model at right to format each page. 7 aardvarks With the Class: Ask students to share their pages. Encourage older students to notice which of the plural nouns are regular and which are irregular. Compile the pages into a folder to create an alphabet book. Does It Belong to Emma? Pair students to play a possessive guessing game with the following directions: 1. Partner 1 looks around the classroom and secretly chooses an item that belongs to  another student. 2. Partner 2 tries to guess who owns the item, writing each guess as a question: Does it  belong to Emma? 3. Partner 1 writes the answers using possessive nouns: It is not Emma’s or It is Emma’s. 4. Once Partner 2 guesses the correct owner, Partner 1 can reveal what the item is. 5. Partners switch roles and play again. With the Class: Discuss the following questions: Was it difficult to form a possessive noun out of anyone’s name? Which letter does that name end with? Did you remember to add ’s to the end of each name? 9
  • 10. ACTIVITYName _____________________________________________________________ Date _________________ Nouns Who Are You? Who are you? Describe yourself. Use as many different nouns as you can. Grammar Activities That Really Grab Em © Sarah Glasscock, Scholastic Teaching Resources student Me 10
  • 11. All About Pronouns ] Good words by the third time will even bore the dogs. —Chinese proverb As the above proverb emphasizes, a reader will tire of even the most original noun if the writer repeats it too often. In addition to livening up sentences, pronouns add clarity and rhythm to them. This mini- lesson focuses on the following aspects of pronouns: • personal pronouns • pronouns as subjects and objectsGrammar Activities That Really Grab Em © Sarah Glasscock, Scholastic Teaching Resources • pronoun agreement • possessive pronouns Introduction Begin a mini-lesson by writing a short definition of a pronoun on the board. Here’s an example: “A pronoun takes the place of a noun in a sentence: The dragon chased the girl, but she stopped it in its tracks with her slingshot.” Teach A domino is twice as blank app long as it ear on eith is wide. A line divid Distribute copies of the model passage “All Fall Down!” on page 13 to students. er side of 1 the line. es it into connect Players slide two equal the dom squares. inoes to the dom Dots or a earn poin inoes acro You can ts. ss a table. do more Then they than play end, stac games with k them in dominoe 2 a pattern, s. You can 303,628 and mak stand the Ask them to follow along as you read it aloud. Then use the teaching guide dominoe e them topp dominoe s. It took le over. In s on one Ma Li Hua her 45 days 2003, Ma also had 3 to stack Li Hua of to fight off them. She China stac fall. Whe butterflies 3 worked for ked n Ma Li Hua and cock 10 hours was finis roaches. every day. the dom hed, she They mad inoes to pushed the e some of fall. At the first dom 4 her dom on page 12 to discuss how the writer used pronouns in the passage. end, only ino. It took inoes Every year seven dom about four 5 , the coun inoes rem minutes from all over try of the ained stan for Netherlan ding. Europe take ds hosts part. In 200 a Domino swung abo Day. Scho Grammar ve them. 8, one team olchildre Then he set up 4,34 n and peo sent the 5,027 dom ple (Also see the lessons on prepositions, pages 29–34, and phrases and People mak dominoe inoes. An e all kind 6 Activities s toppling. acrobat dominoe s of designs s. If you when they visit Flipp stack That Really cat toppling ycat.com , you can dominoe see a s. In one that show video, it s the skyl topples a Grab ‘Em!, ine of Win design clauses, pages 47–52.) 7 designs on nipeg, Can Flippycat ada. Oth .com show er egg, and a lightbulb Grades 3–5 a clock. , a fried East er So if you ’re a pers © 2010 by on who doe then seei sn’t mind ng all you working r work dest hard and 8 royed, dom Sarah Glassc ino topp ling might be for you Apply ! ock, Schola stic Teachi ng Resour ces Hand out the Who Says? reproducible on page 16 or display it onscreen. After reviewing the pronouns and usage examples, tell students that they can refer to the sheet as you play a game loosely based on Simon Says. Name ____ ____ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ _____ Date ____ Students respond with the appropriate action when they hear the words ____ ________ _ “[Pronoun] Says” but not when they hear “[Noun] Says.” Continue until the SINGULA Subject Pron R ouns Object Pron ouns Subject Pron PLURAL ouns Object Pron ouns class has correctly used all the personal subject pronouns several times. I Examples I jumped into the hot air ballo on and saile Example: The red- d off. and-white striped ballo they They tried on took to grab the me arou nd the wor balloon and ld. me I waved drag me me good-by down to e to them the grou as the wind nd. ces picked up ng Resour speed. Teacher (point to self):  eacher says jump up and down. (Students T I stic Teachi SINGULA them R ock, Schola PLURAL Sarah Glassc do nothing.) © 2010 by Grades 3–5 Teacher (points to Sarita, a student):  he says . . . (Allow that student S His kite is tangled Exam ples Grab ‘Em!, The kite in the wire tangled in s of the hot The roof the wires air balloon. of their of the hot house is air balloon That Really flat enough is his. to supply the action.) The house for a hot with the air balloon flat roof to land on. Activities is theirs. Grammar Sarita (points to herself): I say . . . whistle a tune. (Students whistle.) 11
  • 12. Personal PronounsA personal pronoun takes the place of a noun in a sentence.KEY POINTS TEACHING WITH THE MODEL PASSAGE•  writer has to answer questions about number, A 1 The pronoun it takes the place of the noun gender, and the role of the noun in the sentence domino in this sentence. We use the pronoun it to in deciding which pronoun to use to replace it. talk about objects.•  emind students that a pronoun replaces a R 7 The writer doesn’t know if the cat was a male noun. In the following sentence, the pronoun or a female. She uses the pronoun it to replace cat. repeats the subject instead of replacing it: Jack, he hopped over the candlestick.Pronouns as Subjects and ObjectsThe subject pronouns are I, you, it, he, she, we, you, and they. The object pronouns are me,you, it, him, her, us, and them. Grammar Activities That Really Grab Em © Sarah Glasscock, Scholastic Teaching ResourcesKEY POINTS TEACHING WITH THE MODEL PASSAGE•  ronouns can replace subjects: We went P 2 They takes the place of the noun players. Both outside. She slammed the door. the noun and pronoun are subjects. If the writer•  ronouns can replace nouns used as objects P had replaced dominoes with them in this sentence, of prepositions or of verbs: The snow slid off it would read: They connect them to earn points. the roof and fell on us. Mom told us to come That would be confusing because they and them inside. replace two different nouns. 6 The writer knows that the acrobat was a man, so she used the subjective pronoun he to replace acrobat.Pronoun agreementA singular pronoun takes the place of a singular noun. A plural pronoun takes the placeof a plural noun.KEY POINTS TEACHING WITH THE MODEL PASSAGE•  o avoid the his-or-her predicament, encourage T 3 The pronoun her is singular. It replaces the singular students to rephrase singular subjects as plural noun Ma Li Hua, which is a young woman’s name. The subjects: plural pronoun them replaces the plural noun dominoes. A student should complete his or her 4 The pronoun they replaces the nouns butterflies homework every night. and cockroaches. Both nouns are plural. If you Students should complete their homework wrote a butterfly and a cockroach, you would still every night. use they. Both of these nouns are singular, but together, they make up a group. You replace the nouns with a plural pronoun.Possessive PronounsA possessive pronoun shows ownership.KEY POINTS TEACHING WITH THE MODEL PASSAGE•  he possessive pronouns are my/mine, your/ T 5 The dominoes belong to Ma Li Hua. She is a yours, its/its, our/ours, your/yours, their/theirs. woman, so the writer uses the possessive pronoun•  ossessive pronouns take the place of nouns, too. her to show who the dominoes belong to. P We can write or say her slingshot or the slingshot 8 Notice the homophones your and you’re. They is hers instead of the girl’s slingshot. sound the same but have different meanings and•  tudents may confuse the possessive pronouns spellings. Your is a possessive pronoun. You’re is a S its and your with the contractions it’s and you’re. contraction for the pronoun you and the verb are. Emphasize that a possessive pronoun never, ever contains an apostrophe. 12
  • 13. MODEL PASSAGE Pronouns All Fall Down! A domino is twice as long as it is wide. A line divides it into two equal squares. Dots or a 1 blank appear on either side of the line. Players slide the dominoes across a table. Then they 2 connect the dominoes to earn points. You can do more than play games with dominoes. You can stand the dominoes on one end, stack them in a pattern, and make them topple over. In 2003, Ma Li Hua of China stackedGrammar Activities That Really Grab Em © Sarah Glasscock, Scholastic Teaching Resources 303,628 dominoes. It took her 45 days to stack them. She worked for 10 hours every day. 3 3 Ma Li Hua also had to fight off butterflies and cockroaches. They made some of her dominoes 4 5 fall. When Ma Li Hua was finished, she pushed the first domino. It took about four minutes for the dominoes to fall. At the end, only seven dominoes remained standing. Every year, the country of the Netherlands hosts a Domino Day. Schoolchildren and people from all over Europe take part. In 2008, one team set up 4,345,027 dominoes. An acrobat swung above them. Then he sent the dominoes toppling. 6 People make all kinds of designs when they stack dominoes. If you visit Flippycat.com, you can see a cat toppling dominoes. In one video, it topples a design 7 that shows the skyline of Winnipeg, Canada. Other designs on Flippycat.com show a lightbulb, a fried Easter egg, and a clock. So if you’re a person who doesn’t mind working hard and then seeing all your work destroyed, domino toppling might be for you! 8 A pronoun takes the place of a noun. A singular pronoun replaces a singular noun. A plural pronoun replaces a plural noun. In this passage, you’ll see: • personal pronouns • subject pronouns and object pronouns • possessive pronouns 13
  • 14. WRITING PROMPTS Pronouns Teachers: Duplicate these prompts on sturdy paper and then cut them apart. You may also write the prompts on the board or display them onscreen.$- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ----------------------------------------------- - - - - - - -Name _______________________________________________________________ Date _______________ First, Second, or Third? Write! Think about one of the funniest things that’s ever happened to you. Write about what happened. Before you begin to write, decide whether to tell the story using one of the Grammar Activities That Really Grab Em © Sarah Glasscock, Scholastic Teaching Resources following points of view and its pronouns: First person: I, me, mine, my Wr ite yo ur Second person: you, yours, your ful l resp on se Third person: he, she, it, him, her, its, his, hers, its on a sepa ra te sh eet of pa per. With the Rest of the Class: Explain how you decided which point of view and which pronouns to use to tell your story.$-- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ----------------------------------------------- - - - - - - -Name _______________________________________________________________ Date _______________ How Should I Phrase This? Write! A prepositional phrase begins with a preposition and ends with a noun or a pronoun. Only objective pronouns—me, you, it, her, him, us, them—appear in prepositional phrases. Make a greeting card for friends or family members. Use one of the prepositional phrases below in your card. Complete the prepositional phrase with pronouns. between __________________ and __________________ Wr ite yo ur to __________________ and __________________ ful l resp on se on a sepa ra te for __________________ and __________________ sh eet of pa per. With the Rest of the Class: Display your cards. Compare the different ways everyone completed the prepositional phrases and used them in the cards. 14
  • 15. Activities: Pronouns The No-Pronouns Writing Zone Materials: classroom object, timer Set the timer for one minute. Tell students to use the time to examine an object. When the time is up, have them write three to five sentences to describe it—without using any pronouns! After students have stopped writing, give them the following instructions: Exchange descriptions with your partner. Decide which nouns to replace with pronouns. Write the revised description on a new sheet of paper. Then hold a conference with your partner. Explain how you decided which nouns to replace. Listen as your partner talks about adding pronouns to your description. Do you agree with the changes? If not, rewrite your description—but don’t forgetGrammar Activities That Really Grab Em © Sarah Glasscock, Scholastic Teaching Resources the pronouns. With the Class: Talk about how it felt to use only nouns in your description. Ask: Was it harder or easier than you thought it would be? Then have students share their thoughts about adding the pronouns. Add It Up Materials: pair of number cubes, paper and pencils Have students take turns rolling a number cube to generate numbers for an addition or subtraction sentence. For example, if the first student rolled a 5 and the second student rolled a 4, they could write either of these sentences: 5 – 4 = 1 or 5 + 4 = 9. (Have them roll two number cubes to produce double-digit numbers.) Tell pairs to write a word problem to go with their addition or subtraction sentence and to include both nouns and pronouns in their word problem. With the Class: Encourage pairs to share their word problems with classmates. Guide a discussion about how students worked together to create their word problems. Yours, Mine, and Ours Ask the group to identify some of their favorite movie or book titles. You might volunteer some pronoun-heavy titles, such as Them!, a movie about giant ants, or Yours, Mine, and Ours, a movie about a blended family. Then challenge groups to create their own movie and book titles that contain pronouns and no nouns and then to write a brief summary of each movie and book. Give the following hints: •  o get started, groups can work with existing titles and replace the nouns with the T appropriate pronouns. • Two nouns, such as Lola and Martin, can be replaced with She and he or They. With the Class: Ask groups to share their titles with the rest of the class. Discuss which titles did the best job of describing the movie or book. 15
  • 16. ACTIVITY Name _____________________________________________________________ Date _________________ Pronouns Who Says? Personal Pronouns SINGULAR PLURAL Subject Pronouns Object Pronouns Subject Pronouns Object Pronouns I me we us Grammar Activities That Really Grab Em © Sarah Glasscock, Scholastic Teaching Resources you you you you he him they them she her it it Examples The subject pronoun I does I jumped into the hot air balloon and sailed off. the action. The object pronoun me The red-and-white striped balloon took me around the world. receives the action. The subject pronoun they They tried to grab the balloon and drag me down to the ground. does the action. I waved good-bye to them as the wind picked up speed. The subject pronoun I does theThe object pronoun action. The object pronoun them me receives receives the action. the action. Possessive Pronouns SINGULAR PLURAL my/mine our/ours your/yours your/yours his/his their/theirs her/hers its/its Examples His kite is tangled in the wires of the hot air balloon. The kite tangled in the wires of the hot air balloon is his. The roof of their house is flat enough for a hot air balloon to land on. The house with the flat roof is theirs. 16
  • 17. All About Verbs ] Life is a verb. Life is living, living is doing. —Charlotte Perkins Gilman Verbs are the energy sources of sentences. They set their subjects into motion—whether a subject is walking or simply being. This mini-lesson focuses on the following aspects of verbs: • verb tenses • irregular verbsGrammar Activities That Really Grab Em © Sarah Glasscock, Scholastic Teaching Resources • subject-verb agreement • descriptive verbs Introduction Begin a mini-lesson by writing a short definition of verbs on the board, for example: “A verb shows action: The dog howls. A verb Last sum Aransas, me r, my cou sins and I constru Texas. We cted an eno didn’t pro also can show a state of being: The dog is wet.” gress ver 1 rmous san water. The y far on d castle on waves bla our first the beach sted the castle. We in Port moved our 3 tower and were wo constructio flooded the rking too n site five rest of the 2 close to the Soon fou feet from 3 castle. The r tan san the water. n we got d towers smart and by the wa stretched ves. They up toward all stood the sky. No came from tall. We eve ne of the Teach all over the n made flag 4 towers wa 5 beach to s and stu s destroy add to our watch us ck one on ed castle, but work. A each tow we had our lot of the er. People The last own ideas. m had ide thing we as about constructe what we slowly cra d was a mo should wled up at. We dug the beach, a ditch aro us standin 7 the water gently fille 6 und our g in back castle. Wh of our cas d the mo en the tide tle. We alm at. Our par Grammar I’m thinkin Distribute copies of the model passage “Towers Stretching to g about ost disappe ents snappe how to ma ared beh d a photo plans now 8 ke an eve ind the tall of . Next sum n larger san towers. Activities mer, maybe d castle nex we will con t summe struct a full r and dra -size castle wing up That Reall the Sky” on page 19 to students. Ask them to follow along as 9 in the san d! y Grab ‘Em!, you read it aloud. Then use the teaching guide on page 18 to Grades 3–5 © 2010 by discuss how the writer used verbs in the passage. Sarah Glass cock, Schol (Also see the lessons on singular and plural nouns and astic Teach ing Resou verbs on pages 35–40 and subjects and predicates on pages rces 41–46.) Apply Hand out the Create a New Word reproducible on page 22 Name ___ ______ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _______ Date ___ ______ and go over the information about sniglets. You may want ________ to mention that an executive chair is a chair that has arms and moves on wheels. Ask students: Do you see how the words executive (a noun) and glide (a verb) were blended to (eg-ZEK-y eh-glide) one’s exe v. to roll cutive cha create the new verb? Before students work on their own across the ir: a com office wit TENSES: bination hout leav present— of the wo ing past—futu rds execut desk to the re. EXAMP ive and glid file cabinet LES: Rau e. . Wow— l execuglide execuglide Raul exe s from his sniglets, remind them to follow the same format as the out the doo cuglided r to get a all mornin cup of cof g! Now, fee. Raul will rces What? You ’ve never ing Resou heard of because the word the word execuglide entry for execuglide. execuglide ? You can astic Teach but it sho is a sniglet. ’t find it uld. A sniglet in the dict is a word ionary? Tha Work wit that doe t’s sn’t appear cock, Schol h one or in a diction two other ary, entry for students your snig to create let. Use the at least two Sarah Glass _________ sample abo verb snig _________ ve to help lets. Write _________ you. a diction _________ ary _________ 2010 by _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ © _________ _______ _________ Grades 3–5 _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _______ _________ _________ _________ y Grab ‘Em!, _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _______ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _______ That Reall _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _______ _________ Activities _________ _______ Grammar 17
  • 18. Verb TensesVerb tenses show time. Action can occur in the past, present, or future.KEY POINTS TEACHING WITH THE MODEL PASSAGE•  oint out that although most of the verbs in P 1 Constructed is a past-tense verb. The words last this personal narrative are in the past tense, summer show that the action occurred in the past. students will also spot verbs in the present and 8 I’m thinking means I am thinking. Am thinking is future tenses. in the present tense. The word now shows that the•  ncourage students to look for key words and E action is occurring in the present. phrases that help signal which tense to use. 9 Will construct is a future-tense verb. The words next summer show that the action will take place in the future.Irregular VerbsRegular past tense verbs are formed by adding –ed to the present tense of the verb. Grammar Activities That Really Grab Em © Sarah Glasscock, Scholastic Teaching ResourcesIrregular verbs don’t follow this rule.KEY POINTS TEACHING WITH THE MODEL PASSAGE•  eview the differences between regular and R 5 Came is the past tense of come. It’s an irregular verb forms. Share the fact that many irregular verb. of the irregular verbs in English are very old 6 The present tense of dug is dig, which is an words that are still formed using old rules. For irregular verb. instance, the verb drink comes from the Old English word drincan. Its past tense was dranc.Subject-Verb AgreementSubjects and verbs must agree. A singular subject always takes a singular verb.A plural subject always takes a plural verb.KEY POINTS TEACHING WITH THE MODEL PASSAGE•  emind students that a complete sentence R 2 We is a plural noun. It takes a plural verb: were needs both a subject and a verb. The subject working. and verb may be singular or plural, but they 4 Sometimes the subject and verb are separated must always agree with each other. by a prepositional phrase. The simple subject is none, not towers. None is singular, so it takes the singular verb was destroyed.Descriptive Verbs:Verbs with a lot of muscle make writing more descriptive.KEY POINTS TEACHING WITH THE MODEL PASSAGE•  mphasize how using different synonyms E 3 The verbs blasted and flooded show the action— for a common action verb such as move (e.g., and the power—of the water. walk, dance, shuffle) can make our speech or 7 Water doesn’t have arms and legs. It can’t really writing more accurate and interesting. Have crawl, but the verb crawled shows that the water volunteers demonstrate the three actions to moved slowly but surely up the beach toward the highlight the differences among the verbs. castle.•  emind students to think about using R 9 Think about using synonyms: construct is a good strong verbs that create vivid pictures in a replacement for build or make. reader’s mind. 18
  • 19. MODEL PASSAGE Verbs Towers Stretching to the Sky Last summer, my cousins and I constructed an enormous sand castle on the beach in Port 1 Aransas, Texas. We didn’t progress very far on our first castle. We were working too close to the 2 water. The waves blasted the tower and flooded the rest of the castle. Then we got smart and 3 3 moved our construction site five feet from the water. Soon four tan sand towers stretched up toward the sky. None of the towers was destroyedGrammar Activities That Really Grab Em © Sarah Glasscock, Scholastic Teaching Resources 4 by the waves. They all stood tall. We even made flags and stuck one on each tower. People came from all over the beach to watch us work. A lot of them had ideas about what we should 5 add to our castle, but we had our own ideas. The last thing we constructed was a moat. We dug a ditch around our castle. When the tide 6 slowly crawled up the beach, the water gently filled the moat. Our parents snapped a photo of 7 us standing in back of our castle. We almost disappeared behind the tall towers. I’m thinking about how to make an even larger sand castle next summer and drawing up 8 plans now. Next summer, maybe we will construct a full-size castle in the sand! 9 A verb describes an action or a state of being. In this passage, you’ll see: • verb tenses • irregular verbs • subject-verb agreement • descriptive verbs 19
  • 20. WRITING PROMPTS Verbs Teachers: Duplicate these prompts on sturdy paper and then cut them apart. You may also write the prompts on the board or display them onscreen.$- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ----------------------------------------------- - - - - - - -Name _______________________________________________________________ Date _______________ Yesterday, Today, Tomorrow Write! Choose one of the prompts below to write about. Pay attention to the verb tense! •  hink back to when you were in the first grade. What is the most important event you T Grammar Activities That Really Grab Em © Sarah Glasscock, Scholastic Teaching Resources remember? Use only the past tense to describe what happened. Wr ite yo ur •  hat is the most interesting thing you’re learning right now in school? W ful l respo ns e Why is it so interesting to you? Use only the present tense in your response. on a sepa rat e sh eet of pa per. •  hat do you think being grown-up will be like? What will you do for a living? W Where will you live? Use only the future tense to predict what will happen. With the Class: Talk about why you chose the past, the present, or the future. Was writing in that tense easier or more difficult than you thought it might be?$-- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ----------------------------------------------- - - - - - -Name _______________________________________________________________ Date _______________ The Tyrannosaurus Rex Growled . . . Write! What if you could step into a time machine? What place would you visit? Would you travel to the past or to the future? What would you experience? What would you see, hear, smell, taste, and feel? What would you do? Write a story about your adventures. Use the present tense, even if you visit the past or the future. Wr ite yo ur Exchange stories with a partner. Read the story and then think about how ful l respo ns e the writer used verbs. Did the choice of verbs really help you “see” the story? on a sepa rat e sh eet of pa per. Talk about what you liked about the story and ask any questions you have. With the Rest of the Class: Read your story aloud to the class. Share how your partner helped you revise your work. 20
  • 21. Activities: Verbs That’s Highly Irregular Materials: picture books, chapter books, or leveled readers; dictionary Remind students that we form the past tense of a regular verb by adding –ed: jump + –ed = jumped. Irregular verbs don’t follow this rule: eat ate; bring brought. Challenge partners to see how many regular and irregular verbs they can find in a book of their choice. Have them open the book to any page and list at least 15 verbs. Tell partners to identify the tense and tell whether the verb is regular or irregular and create and complete a chart like this one: Verb Tense Regular or Irregular? How do you know? see present irregular Past tense is saw, not see+–ed. If they have any questions about a verb, they should look it up in the dictionary.Grammar Activities That Really Grab Em © Sarah Glasscock, Scholastic Teaching Resources With the Class: Discuss how students decided whether a verb was regular or irregular. Did any of the verbs fool them? Do You Agree? Materials: 52 index cards, four markers for each group Form groups of four players. Have each player write a set of 13 cards: One writes 13 different singular nouns; one writes 13 different plural nouns; one writes 13 different singular verbs; one writes 13 different plural verbs. Tell students that they’re going to play a card game that’s similar to Go Fish called Do You Agree? Give them these instructions: 1.  lace all the cards facedown and mix them up. Each player draws 13 cards. P 2.  ake turns laying down a card from your hand and asking the other players for a card that T agrees with it, for example: “Singular verb—give me a singular noun.” If a player has the card you ask for, he or she gives it to you. Ask the other players, “Do you agree?” If they think that subject and verb agree, you keep the card. If a player doesn’t have the card, the next player takes a turn. 3.  lay continues clockwise until all the matches have been made. P With the Class: Talk about why nouns such as family and group take singular verbs. Hello, Math Hotline—Tell Me What to Do! Announce that students have a new job on the Math Hotline. They must help their peers by writing the steps for solving a math problem. Choose a math topic that students need to review; it might be finding the sum of three numbers, writing a fraction, subtracting decimals, or identifying a rectangle. Show how to solve a sample problem by breaking down the solution into steps and writing clear directions that contain precise verbs. With the Class: Have groups exchange work. Are they able to solve each other’s problems using the directions? Collect directions in a Math Hotline notebook for everyone to refer to. 21
  • 22. ACTIVITYName _____________________________________________________________ Date _________________ Verbs Create a New Word Grammar Activities That Really Grab Em © Sarah Glasscock, Scholastic Teaching Resources { execuglide (eg-ZEK-yeh-glide) v. to roll across the office without leaving one’s executive chair: a combination of the words executive and glide. TENSES: present—past—future. EXAMPLES: Raul execuglides from his { desk to the file cabinet. Wow—Raul execuglided all morning! Now, Raul will execuglide out the door to get a cup of coffee. What? You’ve never heard of the word execuglide? You can’t find it in the dictionary? That’s because the word execuglide is a sniglet. A sniglet is a word that doesn’t appear in a dictionary, but it should. Work with one or two other students to create at least two verb sniglets. Write a dictionary entry for your sniglet. Use the sample above to help you. _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ 22
  • 23. All About Adjectives and Adverbs ] I do not like green eggs and ham. I do not like them, Sam-I-am. —Dr. Seuss ] As to the Adjective; when in doubt, strike it out —Mark Twain Adjectives modify nouns and pronouns. Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs. This mini-lesson focuses on the following aspects of adjectives and adverbs:Grammar Activities That Really Grab Em © Sarah Glasscock, Scholastic Teaching Resources • adjectives modifying nouns and pronouns • adverbs modifying verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs • positive, comparative, and superlative forms • descriptive adjectives and adverbs Introduction After reviewing the definition of adjectives and adverbs, share Dr. Seuss’s quote with students. Challenge them to replace the Adam wa s sitting in seat. An a window anxious loo seat. A wo k crossed man abo ut his mo when she 1 her face. The woma ther’s age ’d kissed was sitting him good-b n looked in the aisl more ner adjective green with as many adjectives and adverbs as they can. “You’re so ye at the vous tha e young! And gate. 2 n his mo you are flyi ther had the woma ng solo!” n said. She ducked her 3 the tiny rou head to loo nd window k out You may want to start with your own example, such as “I do not . “Oh! Jus enormous t look at clouds. And all those aren’t the The clou y such a ds’ edges dark colo 4 were a littl r?” Adam,” e gray, but Adam told the clouds like moss green eggs and extremely tough ham.” When Dr. Seuss’s the woma weren’t thu is my ver n. “I’m goi nderheads y first trip ng to visi . “My nam 5 on a plane. t my gra e’s ” ndparents Suddenly, in Seaside with a jerk , California deep bre 6 and a bum . This Grammar ath and trie p, the pla original sentence is overloaded with adjectives and adverbs, read d to smile. ne backed “It’s my away from When the first time the gate. plane left The woma Activities the ground on a plane, n took a immediate , Adam felt too!” ly, the pla himself bei 7 ne turned That Reall ground sca sharply to ng pushed aloud Mark Twain’s quote. Work with students in deciding which red Adam the left. back in his a little. The 7 Looking seat. Alm working n he tho down at ost the tiny hou y Grab ‘Em!, so hard as ught abo ses on the a nurse. ut his dad courage They we fighting inside him re the bra in Iraq and . vest peo his mom ple he kne adjectives—and adverbs—to strike out. Did students decide to Grades 3–5 8 w. He mu Adam sne st have som aked a loo k at the wo e of that fear made man. Her Adam’s fea eyes were © 2010 by r disappe pinched into hers. ar. Maybe shut in terr “I’m a littl he could or. Someho e scared, help her. scale back all the way and stick with “green eggs and ham”? too,” he Adam rea w, her The woma whispered ched out Sarah Glass n squeez . and slid his ed his han hand d tightly. Then she really did cock, Schol smile. astic Teach Teach ing Resou rces Distribute copies of the model passage “Flying Solo” on page 25 to students. Ask them to follow along as you read it aloud. Then use the teaching guide on page 24 to discuss how the writer used Name ___ ______ _________ _________ _________ adjectives and adverbs in the passage. _________ _________ _______ Date ___ ______ ________ Use the cha racter sha pe at the Apply describe right to help a charact you er for a stor as you can y. Draw as to show many det precisely ails who this character is. Use the det ails you dre w to write of your cha a descrip racter. Thi tion nk of just and adverb the right Give each student a copy of the reproducible That’s Quite a s to use. adjectives _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ Character! on page 28. Have a variety of colored markers and _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ colored pencils on hand. Go over the directions with students, _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ rces _________ _________ _________ ing Resou _________ _________ _________ and on a copy of the page, model drawing a visual detail _________ _________ _________ astic Teach _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _______ cock, Schol _________ _________ Now thin _________ _________ k of this _______ on the character shape. Show them how you would write a character _________ doing som _________ right ver _________ Sarah Glass bs and adv ething. Des _______ erbs to use cribe wh _________ . at he or she is doi _________ ng. Think 2010 by _________ of just the _________ description of that detail below the drawing. Display students’ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ © _________ _________ Grades 3–5 _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _______ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ y Grab ‘Em!, _______ completed reproducibles and encourage everyone to talk _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _______ _________ _________ That Reall _________ _________ _________ _______ _________ about his or her work. _________ Activities _______ Grammar 23
  • 24. AdjectivesAdjectives modify nouns and pronouns.KEY POINTS TEACHING WITH THE MODEL PASSAGE•  n adjective usually appears before the noun or A 1 The adjectives an and anxious modify the noun pronoun it modifies, but it can follow verbs such as look. Articles such as a, an, and the always go first be, feel, smell, sound, tastes, look, appear, and seem. in a series of adjectives.•  ncourage students to switch the order and E 4 The apostrophe in clouds’ shows that this location of the adjectives in the third sentence in adjective is possessive. It modifies edges. You could the passage and talk about how the rearrangement also write, the edges of the clouds. changes the meaning and clarity.AdverbsAdverbs modify adjectives, verbs, and other adverbs.KEY POINTS TEACHING WITH THE MODEL PASSAGE Grammar Activities That Really Grab Em © Sarah Glasscock, Scholastic Teaching Resources•  n adverb can appear almost anywhere in a A 5 The adverb very modifies the adjective first. sentence. In general, it goes before a simple First modifies the noun trip. You couldn’t move verb. very to another place in the sentence. It goes with•  t’s okay to separate a verb with an adverb: We I the adjective, and the adjective can’t be moved. will probably go to the baseball game. 6 Suddenly is an adverb that modifies the verb backed. Try placing it after these words: plane, away, and gate—each new placement creates a different emphasis.Positive, Comparative, and Superlative FormsThe positive form describes one thing. The comparative form compares two things. The superlativeform compares more than two things.KEY POINTS TEACHING WITH THE MODEL PASSAGE•  n adjective or adverb in a positive state A 2 The comparative more nervous compares two describes one thing (red, slowly). people: the woman and Adam’s mother. You can•  he comparative is formed by adding –er to T often figure out whether to add –er or more by the end of positive adjectives or adverbs or by trying to say both forms: nervouser/more nervous. adding more or less in front of them (redder, Point out that some comparatives and superlatives more slowly). are irregular: good, better, best.•  he superlative is formed by adding –est to T 8 Adam is comparing his father and mother to the end of positive adjectives or adverbs or by all the people he knows, so the writer uses the adding most or least in front of them (reddest, superlative form of the adjective: brave + –est. most slowly).Descriptive Adjectives and AdverbsDescriptive adjectives and adverbs are as important to use in expository and persuasivewriting as they are in narrative nonfiction and fiction.KEY POINTS TEACHING WITH THE MODEL PASSAGE•  s students explore the power of adding A 3 The adverb solo modifies the verb are flying. adjectives and adverbs, their work may The writer could have used the adverb alone get a little florid. Better to let them stretch instead, but solo reveals a little something about their vocabularies than to have them stick the woman and how she speaks. with the same adjectives and adverbs. 7 The adverbs immediately and sharply describe However, do bring up the Mark Twain quote when and how the plane turned. Adam’s stomach on page 23 when you think students need probably dropped when the plane did this. some constructive help in pruning their Did students’ stomachs drop, too? descriptions. 24
  • 25. MODEL PASSAGE Adjectives and Adverbs Flying Solo Adam was sitting in a window seat. A woman about his mother’s age was sitting in the aisle seat. An anxious look crossed her face. The woman looked more nervous than his mother had 1 2 when she’d kissed him good-bye at the gate. “You’re so young! And you are flying solo!” 3 the woman said. She ducked her head to look outGrammar Activities That Really Grab Em © Sarah Glasscock, Scholastic Teaching Resources the tiny round window. “Oh! Just look at all those enormous clouds. And aren’t they such a dark color?” The clouds’ edges were a little gray, but the clouds weren’t thunderheads. “My name’s 4 Adam,” Adam told the woman. “I’m going to visit my grandparents in Seaside, California. This is my very first trip on a plane.” 5 Suddenly, with a jerk and a bump, the plane backed away from the gate. The woman took a 6 deep breath and tried to smile. “It’s my first time on a plane, too!” When the plane left the ground, Adam felt himself being pushed back in his seat. Almost immediately, the plane turned sharply to the left. Looking down at the tiny houses on the 7 7 ground scared Adam a little. Then he thought about his dad fighting in Iraq and his mom working so hard as a nurse. They were the bravest people he knew. He must have some of that 8 courage inside him. Adam sneaked a look at the woman. Her eyes were pinched shut in terror. Somehow, her fear made Adam’s fear disappear. Maybe he could help her. Adam reached out and slid his hand into hers. “I’m a little scared, too,” he whispered. The woman squeezed his hand tightly. Then she really did smile. An adjective modifies nouns and pronouns. An adverb modifies adjectives, verbs, and other adverbs. In this passage, you’ll see: • adjectives and adverbs • positive, comparative, and superlative adjectives and adverbs • descriptive adjectives and adverbs 25
  • 26. WRITING PROMPTS Adjectives and Adverbs Teachers: Duplicate these prompts on sturdy paper and then cut them apart. You may also write the prompts on the board or display them onscreen.$- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ----------------------------------------------- - - - - - - -Name _______________________________________________________________ Date _______________ More Than Bread and Cheese Write! Daydream about a grilled cheese sandwich. What does it look like? How does it smell and taste? How does it feel in your Wr ite yo ur full resp on se Grammar Activities That Really Grab Em © Sarah Glasscock, Scholastic Teaching Resources mouth? What do you hear when you bite into the sandwich? Write a on a sepa ra te sentence—or a poem—describing a grilled cheese sandwich. Use all sh eet of pa per. your senses and tasty adjectives to describe it. Try to make your readers wish they were eating that sandwich, too. With the Rest of the Class: Read your description aloud to a small group. Talk about how the adjectives helped you imagine the sandwich. Does your description make everyone hungry?$-- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ----------------------------------------------- - - - - - - -Name _______________________________________________________________ Date _______________ How Late or Early Were You? Write! Think about a time when you arrived very late or very Wr ite yo ur early somewhere. Why didn’t you arrive on time? How did you full resp on se feel? Write a short paragraph describing what happened. Tell on a sepa ra te exactly how late or early you were. Use adverbs in your description. sh eet of pa per. Do not include overused adverbs such as very, really, pretty, so. With the Rest of the Class: Share your writing with a partner. Look at the adverbs your partner used. Did you use any of those adverbs, too? Which adverbs surprised you most? 26
  • 27. Activities: Adjectives and Adverbs Absolutely, Positively Not Materials: a dictionary for each team Tell students that, often, adding –ly to an adjective can turn it into an adverb. Examples: adjective: rapid adverb: rapidly adjective: slow adverb: slowly Form two teams, the Adjectives and the Adverbs. The Adjectives think of 15 adjectives. Most of the adjectives should turn into adverbs when –ly is added to the end. However, not all the adjectives should fit that pattern, for example, colors such as red and blue. Then the Adjective team calls out an adjective. If they can, the Adverbs turn the adjective into an adverb by adding –ly. If they can’t form an adverb, they say, “Absolutely, positively not.” As referee, you’ll have the final say, but allow teams to use the dictionary if there is a disagreement over the answer.Grammar Activities That Really Grab Em © Sarah Glasscock, Scholastic Teaching Resources Then students switch teams and play again. With the Class: How are the meanings of the adjective rapid and the adverb rapidly connected? Are the adjective hard and the adverb hardly connected in the same way? Fast, Faster, Fastest Materials: 30 index cards, markers, dictionary Make ten sets of adjective and adverb cards or have the groups do so. Each set should show the positive, comparative, and superlative forms of the adjective or adverb. Examples: Place the cards in three different stacks (1—positive form, 2—comparative form, 3—superlative form) and write the corresponding number on the blank side of each card. Remind students to keep each stack of cards in order and then have them exchange the three stacks of cards with another group. Give the following directions for a card game: Place the three stacks of cards with the numbered sides up. Decide who will be players 1, 2, and 3. Player 1 turns over a card in the 1 pile. Players 2 and 3 have to supply the correct comparative and superlative forms of the adjective or adverb. You may look up the word in the dictionary. Then turn over cards 2 and 3 to see if you’re correct. Then Player 2 turns faceup a card in the 2—comparative pile. Players 1 and 3 have to supply the correct positive and superlative forms. Player 3 goes next. With the Class: Talk about the easiest and most difficult comparative and superlative forms of the adjectives and adverbs students formed. How often did they look in the dictionary? And That’s the Whole Story To the Teacher: Compile all the stories in a binder or a folder. Who did students describe on the That’s Quite a Character! reproducible? Tell them to write a story about that character. Remind students to use adjectives and adverbs to help them describe the character and the setting. With the Class: Have students read all the stories. Then discuss what they noticed about how the other writers used adjectives and adverbs. 27
  • 28. ACTIVITYName _____________________________________________________________ Date _________________ Adjectives and Adverbs That’s Quite a Character! Use the character shape at the right to help you describe a character for a story. Draw as many details as you can to show precisely who this character is. Grammar Activities That Really Grab Em © Sarah Glasscock, Scholastic Teaching Resources Use the details you drew to write a description of your character. Think of just the right adjectives and adverbs to use. _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ Now think of this character doing something. Describe what he or she is doing. Think of just the right verbs and adverbs to use. _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ 28
  • 29. All About Prepositions ] This land was made for you and me. —Woody Guthrie A preposition shows the connection between a noun or a pronoun and the rest of a sentence. This mini-lesson focuses on the following aspects of prepositions: • purpose of prepositions • prepositional phrasesGrammar Activities That Really Grab Em © Sarah Glasscock, Scholastic Teaching Resources Introduction Begin a mini-lesson by writing a short definition of prepositions on the board, for example: “A preposition connects a noun or a pronoun to the rest of the sentence: The kitten hid under the table.” Teach Do you like Distribute copies of the passage “A Long Bicycle Ride Up and of about almost 60 8–10 mil to ride you miles per es per hou r bicycle to school r. The ride 1 rs in the or in the 1 park? You can probab ly pedal hour. Wo Tour de Fra at speeds uld you like nce bicycle Down Mountains,” on page 31 to students. Read it aloud and ask The race race ofte ends on to go tha n reach spe July 26. Bet t fast? On ween tho 2 July 4, the eds of Most of 3 se dates, Tour de Fra the Tour riders ped nce begins. de France al more tha word de takes pla n 2,200 means “of ce in Fra miles. ” in French nce. (You them to follow along. Then use the teaching guide on page 30 to 4 They clim .) The ride probably b up the rs pedal already gue Alps and through ssed that! the race, 5 down the villages and The the bicyclis m again. around sha ts have ridd5 By the end rp curves of France en around of . . the perime discuss how the writer used prepositions in the passage. ter Teams of riders from de France all over the . American world rac Lance Arm e in the Tou six times. strong has r Grammar That’s the won the (Also see the lessons on pronouns on pages 11–16 and de France . Holding most any one has ever won race Activities that reco the Tour for you or rd would me. For Lan probably ce Armstro be enough That Reall race afte 6 ng, it’s not phrases and clauses on pages 47–52.) r his Tou . He didn’t r de France Armstrong win in 200 y Grab ‘Em!, decided 6. Then, to ride aga in 2009, day three in. Today of the Tou is July 7, r de France 2009, second pla . Lance Arm Grades 3–5 ce. Will he strong is win one in Only one more Tou rider win r de France ? © 2010 by Apply s the Tou make sure r de France that one , but the of their tea team me ride with? m wins. mbers wo rk togeth Sarah Glass If you we 7 re in the er. They Tour de Fra want to nce, who would you cock, Schol like to astic Teach Duplicate the Jigsaw Puzzle reproducible on page 34 onto ing Resou rces card stock; make a copy for each student. Go over the prepositions at the top of the page and then the directions for labeling the puzzle pieces. Model how you would label the first two puzzle pieces. Name ___ ______ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _______ Monitor students’ progress and offer guidance Date ___ ______ ________ as necessary—when they label their pieces and when they solve their partners’ puzzles. Allow Write the letter A in time for students to talk about how they used the one of the about wh puzzle piec ere the oth es. Use pre er pieces positions relation to are. Tell wh to give clue the A piec ere each s e. Write piece in the Then cut a clue in puzzle is each of the in preposition clues to put the pieces together. apart you other puz r puzzle. zle pieces. the puzzle Mix up the together. pieces. Ask Remind him a friend to or her to put use the pre position clues. rces ing Resou astic Teach cock, Schol Sarah Glass 2010 by s 3–5 © ‘Em!, Grade Really Grab That Activities Grammar 29
  • 30. PrepositionsPrepositions connect nouns and objective pronouns to the rest of the sentence and give usinformation about their relationship to the sentence, including time, place, location, andmovement.KEY POINTS TEACHING WITH THE MODEL PASSAGE•  t’s okay to end a sentence with a preposition— I 2 The word to is most often used as a preposition. as long as the preposition can’t be deleted from In this sentence, however, it is part of the infinitive the sentence. verb to go. Correct: Who are you going with? 4 Many other languages, such as French and Incorrect: Where do you live at? Spanish, have prepositions, too. If you’re still in doubt, think about this 5 There are about 100 prepositions in the English quotation from Winston Churchill: “Ending a language. Each has a different meaning. The sentence with a preposition is something up prepositions in this sentence are up and down. with which I will not put.” Ask students to try using under, through, or with in the sentence instead. Does the sentence still Grammar Activities That Really Grab Em © Sarah Glasscock, Scholastic Teaching Resources make sense? 7 You can end a sentence with a preposition. Say the sentence without the preposition. If it doesn’t make sense, keep the preposition at the end. If it does make sense, get rid of the preposition.Prepositional PhrasesA prepositional phrase begins with a preposition and ends with an object pronoun.KEY POINTS TEACHING WITH THE MODEL PASSAGE•  he pronoun in a prepositional phrase is T 1 This sentence has two prepositional phrases: always an object pronoun—me, you, him, her, to school and in the park. Ask: What is the difference it, us, you, them. between riding to school and riding in the park? How does each preposition help you tell the difference?•  prepositional phrase that has two pronouns A or a noun and pronoun tends to trip up people, 3 Some prepositional phrases can appear in and they use a subject pronoun instead of different places in a sentence. You could move the an object pronoun: for you and I (which is prepositional phrase in this sentence: On July 26, incorrect) instead of for you and me. the race ends. 6 Remind students that a pronoun in a prepositional phrase has to be objective. Me is an objective pronoun. Although students might write or say for you and I, they probably wouldn’t write or say for I. 30
  • 31. MODEL PASSAGE Prepositions A Long Bicycle Ride Up and Down Mountains Do you like to ride your bicycle to school or in the park? You can probably pedal at speeds 1 1 of about 8–10 miles per hour. The riders in the Tour de France bicycle race often reach speeds of almost 60 miles per hour. Would you like to go that fast? On July 4, the Tour de France begins. 2 The race ends on July 26. Between those dates, riders pedal more than 2,200 miles. 3 Most of the Tour de France takes place in France. (You probably already guessed that! TheGrammar Activities That Really Grab Em © Sarah Glasscock, Scholastic Teaching Resources word de means “of” in French.) The riders pedal through villages and around sharp curves. 4 They climb up the Alps and down them again. By the end of 5 5 the race, the bicyclists have ridden around the perimeter of France. Teams of riders from all over the world race in the Tour de France. American Lance Armstrong has won the race six times. That’s the most anyone has ever won the Tour de France. Holding that record would probably be enough for you or me. For Lance Armstrong, it’s not. He didn’t 6 race after his Tour de France win in 2006. Then, in 2009, Armstrong decided to ride again. Today is July 7, 2009, day three of the Tour de France. Lance Armstrong is in second place. Will he win one more Tour de France? Only one rider wins the Tour de France, but the team members work together. They want to make sure that one of their team wins. If you were in the Tour de France, who would you like to ride with? 7 A preposition connects a noun or a pronoun to the rest of a sentence. In this passage, you’ll see: • prepositions • prepositional phrases 31
  • 32. WRITING PROMPTS Prepositions Teachers: Duplicate these prompts on sturdy paper and then cut them apart. You may also write the prompts on the board or display them onscreen.$ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ----------------------------------------------- - - - - - - -Name _______________________________________________________________ Date _______________ This Land . . . Write! Woody Guthrie was a singer and a songwriter. In 1940, he wrote a song about America called “This Land Is Your Land.” Here are some lines of his song: Grammar Activities That Really Grab Em © Sarah Glasscock, Scholastic Teaching Resources This land is your land, this land is my land From California, to the New York Island; Wr ite yo ur From the redwood forest, to the Gulf Stream waters ful l respo ns e on a sepa rat e This land was made for you and me. sh eet of pa per. Think about the last line of the song: “This land was made for you and me.” What do these words mean to you? With the Rest of the Class: Identify the prepositional phrase in the last line of the song. What do you notice about it? Then talk about what words you could add to the song to tell about the place where you live.$-- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ----------------------------------------------- - - - - - - -Name _______________________________________________________________ Date _______________ My Room Write! Draw a picture of your room at home. Then choose one object in your drawing to write about. Imagine that the drawing and your words are one page in a picture book. Think about how to use prepositions and prepositional phrases in your description of the object. Which prepositions help show its location or its place in relationship to other parts of the room? With the Rest of the Class: Share your work with the rest of the class. Wr ite yo ur Talk about the different ways you and your classmates used prepositions and ful l respo ns e on a sepa rat e prepositional phrases. How did the prepositions help you describe the object? sh eet of pa per. 32
  • 33. Activities: Prepositions A Stack of Prepositions for a Story Materials: Two sets of 5 index cards, markers Give the following directions to pairs: Make a stack of five Preposition cards and a stack of five Noun cards. Write a different preposition on each Preposition card. Write a different noun on each Noun card. Turn each stack of cards facedown. Then exchange the two stacks of cards with another group. With your partner, draw a Preposition card and a Noun card. Work together to make a prepositional phrase and include it in a sentence. This will be the first line of a story. Draw another Preposition card and a Noun card. Make another prepositional phrase. Include it in the next sentence you add to your story. With the Class: Have pairs share their stories with the rest of the class and talk about how theyGrammar Activities That Really Grab Em © Sarah Glasscock, Scholastic Teaching Resources used prepositional phrases to create their stories. Ask: Suppose you had made Noun and Pronoun cards. Which pronouns always go with prepositions? Every Word You Add Work with students to write a long sentence. Begin by writing a prepositional phrase on the board or onscreen. Then ask students to take turns doing the following: • Add another prepositional phrase. Tell your teacher where to write it in the sentence. • Add a noun or a verb. Tell your teacher where to write it in the sentence. The sentence has to make sense, so urge students to take time to read it carefully before they add words to it. With the Class: Discuss the following questions: How many words long is your sentence? How many prepositions does it have? How many prepositional phrases does it have? How did you decide which words to add? If you added a preposition or a prepositional phrase, how did you decide where to put it in the sentence? Draw That Preposition Tell students to draw a picture that shows a preposition. For example, someone might draw a picture of a girl giving a present to her friend. So that drawing would show the preposition to. Before beginning to draw, students should do the following: • Choose a preposition. • Think of a sentence that has that preposition in it. • Draw a picture of that sentence. Then have them exchange drawings with a partner and guess which preposition their partner is showing. With the Class: Talk about how students could use the letters of a preposition to show what the preposition means. For example, for the preposition over, someone might write the letters O-V-E-R in a curve, like a bridge. Below the letters, he or she might draw some wavy lines to show water. 33
  • 34. ACTIVITYName _____________________________________________________________ Date _________________ Prepositions Jigsaw Puzzle Some Prepositions about above after against at before behind beside between beyond for in Grammar Activities That Really Grab Em © Sarah Glasscock, Scholastic Teaching Resources into of off on onto to toward under up upon with without Write the letter A in one of the puzzle pieces. Use prepositions to give clues Example about where the other pieces are. Tell where each piece in the puzzle is in relation to the A piece. Write a clue in each of the other puzzle pieces. Then cut apart your puzzle. Mix up the pieces. Ask a friend to put the puzzle together. Remind him or her to use the preposition clues. 34
  • 35. All About Singular and Plural Nouns and Verbs ] One of the glories of English simplicity is the possibility of using the same word as noun and verb. —Edward Sapir A singular noun refers to only one person, animal, thing, or idea, and plural nouns refer to two or more. A singular verb always goes with a singular subject, and a plural verb always goes with a plural subject.Grammar Activities That Really Grab Em © Sarah Glasscock, Scholastic Teaching Resources This mini-lesson focuses on the following aspects of nouns and verbs: • singular and plural nouns • singular and plural verbs • subject-verb agreement Introduction Students trying to make sense of the rules of grammar might not agree with Edward Sapir’s opinion about the simplicity of our Cinderella her fingers. ’s stepmo “Burn tho ther thro se peels, 1 ws her ban ana peels in the dire The peels Cindy. The ction of the n clean the fireplace language. Although the parts of speech are separate compartments, land on the ashes out and snaps apple pee 2 clean floo of the fire ls, eggshe r. Cinder place,” she lls, and pea ella places 1 them in a orders. Stepmoth pods. She metal pot er Dear. curtsies and on top of The smo replies, “W a pile of ke is bad e don’t bur There is for the air a word such as fire can be stored in the noun compartment or in the a smear and the lan n trash any of banana d. We com more, this out wh on one of post our en her two the stepmo 3 trash now stepsisters ther’s chin .” paper. “Th bustle into s. Cinder e king has the room. ella is abo invited us One of the ut to poi sure—will to a ball! nt verb compartment. Then there are the issues of collective nouns be there!” His handso 4 stepsisters me son, waves a the prince— piece of Three we my future eks later, husband, a happy I’m shoes, she group goe sits down s to the bal to relax. 5 l. Cinder and multiple verbs in a sentence, agreement between subjects and Godmoth A puff of ella is left Grammar er steps thro smoke app behind. Kic ugh the ears in the king off her The mice smoke. “Ti room. Cou in the cor me to go ghing, Cin Activities 6 ner of the to the bal derella’s Cinderella room duc l!” She wa Fairy shakes her k. ves her ma gic wand. verbs, and noun phrases that separate a subject from the verb. head. “I’m 7 That Reall recycled not going paper! And to the bal do you kno l. The inv drafty cas w how mu itation wa y Grab ‘Em!, tle? What ch energy sn’t even I’d really the king printed on appear in like you uses to hea our backya to do is ma t and coo rd.” ke a win l that hug dmill e, Grades 3–5 Cinderella got her win prince. Alm dmill. Her Teach ost everyo stepsister got the © 2010 by ne lived happily eve r after. Sarah Glass cock, Schol Distribute copies of the passage “Cinderella Goes Green” on page astic Teach ing Resou 37 to students. Read it aloud and ask them to follow along. Then rces use the teaching guide on page 36 to discuss how the writer used singular and plural nouns and verbs in the passage. (Also see the lessons on nouns on pages 5–10, verbs on Name ___ ______ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ pages 17–22, and subjects and predicates on pages 41–46.) _______ Date ___ ______ ________ Some wo rds can be used as nou ns and as verbs. Her Apply e’s a list of some of them. Give each student a copy of the Even = Noun, Odd = Verb reproducible on page 40, and go over the list of words. Before Can you think of three mo re words _________ that can be nouns pairs begin playing the game, model how you would create a _________ or verbs? _____ _________ rces _________ _____ ing Resou _________ _________ _____ noun sentence and a verb sentence for a word that’s not on astic Teach cock, Schol the list, such as trick. Make sure students understand that Sarah Glass 2010 by they are not working with homophones, words that sound s 3–5 © ‘Em!, Grade the same but are spelled differently. Really Grab That Activities Grammar 35
  • 36. Singular and Plural NounsA singular noun names one person, animal, thing, or idea. A plural noun names more thanone person, animal, thing, or idea.KEY POINTS TEACHING WITH THE MODEL PASSAGE•  collective noun, such as team, describes A 3 In this sentence, the word land is used as a a group of more than one person, animal, singular noun. Land is one of those words that can thing, or idea. It can be singular or plural, be used as a noun or a verb. depending on whether the group is acting as 5 The noun group is called a collective noun. one (singular) or individually (plural): The Nouns such as band, class, team, and jury are group of swallows wheels and turns to the south. collective nouns. They are singular nouns because The group of birdwatchers drive home in separate they refer to a group working together as one. cars. To avoid confusion, suggest that students rewrite sentences that contain collective nouns: Together, the swallows wheel and turn to the south. The birdwatchers drive home in their Grammar Activities That Really Grab Em © Sarah Glasscock, Scholastic Teaching Resources separate cars. •  he British usually use plural verbs with T collective nouns, which can sound strange to Americans—the jury are undecided.Singular and Plural VerbsA singular verb always goes with a singular noun. A plural verb always goes with aplural noun.KEY POINTS TEACHING WITH THE MODEL PASSAGE•  ust as a sentence can have more than one J 1 This sentence has two verbs—throws and snaps. subject, it can have more than one verb: Jack The verbs go with the singular noun, stepmother, and Jill huff and puff up the hill. Both verbs so both are singular. must be parallel—have the same tense—and 2 In this sentence, the word land is used as a must agree with the single or compound plural verb. subject. 7 Duck is a plural verb. The singular verb is ducks. If there had only been one mouse, the sentence would read, The mouse in the corner of the room ducks. (Duck is another word that can be used as a noun or a verb.)Subject-Verb AgreementThe subject and verb in a sentence must agree. A singular subject takes a singular verb.A plural subject takes a plural verb.KEY POINTS TEACHING WITH THE MODEL PASSAGE•  n a sentence such as The girl on the swings I 4 In this sentence, the subject is one and not glides through the air, students may think that stepsisters, so the verb has to be singular. the subject is swings because of its location 6 The subject of this sentence is mice, which is next to the verb glides. Emphasize that the a plural noun—and irregular. The verb is duck, subject of the sentence always dictates which is plural. This subject and verb agree. whether the verb is singular or plural.•  hen a collective noun is the subject, a noun W phrase often separates it from the verb. 36
  • 37. MODEL PASSAGE Singular and Plural Nouns and Verbs Cinderella Goes Green Cinderella’s stepmother throws her banana peels in the direction of the fireplace and snaps 1 1 her fingers. “Burn those peels, Cindy. Then clean the ashes out of the fireplace,” she orders. The peels land on the clean floor. Cinderella places them in a metal pot on top of a pile of 2 apple peels, eggshells, and pea pods. She curtsies and replies, “We don’t burn trash anymore, Stepmother Dear. The smoke is bad for the air and the land. We compost our trash now.”Grammar Activities That Really Grab Em © Sarah Glasscock, Scholastic Teaching Resources 3 There is a smear of banana on one of the stepmother’s chins. Cinderella is about to point this out when her two stepsisters bustle into the room. One of the stepsisters waves a piece of 4 paper. “The king has invited us to a ball! His handsome son, the prince—my future husband, I’m sure—will be there!” Three weeks later, a happy group goes to the ball. Cinderella is left behind. Kicking off her 5 shoes, she sits down to relax. A puff of smoke appears in the room. Coughing, Cinderella’s Fairy Godmother steps through the smoke. “Time to go to the ball!” She waves her magic wand. The mice in the corner of the room duck. 6 7 Cinderella shakes her head. “I’m not going to the ball. The invitation wasn’t even printed on recycled paper! And do you know how much energy the king uses to heat and cool that huge, drafty castle? What I’d really like you to do is make a windmill appear in our backyard.” Cinderella got her windmill. Her stepsister got the prince. Almost everyone lived happily ever after. Singular nouns and singular verbs go together. Plural nouns and plural verbs go together. In this passage, you’ll see: • singular and plural nouns • singular and plural verbs • subject-verb agreement 37
  • 38. WRITING PROMPTS Singular and Plural Nouns and Verbs Teachers: Duplicate these prompts on sturdy paper and then cut them apart. You may also write the prompts on the board or display them onscreen.$ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ----------------------------------------------- - - - - - - -Name _______________________________________________________________ Date _______________ More Characters Move In Write! A good story has the following elements: • one or more interesting characters Grammar Activities That Really Grab Em © Sarah Glasscock, Scholastic Teaching Resources • a setting that shows where and when the story happens • a problem • a description of how the character or characters try to solve the problem • the solution to the problem Write a one-paragraph mini-story about one pony, one puppy, or one cow. Then rewrite your story so it’s about more than one pony, one puppy, or one cow. With the Rest of the Class: What did you have to do to change your story from one character to more than one character?$- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ----------------------------------------------- - - - - - - -Name _______________________________________________________________ Date _______________ Follow That Noun Phrase Write! Complete the sentences with verbs. The cabin in the woods ________________________________________________________ . Fourteen pickles in a jar ________________________________________________________ . The band on the field __________________________________________________________ . A caterpillar on the leaf __________________________ and __________________________ . With the Rest of the Class: Share your sentences with a small group. Talk about how you decided whether to use a singular or a plural verb to complete each sentence. How were your sentences alike and different? 38
  • 39. Activities: Singular and Plural Nouns and Verbs Book Safari! None of the others, not even the goose, noticed that she [Charlotte] was at work. —from Charlotte’s Web by E. B. White Display this sentence on the board or onscreen so the class can see it. Point out that the subject (None) and verb (noticed) in the above sentence aren’t next to each other. Have students try rewriting the sentence in the present tense. When you’ve discussed why the agreement is singular (none—notices), invite groups on a book safari, giving them these instructions: • Search through your favorite books for sentences where the subjects and verbs are  separated.Grammar Activities That Really Grab Em © Sarah Glasscock, Scholastic Teaching Resources • If the sentences are in the past tense, rewrite them in the present tense. (First identify the  verb. Then, to find the subject, ask yourself who or what did that action.) • Record your results in your writing folders or notebooks.  With the Class: Have students share and discuss their results. A Short Message Materials: a strip of card stock, colored markers Review the characteristics of an effective bumper sticker: the message gives the driver’s opinion about something in a short phrase or sentence so people can read it quickly and from a distance. Hand out strips of card stock and have students design a bumper sticker with a two-word message using only one noun and one verb. With the Class: Display students’ bumper stickers on the wall. Ask: Which ones really jump out at you? Which ones would you put on a car if you owned one? Do you see more singular nouns and verbs or more plural nouns and verbs on the bumper stickers? The School Shopping Channel Ask students to imagine that your school has its own TV channel called the School Shopping Channel. On it, they can sell items to raise money for your school. Have students work together to write a short script to read on TV. Tell them to think about the following: the product they want to sell, how much it will cost, why they want to sell it, what makes the product special, and what each group member will say. Have them consider how to put together their nouns and verbs. Give them this format for each speaker: Sam: I’m Sam from Class 4A. Our class needs your help! With the Class: Set aside time for groups to rehearse their scripts. Then have them perform for the class and take “orders” for their products from the other students. How much money did each group raise? 39
  • 40. ACTIVITYName _____________________________________________________________ Date _________________ Singular Nouns and Verbs Even = Noun, Odd = Verb Some words can be used as nouns and as verbs. Here’s a list of some of them. color plant row train kick cut fire hunt smell Grammar Activities That Really Grab Em © Sarah Glasscock, Scholastic Teaching Resources speed blast roll dart knock fly dance drink sink trap smile drop stole yell bark ram whisper type fish turn drink Can you think of three more words that can be nouns or verbs? _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ Use the list to play the Noun or Verb game. • Choose a word. • Take turns rolling a number cube. • f you roll an even number, use the word as a noun in a sentence. Your partner then I makes up a sentence using the word as a verb. • f you roll an odd number, use the word as a verb in a sentence. Your partner then makes I up a sentence using the word as a noun. • Write down your pairs of sentences. 40
  • 41. All About Subjects and Predicates ] There is no conversation more boring than the one where everybody agrees. —Michel De Montaigne Agreement between two speakers might make their conversation dull, but if the subjects and predicates in their sentences don’t agree, then their conversation will be confusing and disagreeable. This mini-lesson focuses on the following aspects of subjects and predicates: • subjects • compound subjectsGrammar Activities That Really Grab Em © Sarah Glasscock, Scholastic Teaching Resources • predicates • compound predicates Note: Earlier in the book, you’ll find the phrase subject-verb agreement. This chapter expands the concept of the verb as the predicate (or the key part of the predicate). Introduction Begin a mini-lesson on subjects and predicates by writing a short A stack of blueberry definition for each on the board, for example: “The subject is what or beside the 1 pancakes lands on pancakes. my plate. It seems Then two holds a spa like my bre eggs land tula in eac akfast cam sunny-side h hand. Tho e out of -up right why Spa se spatula nowhere! tula Sal is s are mo The cook, the fastest ving so fast Spatula Sal, whom the sentence is about. The predicate tells what the subject is As I eat, and 24 slice and ten hot I look up 2 s of bacon and count twisting 2 flipper in 12 pieces in the air. the West. of French toast that her hands are a blur. Tha t’s dogs sizz Ten ham burgers or does. The subject and predicate of a sentence must agree. If the le on the off the grill 3 grill. Wit , Spatula hout taki 3 Sal holds ng her eye of French out four s toast and plates. Thr six slices ee pieces Spatula Sal 4 of bacon fall on eac has been h plate. subject is singular, the predicate must be singular. If the subject is and eggs flipping bur since she gers and was a tiny pancakes 2 years old, , little girl. Grammar 5 her parent When she s brough was She was t her to this hungry. Hec diner. Activities plural, then the predicate must be plural.” k, she was crowded ravenous. . There wer The dine e about 50 r was That Really the cook orders bef to fry her ore Sal’s. eggs. Afte She was and clim r wigglin so hungry bed on a g out of 6 that she Grab ‘Em!, stack of her high couldn’t scrambled 7 milk cart chair, Sal wait for ons. She toddled beh eggs, and grabbed ind the cou sausage a spatula 7 nter mouth whi patties, all and started Grades 3–5 Teach le she was at once. flipping has at it. She flipp h browns ed a cou , Since tha ple of frie t day, Sal’ d eggs into © 2010 by s been the her 8 fastest flipp er in the West. Sarah Glass cock, Schol Distribute copies of the passage “The Fastest Flipper in the West” astic Teach ing Resou on page 43 to students. Read it aloud and ask them to follow along. rces Then use the teaching guide on page 42 to discuss how the writer used subjects and predicates in the passage. (Also see the lessons on nouns on pages 5–10, verbs on pages 17–22, Name ___ ______ _________ _________ _________ singular and plural nouns and verbs on pages 35–40, and phrases and _________ _________ _______ Date ___ ______ ________ clauses on pages 47­ 52.) – You read Paul Bun a tall tale yan, John about Spa Henry, Pec tula Sal. Write a poe m about your poe os Bill—or other tall- m, replace make up tale charact the underlin your own ers. Thin add more ed title and larger-than k about stanzas, subjects -life charact too. For and predica ers. To crea each new tes in “Sp te Apply stanza, add atula Sal. one more ” (You can subject and predicate.) Duplicate the Agreement Poetry reproducible on page 46 and give a copy to each student. After going over the directions and the rces ing Resou astic Teach example, work with the class to complete the first and second ock, Schol Sarah Glassc stanzas. Make sure students understand that the noun is the subject 2010 by s 3–5 © and the verb is the predicate. Then have them write the third stanza ‘Em!, Grade Really Grab on their own. Encourage students to compose additional stanzas. That Activities Grammar 41
  • 42. SubjectsThe subject tells who or what the sentence is about.KEY POINTS TEACHING WITH THE MODEL PASSAGE•  sentence has a subject and a predicate. They A 1 The simple subject of this sentence is stack, must agree with each other. which is singular. The complete subject is a stack•  he most important part of the subject is the T of blueberry pancakes. noun or pronoun (the simple subject). 5 Spatula Sal is the simple subject of this•  complete subject contains the simple subject A sentence. The pronoun she is part of the clause and all the words that go with it. since she was a tiny, little girl. This clause has a subject and a predicate, but it doesn’t make sense on its own.PredicatesThe predicate tells what the subject is or does. Grammar Activities That Really Grab Em © Sarah Glasscock, Scholastic Teaching ResourcesKEY POINTS TEACHING WITH THE MODEL PASSAGE•  he most important part of the predicate is the T 6 This sentence has two pronouns and two verbs, verb (the simple predicate). but it only has one subject and one predicate: She•  complete predicate contains the simple A was. The complete predicate (was so hungry that predicate and all the words that go with it. she couldn’t wait for the cook to fry her eggs) contains the clause that she couldn’t wait for the cook to fry•  ake sure that students understand that the M her eggs, which can’t stand on its own. dependent clauses in Points 5 and 6 cannot stand on their own—even though each 8 Sal’s is a contraction that stands for Sal has. This contains a subject and a verb. contraction contains the simple subject and part of the simple predicate. The entire simple predicate is has been.Compound SubjectsA compound subject has two or more subjects joined by a coordinating conjunction—and, or, but.KEY POINTS TEACHING WITH THE MODEL PASSAGE•  f and joins subjects, use a plural predicate: My I 3 The compound subjects in this sentence are sister and her friends were screaming during hamburgers and hot dogs. Separating the sentences the scary movie. would mean repeating the same words: Ten•  f or joins the subjects, the subject right before I hamburgers sizzle on the grill. Ten hot dogs sizzle the verb (the simple predicate) determines on the grill. Good writers try to avoid repetition— whether it is singular or plural: My sister or unless they want to repeat words for emphasis or her friend was screaming during the scary rhythmic effect. movie. 4 A compound subject joined by the coordinating conjunction and always takes a plural verb.Compound PredicatesA compound predicate has two or more predicates joined by a coordinating conjunction.KEY POINTS TEACHING WITH THE MODEL PASSAGE•  he verbs in the compound predicate must T 2 The main verbs in this sentence are look and always be the same tense: My sister was count, and they form a compound predicate. You screaming during the scary movie, throwing could rewrite this sentence as two sentences: As her popcorn into the air, and spilling her bottle I eat, I look up in the air. I count 12 pieces of French of water. Point out that the auxiliary verb, in toast and 24 slices of bacon. this case was, doesn’t have to be repeated with 7 Both toddled and climbed are past-tense verbs. each verb. 42
  • 43. MODEL PASSAGE Subjects and Predicates The Fastest Flipper in the West A stack of blueberry pancakes lands on my plate. Then two eggs land sunny-side-up right 1 beside the pancakes. It seems like my breakfast came out of nowhere! The cook, Spatula Sal, holds a spatula in each hand. Those spatulas are moving so fast that her hands are a blur. That’s why Spatula Sal is the fastest flipper in the West. As I eat, I look up and count 12 pieces of French toastGrammar Activities That Really Grab Em © Sarah Glasscock, Scholastic Teaching Resources 2 2 and 24 slices of bacon twisting in the air. Ten hamburgers 3 and ten hot dogs sizzle on the grill. Without taking her eyes 3 off the grill, Spatula Sal holds out four plates. Three pieces of French toast and six slices of bacon fall on each plate. 4 Spatula Sal has been flipping burgers and pancakes and eggs since she was a tiny, little girl. When she was 5 2 years old, her parents brought her to this diner. She was hungry. Heck, she was ravenous. The diner was crowded. There were about 50 orders before Sal’s. She was so hungry that she couldn’t wait for 6 the cook to fry her eggs. After wiggling out of her high chair, Sal toddled behind the counter 7 and climbed on a stack of milk cartons. She grabbed a spatula and started flipping hash browns, 7 scrambled eggs, and sausage patties, all at once. She flipped a couple of fried eggs into her mouth while she was at it. Since that day, Sal’s been the fastest flipper in the West. 8 A sentence has a subject and a predicate. They must agree with each other. In this passage, you’ll see: • subjects • predicates • compound subjects • compound predicates 43
  • 44. WRITING PROMPTS Subjects and Predicates Teachers: Duplicate these prompts on sturdy paper and then cut them apart. You may also write the prompts on the board or display them onscreen.$- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ----------------------------------------------- - - - - - - -Name _______________________________________________________________ Date _______________ My Favorite Subject Write! What are your two favorite subjects in school right now? Math? Social studies? Science? Language arts? Write a short paragraph comparing the two subjects. Grammar Activities That Really Grab Em © Sarah Glasscock, Scholastic Teaching Resources With the Rest of the Class: Talk about your favorite subjects. Tell which subjects you used in your paragraphs to talk about your favorite subjects. Did you use only singular subjects? Did you include any compound subjects?$-- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ----------------------------------------------- - - - - - - -Name _______________________________________________________________ Date _______________ All Predicate and No Subject? Write! Read this sentence: Dance with me! Does this sentence seem like it’s all predicate and no subject? The sentence is an imperative sentence. It gives a command. The subject, you, is understood: [You] dance with me! Complete the imperative sentences below. Write at least two different sentences for each command. Go _________________________ ! Follow _________________________ ! Take _________________________ ! Write _________________________ ! With the Rest of the Class: Share your imperative sentences with a partner. Try to create an imperative sentence that has a compound predicate. Combine one of your commands with one of your partner’s. 44
  • 45. Activities: Subjects and Predicates That’s a Strange Subject Materials: dictionary Have students search the dictionary for a noun they aren’t familiar with and then write a few sentences about it. Here are some guidelines to give them: • Use the noun so that anyone would be able to figure out its meaning. • Make your noun the subject of at least two sentences. • Underline your noun when you use it as a subject. Example: The tinnitus [TIN-ih-tus] made Mary clutch her ears. It sounded like an entire hive of bees was buzzing angrily inside her head. “Tinnitus can be caused by many different things,”Grammar Activities That Really Grab Em © Sarah Glasscock, Scholastic Teaching Resources Mary’s doctor was saying. Mary couldn’t hear him through the buzzing. With the Class: Tell students to share their sentences with a partner. Have each partner explain whether the underlined subject is singular or plural—and how he or she knows. The Rules of the Game Materials: deck of cards, number cubes, and/or spinners Display a variety of games and their rules for pairs to look at to help them create a new game. It should be a game that at least two people can play. Supply the following guidelines: • Write down the rules of your game. • Play the game a few times to make sure it works. • Rewrite the rules to make them as clear as you can. (Look at the rules for other games.)  • Make sure that all your subjects and predicates agree. With the Class: Suggest that pairs give their games to other pairs to play and that they keep the following questions in mind: Were the players able to use the rules to play the game? Can they suggest any changes in the rules to make them clearer? A Very Long, Compound Predicate Say a simple subject, and then call on a student to add a simple predicate to it. As you continue to call on students for simple predicates, write their responses on the board to create one very long sentence. Then work with students to decide which coordinating conjunction or conjunctions—and, or, but—to use to connect the simple predicates. Example: Teacher: The cows in the field . . . Student 1: munched on grass, . . . Student 2: mooed at the moon, . . . With the Class: Challenge students to rewrite their very long sentence so it has a subject and only two predicates. 45
  • 46. ACTIVITYName _____________________________________________________________ Date _________________ Subjects and Predicates Agreement Poetry You read a tall tale about Spatula Sal. Write a poem about other tall-tale characters. Think about Paul Bunyan, John Henry, Pecos Bill—or make up your own larger-than-life characters. To create your poem, replace the underlined title and subjects and predicates in “Spatula Sal.” (You can Grammar Activities That Really Grab Em © Sarah Glasscock, Scholastic Teaching Resources add more stanzas, too. For each new stanza, add one more subject and predicate.) SPATULA SAL First stanza: Spatula Sal flips. She flips all day long. Second stanza: Spatula Sal and Pecos Bill flip and rope. They flip and rope all day long. Third stanza: Spatula Sal and Pecos Bill and John Henry flip and rope and hammer. They flip and rope and hammer all day long. 46
  • 47. All About Phrases and Clauses ] If writers stopped writing about what happened to them, then there would be a lot of empty pages. —Elaine Liner The above quote has two phrases and two clauses. A phrase is a group of words without a subject or a predicate: about what happened and of empty pages. A clause contains a subject and a predicate: If writers stopped writing, and then there would be a lot of empty pages. This mini- lesson focuses on the following aspects of phrases and clauses:Grammar Activities That Really Grab Em © Sarah Glasscock, Scholastic Teaching Resources • phrases • independent clauses • dependent clauses Introduction Begin this mini-lesson by sharing the definitions of phrases and clauses in the box above. As an example, write a related group of phrases and clauses such as the following: between the front and back wheels (prepositional phrase) the woman freed the armadillo (independent clause) when it was trapped (dependent clause) When 10-y Ask students how each phrase and clause matches the definitions. Then 1 ear-old Ame described lia Earhart the plane saw her as “a thin first airplane g of rust , she was More imp y wire and n’t very exci ressed by wood and ted. She started at 2 roller coas not at all the top of ters, Ame interesting.” lia tried to a toolshed build one challenge them to help you combine the phrases and clauses into one down the and ended in her back ramp, tum on the grou yard. The bling onto nd. Ame ramp Amelia had 3 the grou lia climbed a huge smil nd at the into a box e on her bottom. and slid face. She Despite a described hurt lip and her ride as a torn dres “just like s, flying!” sentence. Here’s a sample sentence: The woman freed the armadillo when it was trapped between the front and back wheels. Grammar About ten years later Activities pilots wer , Amelia e doing stun finally fell in love with ts and trick flying. She That Really area. He s. One pilot 4 was at an dove and spotted Ame air show aimed his lia and a where She thou plane at friend stan ght she mig them. The friend ran ding in an Grab ‘Em!, ht like to for cover, open Then, whe be flying but Ame as the red Teach n Amelia plane zoom lia didn’t first wom finally flew 5 ed past her. move. in a plan Grades 3–5 an to fly e, she wan 6 by herself ted to be continue across Nor pilot, too. d to mak th America Soon she e many othe and back became © 2010 by Today, a r record-b again. Dur the plane ride reaking fligh ing her shor probably ts. t life, Ame people fly doesn’t seem lia every day. Sarah Glassc Still, the like such about Ame 8 next time a big deal you fly, or to you and lia Earhart. you look me. Thousan 7 ds of up in the ock, Schola 7 sky and see 8 a plane, Distribute copies of the passage “Just Like Flying!” on page 49 to think stic Teachi ng Resour students. Read it aloud and ask them to follow along. Then use the ces teaching guide on page 48 to discuss how the writer used phrases and clauses in the passage. (Also see the lessons on prepositions on pages 29–34 and sentences on Name ____ ____ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ _____ Date ____ ____ ________ _ pages 59–64.) In this activ Number ity, each cube number you roll stan ds for a type of phrase or clause. See the key below. Apply = Indepen dent Clau se that beg = Depend ins with ent Clau a proper se that beg noun = Phrase ins with that beg “when” ins with = Present “down” Participial Phrase that = Past Part begins with icipial Phra “going” Roll the num se that beg ber cube ins with three time “hooted create in s. Write ” the chart. the num Duplicate the Add a Phrase Here, a Clause There reproducible on page 52. ber you rolle d and the phrase or clause you ________ _______ ces ________ ng Resour ________ ________ Give a copy of it and a number cube to each student. Model rolling and _______ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ stic Teachi _______ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ock, Schola ________ ________ Can you ________ create a ________ complete ________ recording three numbers and determining whether you can write a below. If sentence ________ Sarah Glassc you can’ from you t, keep rollin r phrases and clau g numbers and/or clau ses. Then until you ses? If you write you can. Writ can, writ r sentence e down you e it © 2010 by ________ below. r numbers ________ , and phra ________ ses ________ ________ ________ sentence. Then allow students to complete the reproducible on their own. ________ Grades 3–5 ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ __ Grab ‘Em!, ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ __ ________ ________ ________ That Really ________ ________ ________ __ ________ ________ ________ __ Activities Grammar 47
  • 48. PhrasesA phrase is a group of words that doesn’t have a subject and a verb.KEY POINTS TEACHING WITH THE MODEL PASSAGE•  prepositional phrase begins with a preposition A 2 This sentence has the phrase impressed by roller and ends with a noun or an object pronoun: coasters. The phrase has a past-tense verb (impress with Jacqui, with me, with Jacqui and me. + –ed) in it called a past participle. A comma•  sentence can have more than one A sets it off because it comes at the beginning of a prepositional phrase. sentence.•  participial phrase begins with a present A 3 This sentence has the phrase tumbling onto or past participle: Enjoying the cool weather, the ground. The phrase has a present-tense verb the queen walked three miles. The court jester, (tumble + –ing) in it called a present participle. tired from the long walk, staggered behind her. 4 This sentence has two prepositional phrases: in Emphasize that these phrases do not have love and with flying. subjects. 7 Always use an object pronoun—me, you, it, him, Grammar Activities That Really Grab Em © Sarah Glasscock, Scholastic Teaching Resources his, her, us, you, them—in a prepositional phrase.Independent ClausesAn independent clause has a subject and a predicate. It can stand alone as a sentence.KEY POINTS TEACHING WITH THE MODEL PASSAGE•  wo or more independent clauses can T 5 The coordinating conjunction but joins these be joined together with a coordinating two independent clauses. conjunction—for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so. 8 This clause has a subject—thousands—and a (Remember the word FANBOYS.) predicate—fly. It forms a complete sentence on its own, so it’s an independent clause.Dependent ClausesA dependent clause has a subject and a predicate, but it can’t stand alone as a sentence.KEY POINTS TEACHING WITH THE MODEL PASSAGE•  dependent clause begins with a relative A 1 When 10-year-old Amelia Earhart saw her first pronoun—who, that, which, what—or a airplane is a dependent clause. It is combined with subordinating conjunction—if, when, before, an independent clause and set off with a comma since. to make a complete sentence. Since the dependent clause starts the sentence, it’s set off by a comma.•  hen a dependent clause goes before an W independent clause, it is set off by a comma. 6 The dependent clause in this sentence is as the red plane zoomed past her. Since it appears at the end of the sentence, it’s not set off by a comma. 48
  • 49. MODEL PASSAGE Phrases and Clauses Just Like Flying! When 10-year-old Amelia Earhart saw her first airplane, she wasn’t very excited. She 1 described the plane as “a thing of rusty wire and wood and not at all interesting.” More impressed by roller coasters, Amelia tried to build one in her backyard. The ramp 2 started at the top of a toolshed and ended on the ground. Amelia climbed into a box and slid down the ramp, tumbling onto the ground at the bottom. Despite a hurt lip and a torn dress,Grammar Activities That Really Grab Em © Sarah Glasscock, Scholastic Teaching Resources 3 Amelia had a huge smile on her face. She described her ride as “just like flying!” About ten years later, Amelia finally fell in love with flying. She was at an air show where 4 pilots were doing stunts and tricks. One pilot spotted Amelia and a friend standing in an open area. He dove and aimed his plane at them. The friend ran for cover, but Amelia didn’t move. 5 She thought she might like to be flying as the red plane zoomed past her. 6 Then, when Amelia finally flew in a plane, she wanted to be pilot, too. Soon she became the first woman to fly by herself across North America and back again. During her short life, Amelia continued to make many other record-breaking flights. Today, a plane ride probably doesn’t seem like such a big deal to you and me. Thousands of 7 7 8 people fly every day. Still, the next time you fly, or you look up in the sky and see a plane, think 8 about Amelia Earhart. A phrase is a group of words. A clause is a group of words that contains a subject and a predicate. In this passage, you’ll see: • phrases • independent and dependent clauses 49
  • 50. WRITING PROMPTS Phrases and Clauses Teachers: Duplicate these prompts on sturdy paper and then cut them apart. You may also write the prompts on the board or display them onscreen.$- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ----------------------------------------------- - - - - - - -Name _______________________________________________________________ Date _______________ I’m Going Through a Phrase Write! Choose one of the following prepositional or participial phrases. Include it in the lead of a scary short story. Grammar Activities That Really Grab Em © Sarah Glasscock, Scholastic Teaching Resources • in the darkness at the bottom of the stairs • barking at the black shape • dashing for the safety of my room • buried in the backyard With the Rest of the Class: Talk about these questions: How did you use the phrase to set a scary mood for your story? What other phrases do you see in your story?$-- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ----------------------------------------------- - - - - - - -Name _______________________________________________________________ Date _______________ The Clause of It All Write! Choose one of the following clauses. Include it in a sentence. Make that sentence the lead of a funny short story. • that made the stack of cereal boxes tumble down • since my dog ate my homework • the ketchup spurted out of the bottle • who accidentally put on one blue sock and one red sock With the Rest of the Class: Talk about these questions: How did you use the clause to write a sentence? How did you use that lead to set a funny mood for your story? What other clauses do you see in your story? 50
  • 51. ACTIVITIES: Phrases and Clauses A Hide-and-Seek Story Using Prepositional Phrase Clues Materials: drawing materials including paper, colored pencils, and markers Have students work together to write and illustrate a picture book about characters playing hide and seek. The group should use prepositional phrases to show where the characters hide and where they look for each other. For each page of text, they should draw a picture that shows the action and write a caption for each picture. The caption should be in the form of a prepositional phrase. For example, if the drawing shows a boy hiding underneath the bed, the caption might read “underneath the bed.” With the Class: Have two groups meet and talk about how they used prepositional phrases in their stories. Ask them to read each other’s stories and offer positive comments.Grammar Activities That Really Grab Em © Sarah Glasscock, Scholastic Teaching Resources The Clause Convention Materials: index cards, markers, safety pins Form two teams—the Dependent Clauses and the Independent Clauses. Then count off students. Even numbers will write the appropriate clause about the topic of pickles. Odd numbers will write the appropriate clause about the topic of onions. You may also choose your own related topics. Share why people hold conventions (to share information and ideas about common topics) and have students participate in a class Clause Convention with these instructions: • Create your own name tags. Be sure to include your name and whether you’re a  Dependent or an Independent Clause. •  ear your name tag and look for someone at the convention who has the same interest W as yours—pickles or onions. See if you can combine your clauses to create a sentence that makes sense. With the Class: When students can form a clear sentence, write it on the board. Send students back to the convention to see who else they can make a sentence with. “If Only” Clause Poems Direct pairs to write an “If only” poem. The first line is a dependent “if only” clause. The second line is an independent “then” clause that tells what would happen if their wish came true. The third and fourth lines of the stanza repeat the pattern: If only . . ., Then . . . . If only . . ., Then . . . . Challenge pairs to try to write at least three stanzas. With the Class: Tell pairs to practice reading aloud their poem—one partner will read lines 1 and 3 in each stanza, and the other partner will read lines 2 and 4—and then perform it for the class. Talk about the similarities and differences among the poems. 51
  • 52. ACTIVITYName _____________________________________________________________ Date _________________ Phrases and Clauses Add a Phrase Here, a Clause There Materials: Number cube In this activity, each number you roll stands for a type of phrase or clause. See the key below. Grammar Activities That Really Grab Em © Sarah Glasscock, Scholastic Teaching Resources 1 = Independent Clause that begins with a proper noun 2 = Dependent Clause that begins with “when” 3 = Phrase that begins with “down” 4 = Present Participial Phrase that begins with “going” 5 = Past Participial Phrase that begins with “hooted” Roll the number cube three times. Write the number you rolled and the phrase or clause you create in the chart. Number Rolled Phrase or Clause _______________ ________________________________________________________________ _______________ ________________________________________________________________ _______________ ________________________________________________________________ Can you create a complete sentence from your phrases and/or clauses? If you can, write it below. If you can’t, keep rolling numbers until you can. Write down your numbers, and phrases and clauses. Then write your sentence below. __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 52
  • 53. All About Elaboration ] Once you’ve got some words looking back at you, you can take two or three—or throw them away and look for others. —Bernard Malamud In writing, elaboration is the act or process of making our work clearer and richer. As described in the above quote, elaboration involves adding, deleting, and replacing words. This mini-lesson focuses on the following aspects of elaboration: • adding details to make writing more specificGrammar Activities That Really Grab Em © Sarah Glasscock, Scholastic Teaching Resources • adding details to make writing more descriptive • taking out details Introduction Begin the mini-lesson on elaboration by writing the Bernard Malamud quote on the board. Ask students what they think Malamud’s words mean. Explain that Malamud is talking about elaboration—adding Americans doughnuts eat about ! huge am 10 billion doughnuts each yea 1 ount of frie r—and I’m forms of d and sug words, deleting words, or replacing words to make a piece of writing fried dou ared dou one of the gh. The Fre gh! Many m! That’s nch eat bei cultures a lot of The Mexica around the ns eat chu gnets, pillo rros, long 2 ws of frie world hav The Greeks and thin d dough e eat loukou 2 strips of covered mas, frie fried dou in powere d sugar. stronger and clearer. Then write the following sentence on the 0 or 8. I’ve d dough gh rolled never bee 2 shaped like in cinnam n to Mexico the num on sugar. There are , but I’d bers many sto 3 like to go ries about one day. In the 170 who invent 0s, the Du ed the dou board: The dog barked. Ask students for suggestions on how to make tch in New ghnut. City) call Amsterdam ed fried bits (now New of dough York (Do you olykoeks, think we or “oily cak 5 ’d eat so 4 es.” “oily cak many dou es”?) The ghnuts if the sentence more specific and descriptive. y didn’t hav they were a sailor e holes in called Grammar claimed he them. In 6 invented the 1800s, Elizabeth, the doughn had made ut. His mo Activities olykoeks ther, Hanson stu for him to ck an oly take on a koek on sea voyage That Reall his hands the spoke . free to stee of the ship r. The oly ’s wheel. He needed Teach Another koek got y Grab ‘Em!, story say a hole in both s that Eliz the middle how the abeth Gre and becam doughnut gory bak e a doughn got its nam ed a nut ut. e. Later, in the mid Grades 3–5 You can people pul dle of the call doughn led out the olykoek. uts any nam That’s e you wa nut and nt to. I call created the hole. © 2010 by them del icious! Distribute copies of the passage “A Fried Ring of Dough” on page Sarah Glass cock, Schol 55 to students. Read it aloud and ask them to follow along. Then astic Teach ing Resou use the teaching guide on page 54 to discuss how the writer used rces elaboration in the passage. (Also see the lessons on nouns on pages 5­ 10, verbs on – pages 17–22, and adjectives and adverbs on pages 23–28.) Name ___ ______ _________ _________ _________ Apply _________ _________ _______ Date ___ ______ ________ Find four different things in lines belo your clas w. Then sroom tha t are blue. Duplicate the How Blue Am I? reproducible on page 58 and think of Write the describe how to des it. Write cribe eac name of the name h specific each thin on the cor color. Cre g on the responding ate a pain paint can t color nam . e to give a copy to each student. After going over the directions, model how you would choose something in the classroom that is blue and create a paint color name to describe that shade of blue. It could be a wall color, a piece of clothing, rces ing Resou astic Teach the cover of a book, or a student’s eye color. When students cock, Schol Sarah Glass have completed the reproducible, place them in groups so 2010 by s 3–5 © they can share and compare their paint colors. ‘Em!, Grade Choose one of your colo Really Grab shade of r names paint. and write a sho rt ad for that That Activities Grammar 53
  • 54. Adding Details to Make Writing More SpecificBe specific about names, places, and other information.KEY POINTS TEACHING WITH THE MODEL PASSAGE•  rnest Hemingway once said, “All our words E 2 The writer gives three specific examples of from loose using have lost their edge.” Words countries and their fried-dough treats. like very, a lot, and really don’t add specific 6 The writer adds the name of the sailor. If you details to our writing. We need to use words had invented something, wouldn’t you want that still have their edge. everyone to know your name?Adding Details to Make Writing More DescriptiveUse details to create vivid pictures in readers’ minds.KEY POINTS TEACHING WITH THE MODEL PASSAGE•  ven nonfiction—especially nonfiction—needs E 1 Compare the two phrases a lot of doughnuts and Grammar Activities That Really Grab Em © Sarah Glasscock, Scholastic Teaching Resources descriptive details. a huge amount of fried and sugared dough. What•  ncourage students to incorporate sensory E picture pops into your mind when you read each images into their writing. The sentence The phrase? dog is big and nice doesn’t give a reader many 4 Again, the writer gives the specific name of the clues, but the sentence That black Lab is as Dutch treat olykoeks, and that it means “oily cakes” tall as a Shetland pony, but he’s as gentle as in English. a lamb helps readers clearly picture the dog.Taking Out DetailsStay on topic. When you read your writing, look for details that don’t belong or thatyou’ve repeated.KEY POINTS TEACHING WITH THE MODEL PASSAGE•  very word has to count. In our eagerness to E 3 The writer loses sight of the topic. She may convey exactly what we mean in our writing, want to go to Mexico but that doesn’t have it can be easy to include too many details that anything to do with doughnuts, so she deleted the are repetitive or are unnecessary. last sentence.•  e sometimes fall in love with some of the W 5 Some readers might feel that this is words we use and hate to give them up. If unnecessary information. However, the writer has we don’t take out repetitive or unnecessary placed this sentence in parentheses to show she details, we may lose our audience. knows it isn’t completely necessary. It could be cut, but the writer steps in at the beginning and end of the passage, so she is being true to her voice in this passage. 54
  • 55. MODEL PASSAGE Elaboration A Fried Ring of Dough Americans eat about 10 billion doughnuts each year—and I’m one of them! That’s a lot of doughnuts! huge amount of fried and sugared dough! Many cultures around the world have 1 forms of fried dough. The French eat beignets, pillows of fried dough covered in powered sugar. 2 The Mexicans eat churros, long and thin strips of fried dough rolled in cinnamon sugar. 2 The Greeks eat loukoumas, fried dough shaped like the numbersGrammar Activities That Really Grab Em © Sarah Glasscock, Scholastic Teaching Resources 2 0 or 8. I’ve never been to Mexico, but I’d like to go one day. 3 There are many stories about who invented the doughnut. In the 1700s, the Dutch in New Amsterdam (now New York City) called fried bits of dough olykoeks, or “oily cakes.” 4 (Do you think we’d eat so many doughnuts if they were called 5 “oily cakes”?) They didn’t have holes in them. In the 1800s, named Hanson Gregory a sailor ^ claimed he invented the doughnut. His mother, 6 Elizabeth, had made olykoeks for him to take on a sea voyage. Hanson stuck an olykoek on the spoke of the ship’s wheel. He needed both his hands free to steer. The olykoek got a hole in the middle and became a doughnut. Another story says that Elizabeth Gregory baked a nut in the middle of the olykoek. That’s how the doughnut got its name. Later, people pulled out the nut and created the hole. You can call doughnuts any name you want to. I call them delicious! Elaboration makes your writing clear, specific, and vivid. In this passage, you’ll see: • adding details to make writing more specific • adding details to make writing more descriptive • taking out unnecessary details 55
  • 56. WRITING PROMPTS Elaboration Teachers: Duplicate these prompts on sturdy paper and then cut them apart. You may also write the prompts on the board or display them onscreen.$- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ----------------------------------------------- - - - - - - -Name _______________________________________________________________ Date _______________ Would You Elaborate on That? Wr ite yo ur Write! Think about a penny. Quickly write down as many words and phrases ful l resp on se that come to your mind about the coin. Use them in the box below. Then write a on a sepa ra te Grammar Activities That Really Grab Em © Sarah Glasscock, Scholastic Teaching Resources sh eet of pa per. paragraph describing a penny. Choose which words from the box to include. A penny . . . With the Rest of the Class: Share words and phrases from the box so your teacher can list them on the board. Which words did you use, too? Which words most surprised you?$-- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ----------------------------------------------- - - - - - - -Name _______________________________________________________________ Date _______________ One More Detail Example Write! Create a character to write a story about. Begin by writing whether it’s a person or an animal—or something else. Then add details, one line at a time. Get more and more specific with your details. Aim for at least ten lines of description. With the Rest of the Class: Share your list with the rest of the class. Talk about how you created your character. How did you decide Wr ite yo ur ful l resp on se which details to add? Were you able to see your character more clearly on a sepa ra te the more details you added? sh eet of pa per. 56
  • 57. ACTIVITIES: Elaboration Combine-and-Refine Shared Writing Select a variety of objects for groups to study, such as a holiday ornament, a fabric swatch, a pickle, a maraca or other musical instrument, and so on. Give an object to each group. Allow time for everyone in a group to study the object. Then ask each member to write a description of the object. Urge students to make their descriptions as clear and rich as they can and to use their senses to help them describe the object. After everyone shares their writing, have group members work together to combine all their descriptions and refine them into one description. With the Class: After a student from each group reads aloud its final description to the rest of the class, ask the other groups: Can you guess what their object is?Grammar Activities That Really Grab Em © Sarah Glasscock, Scholastic Teaching Resources Could You Be More Specific? When you describe how to do something, you have to be very specific. Each step has to be written down clearly and in order. Give the following instructions for writing how- to’s in pairs: •  hink about something you both know how to do or something you both know how to T make. Do not talk to each other about the steps or any other details. •  fter one of you writes the first step, the other one writes the next step. Trade off until A your how-to is complete. •  ow you can read the entire how-to together and talk about the steps. N •  ecide together whether the how-to is specific enough. Add, replace, or take away details D to make your how-to clear and specific. With the Class: Have pairs exchange how-tos. Can they make any suggestions so the other pair’s how-to is more specific? Do they think they could successfully follow the steps in the how-to? News Flash! Take It Away! Material: newspapers Newspapers use headlines to tell what a story is about. A really good headline is short, but it has to have enough information to grab a reader’s attention. Americans Gobbled Up 10 Billion Doughnuts Last Year With students, study the headlines in the newspapers. Then challenge them to think about what they did yesterday. What were the highlights of their day? Challenge students to write headlines that describe their day. Remind them to keep the headlines short and to take out any information they really don’t need. With the Class: Have students share headlines with a partner and ask pairs to think about these questions: Which headlines really caught your partner’s attention? Which headlines did he or she think could be cut even more? 57
  • 58. ACTIVITYName _____________________________________________________________ Date _________________ Elaboration How Blue Am I? Find four different things in your classroom that are blue. Write the name of each thing on the lines below. Then think of how to describe each specific color. Create a paint color name to describe it. Write the name on the corresponding paint can. Grammar Activities That Really Grab Em © Sarah Glasscock, Scholastic Teaching Resources 1. 2. 3. 4. Wr ite yo ur Choose one of your color names and write a short ad for that ful l resp on se shade of paint. on a sepa ra te sh eet of pa per. 58
  • 59. All About Sentences ] One day the Nouns were clustered in the street. An Adjective walked by, with her dark beauty. The Nouns were struck, moved, changed. The next day a Verb drove up, and created the Sentence. —Kenneth Koch A sentence can consist of just one word—“Go!”—or it can contain complex combinations of every part of speech. This mini-lesson focuses on the following aspects of sentences:Grammar Activities That Really Grab Em © Sarah Glasscock, Scholastic Teaching Resources • types of sentences • simple sentences • combining sentences • complex sentences Introduction Begin the mini-lesson on sentences by writing on the board a short definition such as the following: “A sentence is a group of words that expresses a complete thought. It must always contain a subject and a verb: After he left school, Lester ran home and changed into his baseball uniform.” Then discuss Kenneth Koch’s explanation of a sentence at the top of the page. Ask students to use what they’ve learned about the parts of speech to explain Koch’s words. What do a chameleo a horse’s, you get if n? You get you cros a sea hors s a horse, 1 e! This tiny a monkey, a kangaroo , and and its tail fish has a is long and head shap a monkey’ 2 curved and ed like s. The male can grasp sea horse things like are born carries egg . Finally, s in a pou the eyes ch until the of a sea Teach like a cham horse can babies eleon’s. Sea move inde prehistor horses reall pendently ic creature y do look . like some They are kind of bony fish. 3 Sea hors Instead of es suck food scales, thei out of the 4 r thin skin that will covers a go through water thro chain of ugh their bony ring their snou long snou s. Sea hors ts. ts. They’ll es are poo eat anything sea grass. r swimmer Grammar Holding s, so they on to the spend mos Distribute copies of the passage “A Fish That’s a Poor Swimmer?” on larger fish. blades of t of their Sea hors grass with time han Activities es can also their tails ging out they blen change colo , they esca in d into the r. This help pe being backgrou s them avoi eaten by other That Really Did you 5 nd. d being eate notice I said n, too, beca her eggs that the use in the male males and page 61 to students. Read it aloud and ask them to follow along. not the fem Grab ‘Em!, ’s pouch. ales carry to a mon Then he the eggs? th until the fertilizes The female babies are the eggs can prod born. Like and carries deposits Grades 3–5 uce anyw other fish, them for here from babies are about two 5 to 200 called “fry weeks Sea hors fry. .” A male es may be sea horse © 2010 by poor swim Then use the teaching guide on page 60 to discuss the variety of your aqu mers, but 6 arium at their hom home! 7 e really is the sea. Sarah Glassc Don’t try to raise one 8 in ock, Schola sentences in the passage. stic Teachi ng Resour (Also see the lessons on phrases and clauses on pages 47–52 and ces the other lessons as necessary.) Apply Name ____ ____ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ _____ Date ____ ____ ________ _ Duplicate the Spin a Sentence reproducible on page 64 and give a A sentence can be simp le, compou nd, or com plex. The dish ran away copy to each student. Review the examples of the simple, compound, with the spoon. The dish ran away with the stayed hom spoon, but e. the knife and fork When the and complex sentences at the top of the page. Then go over the dish ran away with fork felt the spoo Let the spin very lone n, the knif ner tell you ly. e and use a pen what kind cil and a of sentence paper clip to write. sentence to create (The pictu the spinner.) re above directions with students and make sure they understand how to use s on a sepa shows how rate shee Spin the to t of paper. spinner six times. Writ e your ces a pencil and a paper clip to make the spinner operational. Model ng Resour stic Teachi ock, Schola spinning and writing the corresponding kind of sentence. Point out Sarah Glassc © 2010 by to students that they can write any type of sentence—declarative, Grades 3–5 Grab ‘Em!, interrogative, exclamatory, or imperative. That Really Activities Grammar 59
  • 60. Types of SentencesThere are four types of sentences: declarative, interrogative, exclamatory, and imperative.KEY POINTS TEACHING WITH THE MODEL PASSAGE•  eclarative sentences are statements. D 1 The first sentence in this passage is a question,•  nterrogative sentences are questions. I so it’s an interrogative sentence.•  xclamatory sentences show strong feeling E 8 The last sentence in this passage is a and end with exclamation points. command—and it shows strong feeling—so it’s both an imperative and an exclamatory sentence.•  mperative sentences give commands. I•  sentence can be a combination of types, for A example, both exclamatory and imperative. Talk about whether other combinations are possible, such as a sentence that is both interrogative and imperative or both declarative and exclamatory. Grammar Activities That Really Grab Em © Sarah Glasscock, Scholastic Teaching ResourcesSimple SentencesA simple sentence is an independent clause.KEY POINTS TEACHING WITH THE MODEL PASSAGE•  simple sentence has one subject and one A 3 This simple sentence is probably the shortest verb—although the subject and/or verb might sentence in the passage. It explains what kind of be compound. fish sea horses are. 6 Although this sentence contains a prepositional phrase, it’s still a simple sentence.Compound SentencesA compound sentence is composed of two or more complete sentences (independent clauses).KEY POINTS TEACHING WITH THE MODEL PASSAGE•  oordinating conjunctions—for, and, nor, C 2 The coordinating conjunction and combines but, or, yet, so—or semicolons can be used these two sentences: This tiny fish has a head to combine the sentences. Except in very shaped like a horse’s. Its tail is long and curved and short sentences, a comma goes before the can grasp things like a monkey’s. coordinating conjunction. 7 The coordinating conjunction but combines•  alk about how combining sentences with the T these two sentences: Sea horses may be poor conjunction but affects their relationship. If swimmers. Their home really is the sea. the sentences had remained separate, some kind of qualifier would be needed, such as however or though. Complex SentencesA complex sentence consists of an independent clause and one or more dependent clauses.KEY POINTS TEACHING WITH THE MODEL PASSAGE•  hen a dependent clause begins the sentence, W 4 The dependent clause that begins this complex it is set off with a comma. sentence is Instead of scales and is set off with•  how students that the dependent clauses in S a comma. the complex sentences in the passage can be 5 The dependent clause in this complex sentence moved to another position within the sentence is because they blend into the background. without changing its meaning. 60
  • 61. MODEL PASSAGE Sentences A Fish That’s a Poor Swimmer? What do you get if you cross a horse, a monkey, a kangaroo, and 1 a chameleon? You get a sea horse! This tiny fish has a head shaped like a horse’s, and its tail is long and curved and can grasp things like 2 a monkey’s. The male sea horse carries eggs in a pouch until the babies are born. Finally, the eyes of a sea horse can move independentlyGrammar Activities That Really Grab Em © Sarah Glasscock, Scholastic Teaching Resources like a chameleon’s. Sea horses really do look like some kind of prehistoric creature. They are bony fish. Instead of scales, their thin skin covers a chain of bony rings. 3 4 Sea horses suck food out of the water through their long snouts. They’ll eat anything that will go through their snouts. Sea horses are poor swimmers, so they spend most of their time hanging out in sea grass. Holding on to the blades of grass with their tails, they escape being eaten by other larger fish. Sea horses can also change color. This helps them avoid being eaten, too, because they blend into the background. 5 Did you notice I said that the males and not the females carry the eggs? The female deposits her eggs in the male’s pouch. Then he fertilizes the eggs and carries them for about two weeks to a month until the babies are born. Like other fish, babies are called “fry.” A male sea horse 6 can produce anywhere from 5 to 200 fry. Sea horses may be poor swimmers, but their home really is the sea. Don’t try to raise one in 7 8 your aquarium at home! A sentence has a subject and a verb. It expresses a complete thought. In this passage, you’ll see: • different types of sentences • simple sentences • compound sentences • complex sentences 61
  • 62. WRITING PROMPTS Sentences Teachers: Duplicate these prompts on sturdy paper and then cut them apart. You may also write the prompts on the board or display them onscreen.$ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ----------------------------------------------- - - - - - - -Name _______________________________________________________________ Date _______________ I Like Your Type Write! Imagine this scene: A kid is carrying a skateboard up a hill in a Wr ite yo ur ful l resp on se park and accidentally drops it. Write a four-sentence short story about what on a sepa ra te Grammar Activities That Really Grab Em © Sarah Glasscock, Scholastic Teaching Resources happens to the runaway skateboard. Include each type of sentence, in any sh eet of pa per. order, in your story: declarative, interrogative, exclamatory, and imperative. With the Rest of the Class: Share your story with the rest of the class. Talk about the similarities and differences among your stories.$-- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ----------------------------------------------- - - - - - - -Name _______________________________________________________________ Date _______________ My Life So Far Write! Suppose you wrote a book about your life up to this point. What would the first paragraph of your book be? Would you start at the very beginning? Would you start with today? Would you start with the most exciting thing that has ever happened to you? Would you start with the very first memory you have? Would you start with a family story about you as baby? After jotting down your ideas, write that first paragraph. Read your draft. Think about the sentences. Do they all begin the same way: subject then verb? Revise your paragraph to include a variety of simple, compound, and complex sentences. With the Rest of the Class: Your teacher may collect your paragraphs in a folder or notebook with the title Our Lives So Far: Chapter One. Read everyone’s paragraph. What do you notice about the variety of sentences you see? Write your comments on a sticky note and attach it to each paragraph. Be sure to sign your note. To the Teacher: Collect students’ paragraphs in a folder or notebook and supply sticky notes to students. 62
  • 63. ACTIVITIES: Sentences That’s Simple Have pairs work together to create a choral poem. For each stanza of the poem, they should complete the simple sentences below by recognizing whether they need to supply a singular or a plural noun and verb. There’s a (noun) behind the (noun). A (noun) (verb) behind the (noun). There are (noun) behind the (noun). (noun) (verb) behind the (noun). Pairs should take turns reading aloud the lines of the choral poem.Grammar Activities That Really Grab Em © Sarah Glasscock, Scholastic Teaching Resources Example of a stanza: Partner 1: There’s a pig behind the couch. Partner 2: A pig slides behind the couch. Partner 1: There are giraffes behind the door. Partner 2: Giraffes hide behind the door. With the Class: Set aside time for pairs to perform their choral poems for the class and then answer any questions the audience has. Compound Interest Have each group review a favorite picture book. Each member reads it independently and then writes his or her opinion of it in two or three sentences. Then tell students to work together to decide how to combine some of their individual sentences to create a group review of the book. Remind them to use coordinating conjunctions to combine the sentences: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so. With the Class: Have groups present their opinions orally or in written form. If they choose an oral presentation, allow time for them to practice, and then share it with the class. Ask groups to talk about how they worked together to combine the sentences. Growing Sentences, Word by Word Materials: Ten index cards, a marker for each student Play a sentence game with the group. Have each student write down a different word on each of ten index cards, including a variety of nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, and prepositions. Give students these directions to play: •  ombine all your cards, shuffle them, and turn them facedown on a table or a desk. C •  ake turns drawing a card. When everyone has a card, try to put them together to form a T sentence. If you can’t form a sentence, take turns drawing a new card until you can. Write it down. Then decide whether you can rearrange the words to rewrite the sentence. •  ee how many sentences you can form before you run out of cards. S With the Class: Merge two groups. Have them try to combine a sentence from each group using coordinating conjunctions—for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so. Ask students to identify the type of sentences they created—declarative, interrogative, exclamatory, or imperative. 63
  • 64. ACTIVITYName _____________________________________________________________ Date _________________ SENTENCES Spin a Sentence A sentence can be simple, compound, or complex. Simple sentence: The dish ran away with the spoon. Compound sentence:  dish ran away with the spoon, but the knife and fork The Grammar Activities That Really Grab Em © Sarah Glasscock, Scholastic Teaching Resources stayed home. Complex sentence:  When the dish ran away with the spoon, the knife and fork felt very lonely. Let the spinner tell you what kind of sentence to write. (The picture above shows how to use a pencil and a paper clip to create the spinner.) Spin the spinner six times. Write your sentences on a separate sheet of paper. # 64