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SECURITY RESPONSE           TOINTERNATIONAL DISASTERS  CHALLENGES & SOLUTIONS    ASIS INTERNATIONAL         Webinar       ...
INTERNATIONAL DISASTERS       “ Tsunami death toll                           “ Up to 1,000 killed and moretops 118,000”   ...
PARTICIPANTS             Affected               State             Agencies           Affected State          Security Forc...
SECURITY CHALLENGES                     Non-existent or minimal                         Critical Infrastructure    Chaos; ...
ASIAN TSUNAMI                                  Wikipedia                                 FPD Photo•   + 230,000 killed•   ...
ASIAN TSUNAMI                                      FPD Photo                      US Navy Photo                         Wi...
ASIAN TSUNAMIMH-53E Sea Dragon                                    Other Concerns:                                    - Dis...
WEST SUMATRA EARTHQUAKE                    FPD Photo                     AP Photo•   + 1100 killed•   + 2900 injured•   + ...
WEST SUMATRA EARTHQUAKE                                                                       Padang Airport              ...
WEST SUMATRA EARTHQUAKEUSN Photo                                                          FPD PhotoFPD Photo              ...
HAITI EARTHQUAKE                                       LA Times Photo•   + 200,000 killed•   + 250,000 injured•   + 1.5 mi...
HAITI EARTHQUAKE                        LA Times Photo• Infrastructure Damage• Port / Airfield Damage• Congested Travel Ro...
HAITI EARTHQUAKEUSAID Photo                                           LA Times Photo• Crowd Control• Food / Water Distribu...
JAPAN EARTHQUAKE / TSUNAMI                         Reuters Photo
JAPAN EARTHQUAKE / TSUNAMI       Challenges / Solutions• Account For and Take Care of Personnel / Employees• Safety and He...
PRIVATE SECURITY FOCUS• Locate Missing People• Evacuation• Medical Support / Evacuation• Securing Buildings, Sites and Ass...
Interagency Cooperation• Coordination / cooperation is paramount• Mutual Support / Info Sharing• Capitalize on available d...
CommunicationsEquipment                        US Navy League Satellite phones REACH - Remote Expeditionary Area Commun...
MEDIA• Refer to Public Affairs• Turn them into allies• Can reach people and        NCIS/FPD Photo  places you can’t• They ...
Information Flow• Quest for information will be insatiable• Counter misinformation / Perception is Reality• Centralized Co...
PHASED APPROACH TO SECURITY SUPPORT    PREPARATION    ASSESSMENT       PHASE         PHASE             RESPONSE           ...
SECURITY AS THE KEY COMPONENTPrepare, Plan and Train   Understand the ThreatCulture & Customs         Develop Contacts    ...
KEYS TO SUCCESS• Prepare & Train• Understand Customs & Culture• Develop & Maintain Relationships• Leverage Available Asset...
RESOURCES• ASIS International -  http://www.asisonline.org• Disaster Preparedness and Emergency Response Association,  Int...
Contact     Information        Scott M. BernatDirector of Maritime Solutions         G2-Ops, Inc.  scott.bernat@G2-Ops.com...
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Security Response to International Disasters - 2013

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Security response to international disasters, often involving humanitarian assistance and disaster relief activities, must be well-planned and conducted to ensure personnel safety and business/mission continuity.

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  • A major earthquake and accompanying tsunami has just occurred, and thousands of people are missing and feared dead. Critical emergency response and associated life-sustaining support, as well as communications within the affected state, are severely impaired or nonexistent.  International emergency response organizations, both civilian and military, are gearing up and placed on standby, pending acceptance and approval by the affected state. Once approved to deploy, numerous organizations arrive on the scene via ships and aircraft, as well as by various forms of land transportation (including foot), to coordinate efforts with each other and the affected state to preserve life – and eventually to rebuild the area’s infrastructure. Security is an integral part of the process, given the often chaotic, unfamiliar and, at times, dangerous environment faced by the responders.      
  • Following a catastrophe, designated organizations in the affected state and abroad will initiate a planned response protocol. This often includes the state’s national disaster agency, military, and civilian emergency responders; regional and international organizations; and non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Key to many larger-scale relief efforts is the involvement of international militaries, which often provide emergency and critical response platforms, equipment, and skills not only to the affected state, but also to myriad other involved organizations. Some of these response organizations are directly supported by attached or embedded security personnel charged with coordinating, developing, maintaining, and at times, directing security efforts from both inside and outside the affected areas. 
  • Security challenges often include nonexistent or minimal critical infrastructure, nonexistent or little affected State security support, HA/DR operation-related criminal activity (including graft and corruption), active separatist movements, cultural differences and sensitivities, as well as multiple language barriers.
  • One of the deadliest natural disasters in recorded history. Indonesia hit the hardest, followed by Sri Lanka, India and Thailand. US military Joint Task Force 536. Multi-service coordination and assistance. US military exercises often include training for Humanitarian Assistance (HA). HA training helps ensure the US military is able to rapidly respond as directed to support relief efforts. Hub of operations – U-Tapao Royal Thai Navy Airfield and International Airport
  • Airport runways under water and covered with debris. Major ports affected / navigation hazards. Electrical power outages. Landline and mobile phone service jammed, intermittent or out completely. Computer internet problems. Police and Military infrastructures affected - limited personnel, facilities and equipment, long hours, morale issues, experience issues Other Issues: Alternate Communications (e.g. satellite phones, deployment packages, etc) Include local nationals and expatriates in security efforts, crowd control, interpreting and translations Develop contacts early, both within and outside the affected areas Open communication and information sharing People skills
  • Displaced, Missing and Deceased Persons Numerous Tourists on Holiday; Residents and Staffs Nam Kem fishing village – Over 60% of the 5000 inhabitants perished Among the casualties was Bhumi Jensen (Khun Poom), grandson of the King of Thailand and son of Princess Ubon Ratana Rajakanya. Health Issues Mental Health/Counseling; Dengue ; Respiratory problems ; Injuries Water and Sanitation compromised (dead bodies, marine and animal life) Separatist Movements Indonesia– Free Aceh Movement ; Sri Lanka -Tamil Tigers; southern Thailand Sri Lanka - land Mines- possibility of movement by Tsunami Piracy “ The tsunami led to a drop in the number of incidents in January and through most of February 2005. This may be partly because the tsunami put some smaller pirates out of business, and also because of the presence of large number of military vessels delivering aid in the area. And with them the attention of the world's media. But since the end of February, experts say there has been a notable increase of activity in the Malacca and Singapore Straits. There have actually been fewer attacks, but they appear to be larger in scale and more organized, with a much greater show of force”. Gordon Corera - BBC security correspondent Graft and Corruption: Foreign aid and donations
  • Wikipedia: “ The September 2009 Sumatra earthquake occurred just off the southern coast of Sumatra, Indonesia. The major shock hit at 17:16:10 local time on September 30, 2009. The epicenter was 45 kilometres (28 mi) west-northwest of Padang, Sumatra, and 220 kilometers (140 mi) southwest of Pekanbaru, Sumatra. Government reports have to date confirmed 1,115 dead, 1,214 severely injured and 1,688 slightly injured. The most deaths occurred in the areas of Padang, Pariaman, Padang, Agam and Pariaman. In addition, around 135,000 houses were severely damaged, 65,000 houses were moderately damaged and 79,000 houses were slightly damaged. An estimated 250,000 families (1,250,000 people) have been affected by the earthquake through the total or partial loss of their homes and livelihoods”.
  • Food, water and lodging Initial electrical power outages - Power generators used Communications – intermittent throughout USAF Combat Air Traffic Controllers Police and Military security support Health and Safety Issues
  • Regular Meetings – NGOs and USG Media Issues Understanding Customs and Culture
  • Wikipedia: The 2010 Haiti earthquake was a catastrophic magnitude 7.0 M earthquake, with an epicenter near the town of Leogane, approximately 25 km (16 miles) west of Port-au-Prince, Haiti’s capital. The earthquake occurred at 16:53 local time on Tuesday, 12 January 2010. By 24 January, at least 52 aftershocks measuring 4.5 or greater had been recorded. An estimated three million people were affected by the quake. The earthquake caused major damage in Port-au-Prince, Jacmel and other settlements in the region. Many notable landmark buildings were significantly damaged or destroyed, including the Presidential Palace, the National Assembly building, the Port-au-Prince Cathedral, and the main jail. The headquarters of the United Nations Stabilization Mission (MINUSTAH), located in the capital, collapsed, killing many, including the Mission's Chief.
  • Passable roads, bridges…some did not exist anymore … roads all but impassable…crowded with people & vehicles Passable roads/bridges; Safe Ports; Clear airfields; Functional hospitals ? On the ground assessment to aid Force Protection / Security planners - status and availability of affected state security forces Security professionals – people & security assessment skills; experience Transportation: Initially hard to find; Helicopters; Boats ; Vehicles Communication and Accountability - good, redundant communications Health, Stress and Trauma: e ndemic malaria, dengue, concrete dust Early days very little crime or gang activity – escaped collapsed prisons – taking care of their own situation, families… Crime and associated activity on the rise as the situation progressed Security Resources drained Responders with little or no experience overseas/working in a high threat environment US military widely respected by the population Rely on mutual cooperation and assets, teamwork
  • Crowd Control – firm but not aggressive/combative - diffuse situations. - long lines – waiting for food and other supplies arguments, cutting in line, fighting, unruly people, forged registration documents/coupons Must assess the crowd to determine size, composition and temperament Food Distribution – varied ranging from calm and orderly to agitated and disorderly key is preparation, venue set up and control food ration coupon system – very important – people were confident then that they would be getting something -- no need to force way up to front of line to get rations Search and Rescue Operations during the first two weeks – crowd control/managing expectations safety/security person or persons at each site watching the SAR teams and crowds for unruliness - anyone in the crowd who could translate ? give people a chance to participate as a valued member – dignity; family members of trapped individuals – engage them early and keep informed rubble removal, crowd control, translation services – people can help. Involving the crowd - positively affected the situation dynamics. A well informed crowd is generally a calm crowd Treat everyone with respect and dignity
  • Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2011_T%C5%8Dhoku_earthquake_and_tsunami) The 2011 earthquake off the Pacific coast of Tohoku , also known as the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake or the Great East Japan Earthquake , was a magnitude 9.0 (M w ) undersea mega-thrust earthquake off the coast of Japan that occurred at 14:46 JST on Friday, 11 March 2011, with the epicenter approximately 70 kilometers (43 mi) east of the Oshika Peninsula of Tōhoku and the hypocenter at an underwater depth of approximately 32 km (20 mi). It was the most powerful known earthquake ever to have hit Japan, and one of the five most powerful earthquakes in the world overall since modern record-keeping began in 1900. The earthquake triggered powerful tsunami waves, which reached heights of up to 40.5 meters (133 ft) in Miyako in Tōhoku's Iwate Prefecture, and which in the Sendai area travelled up to 10 km (6 mi) inland. In addition to loss of life and destruction of infrastructure, the tsunami caused a number of nuclear accidents, primarily the ongoing level 7 meltdowns at three reactors in the Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant complex, and the associated evacuation zones affecting hundreds of thousands of residents.
  • Successful security response and actions supporting life-altering events are the result of well-organized and practiced plans. In order to ensure maximum coverage and effectiveness, the response must be implemented in a phased approach, with the various stages often codependent and overlapping due to the requirement for continuous and seamless security support.  The phases are: PREPARATION PHASE ASSESSMENT PHASE RESPONSE PHASE RECOVERY PHASE RETROGRADE PHASE
  • HA/DR operations require comprehensive security support to ensure success. The following summary highlights key elements necessary to provide professional security support, as well as what an organization should expect from its security personnel. -  Prepare, plan, and train for all possible contingencies. -  Develop a thorough understanding of the threat environment. -  Develop and maintain a multi-level contact infrastructure. -  Coordinate activities with affected state military and security agencies, as appropriate and with responsible international governmental organizations (e.g. cognizant embassy security personnel). -  Travel to the affected site as soon as possible to begin security assessments and coordination. -  Maintain contact with the response organization and ensure a continuous flow of information. -  Coordinate security requirements, make recommendations, and implement as appropriate. -  Coordinate with other response organizations and associated security elements. Share information as deemed appropriate within agency protocols. -  Continuously monitor the threat environment and conduct assessments as warranted. -  Immediately respond to and investigate suspicious or criminal information and incidents. -  Assist your organization with other requirements within your scope of authority and responsibility.              
  • Organizations must continuously plan for assistance response and action as well as ensure that an appropriate level of security is achieved and maintained. The critical nature of security, and the teamwork involved, can never be underestimated or overlooked; a single negative event involving the responders could cost lives and curtail or halt the much-needed assistance and relief.
  • Numerous resources are available to assist security personnel to plan for and execute a comprehensive security program in support of HA/DR operations. Active participation in professional security organizations and internet groups, such as ASIS International and LinkedIn, can be helpful in developing an extensive network of security contacts and an expertise database, facilitating the development and execution of an HA/DR support program. Open-source publications, including books and periodicals, are a great way to develop an understanding of and keep current on HA/DR operations and procedures. HA/DR and emergency response conferences and seminars provide security personnel an opportunity to integrate programs early in the process and can be a critical element to these operations. Often these conferences include discussion groups, table-top exercises, and planning evolutions focused on real-world scenarios. Attendance at these events should be mandatory for all security personnel who have the potential or designated duty to become involved with HA/DR operations.  
  • Mr. Bernat is the Director of Maritime Solutions for G2-Ops, Inc., an innovative company providing IT, Engineering Services and Safety/Security Solutions for the US Government and Commercial Maritime Sectors. He is a retired Supervisory Special Agent of the US Naval Criminal Investigative Service (NCIS) and a recognized expert on Asia-Pacific regional security. His expertise and experience includes the development, coordination and management of plans, programs and activities directly supporting crisis response and operations. He is the author of “Resource Utilization: Building an Effective Security Program Overseas,” (American Chamber of Commerce – Indonesia, The Executive Exchange magazine, July-September 2008) , “ Security Support for Humanitarian Operations in the Asia-Pacific Region,” (Homeland Security Today: Best Practices – March 2010) and “ Managing Crises in Southeast Asia – Are You Prepared ?,” (Australian Security Magazine – October/November 2011) These articles can be found here: LinkedIn profile - http://id.linkedin.com/in/scottbernat
  • Transcript of "Security Response to International Disasters - 2013"

    1. 1. SECURITY RESPONSE TOINTERNATIONAL DISASTERS CHALLENGES & SOLUTIONS ASIS INTERNATIONAL Webinar March 2013
    2. 2. INTERNATIONAL DISASTERS “ Tsunami death toll “ Up to 1,000 killed and moretops 118,000” trapped by “ World reacts to earthquake in Indonesiastsunami disaster” Sumatra” (Telegraph Media Group – UK –(US(CNN DOD) International – Dec Sep 2009) (Haiti)2004) (Associated Press) ( NC IS/FPD Indone “United States Mobilizes to Send Emergency Assistance to Haiti” (NY Times – January 2010) Natural and Man-made Disasters are a Common Global Occurrence
    3. 3. PARTICIPANTS Affected State Agencies Affected State Security Forces Private Security Companies Partner Nation Security ForcesPrivate Sector Security Companies Humanitarian / NGO CommunityOther US and Foreign Govt. Agencies US and Foreign Military Assistance
    4. 4. SECURITY CHALLENGES Non-existent or minimal Critical Infrastructure Chaos; Language Cultural differences & Hopelessness; barriers sensitivities Panic Protect Persons & Assets, Ensure Mission & Business ContinuityCriminal, Subversive & Prevent or contain Numerous Terrorist Activity local disruptions Organizations Non-existent or minimal Affected State Security Support
    5. 5. ASIAN TSUNAMI Wikipedia FPD Photo• + 230,000 killed• + 125,000 injured• + 45,000 missing• + 1.69 million displaced• + 15 countries affected
    6. 6. ASIAN TSUNAMI FPD Photo US Navy Photo Wikipedia• Initial looting• Communications issues• Language barriers• Impassable roads• Lack of transport /supplies• Lack of generators• Cultural sensitivities
    7. 7. ASIAN TSUNAMIMH-53E Sea Dragon Other Concerns: - Displaced / Missing persons - Health Issues - Separatist Activities - Piracy - Graft and Corruption USN Photo FPD Photo FPD Photo
    8. 8. WEST SUMATRA EARTHQUAKE FPD Photo AP Photo• + 1100 killed• + 2900 injured• + 279,000 buildings damaged• + 1,250,000 people affected BAY ISMOYO/AFP/Getty Images
    9. 9. WEST SUMATRA EARTHQUAKE Padang Airport FPD Photo FPD Photo USAF Mobile Field Hospital• Infrastructure Damage• Port / Airfield Damage• Congested Travel Routes• Displaced / Missing / Dead• Health and Safety Issues FPD Photo
    10. 10. WEST SUMATRA EARTHQUAKEUSN Photo FPD PhotoFPD Photo Coordination and Sharing of Information Interpreters / Translators Media perceptions - HLZ Transportation Relief and Reconstruction Cargo Roadside monetary collections
    11. 11. HAITI EARTHQUAKE LA Times Photo• + 200,000 killed• + 250,000 injured• + 1.5 million displaced• + 10,000 buildings collapsed• Infrastructure severely impacted Reuters Photo
    12. 12. HAITI EARTHQUAKE LA Times Photo• Infrastructure Damage• Port / Airfield Damage• Congested Travel Routes• Communications• Displaced / Missing / Dead• Health and Safety Issues• Food, Water, Shelter AFP Getty Images
    13. 13. HAITI EARTHQUAKEUSAID Photo LA Times Photo• Crowd Control• Food / Water Distribution• Search & Rescue Ops• Securing Sites• Mission / Business Continuity USCG Photo
    14. 14. JAPAN EARTHQUAKE / TSUNAMI Reuters Photo
    15. 15. JAPAN EARTHQUAKE / TSUNAMI Challenges / Solutions• Account For and Take Care of Personnel / Employees• Safety and Health of Responders – both short and long term• Communications – Internet and Skype reported to be working - SAT phones registered outside of country working• Perception Management – evacuations of foreign staff• Charity Relief Scams prevalent Reuters Photo
    16. 16. PRIVATE SECURITY FOCUS• Locate Missing People• Evacuation• Medical Support / Evacuation• Securing Buildings, Sites and Associated Materials• Food, Water & Shelter• Lack of Control by Affected State Authorities• Opportunistic Crimes (e.g. car-jackings, theft…)
    17. 17. Interagency Cooperation• Coordination / cooperation is paramount• Mutual Support / Info Sharing• Capitalize on available dynamics• Avoid Territorial or “Rice Bowl” Mentality
    18. 18. CommunicationsEquipment US Navy League Satellite phones REACH - Remote Expeditionary Area Communications Hub• GRRIP – Global Rapid Response Info Package   HF Radios / Mobile TelephonesRedundant Systems !
    19. 19. MEDIA• Refer to Public Affairs• Turn them into allies• Can reach people and NCIS/FPD Photo places you can’t• They will tell a story with you, or without your input NY Times photo/Mills
    20. 20. Information Flow• Quest for information will be insatiable• Counter misinformation / Perception is Reality• Centralized Control is Essential• Maximize available Technology• Maximize available Resources
    21. 21. PHASED APPROACH TO SECURITY SUPPORT PREPARATION ASSESSMENT PHASE PHASE RESPONSE PHASE RECOVERY RETROGRADE PHASE PHASE
    22. 22. SECURITY AS THE KEY COMPONENTPrepare, Plan and Train Understand the ThreatCulture & Customs Develop Contacts Arrive on Scene Early Coordinate -- Coordinate -- CoordinateMonitor the Threat Continuous Flow of InfoImmediate Response Investigate / Report
    23. 23. KEYS TO SUCCESS• Prepare & Train• Understand Customs & Culture• Develop & Maintain Relationships• Leverage Available Assets• Communicate / Pass Information• Share Essential Information• Flexibility is essential
    24. 24. RESOURCES• ASIS International -  http://www.asisonline.org• Disaster Preparedness and Emergency Response Association, International (DERA) - http://www.disasters.org• EM-DAT - http://www.emdat.be• LinkedIn - http://www.linkedin.com• United Nations - http://www.un.org• USAID - http://www.usaid.gov• U.S. Department of State - http://www.state.gov• U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) - http://www.fema.gov
    25. 25. Contact Information Scott M. BernatDirector of Maritime Solutions G2-Ops, Inc. scott.bernat@G2-Ops.com +1-757-848-8637
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