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Port & Maritime Security in the Asia-Pacific Region

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  • 1. Asia/Pacific Asia/Pacific of tipping,” compounds these problems, not only increasing maritime and port professional. the cost of doing business with or utilizing the facilities of some ports, but also compromising the integrity of even the SHIP HUSBANDING AND SECURITY best security plan. Increasingly common is the utilization of maritime SHIP SECURITY husbanding agents to provide for and/or coordinate with the port and local government for the materials and guard The primary responsibility for shipboard security lies with force personnel necessary to set up perimeter security in and the ship’s captain or master and crew. Problems arise when around the maritime asset and associated port area. crewmembers are compromised and participate in theft or These agents usually employ local personnel, either directly allow breaches of security, as suspected in at least some of the or as sub-contractors, who are knowledgeable of the area reported pirate-led incidents in the region. Ships at anchor and have many developed contacts, to include local citizens, within sight of shore, without adequate security measures in government and business entities. These local personnel sell place, present easy targets for thieves. the idea that their established contacts will ensure that an Once pier side, a commercial ship often depends on the appropriate level of security will be achieved and maintained. existing port security infrastructure to adequately secure its Furthermore, these local employees may not have security outer perimeter. Visiting warships add additional layers of backgrounds commensurate with the task at hand. Port & Maritime Security security beyond that which is provided by the port; however, Of particular concern is the fact that in many countries, those security measures are more often than not diminished proper law enforcement/security vetting for the detection due to host country prohibitions on the deployment of of criminal or subversive backgrounds is either not done armed foreign military personnel on sovereign territory. or required. Even if the checks are completed, there is no in the Asia-Pacific Region In addition visiting cruise, commercial and military ships guarantee that a derogatory background check will be rarely, if ever, directly participate in joint ship/shore security surfaced, given the lack of proper documentation and data exercises within the visited ports due to the harried pace basing of this type of record. Compounding this issue are and operational requirements of shipping, port and mission low salaries and the corresponding temptation of obtaining schedules. The combination of any or all of the above presents payment through corrupt practices. a significant security challenge to even the most experienced Again, the ultimate responsibility for the safety and >> T By he Asia-Pacific Region sea lanes and ports - key that transits critical trade routes such as the Straits of Scott M.Bernat and vital to commercial shipping, trade and military Malacca. The February 2004 explosion aboard the commercial NCIS, US Embassy, engagement - present a significant challenge to security passenger ship MV SuperFerry 14 in the Philippines Jakarta,Indonesia professionals. The diverse capabilities and limitations of reminded everyone that the threat of terrorism in the region individual country intelligence and security forces to identify remains real. Although the September 2008 pirate hijacking and mitigate potential threats require a pro-active, cost- of the MV Faina, with its cargo of military equipment and effective teamwork approach to ensure operational and supply munitions, occurred outside of this region (Somalia), the chain integrity, as well as the safety and security of persons event punctuates vulnerabilities and raises concerns about the and assets. potential consequences should we fail to adequately protect Many husbanding agents and other maritime/port our assets. Compounding these issues and contributing to professionals have recognized the need for this synergy, the overall lack of confidence in security is corruption, both often including security-related materials and services in within the government and private sectors. their support packages. Security programs and requirements such as those established in the International Ship and Port PORT SECURITY Facility Security (ISPS) Code remain key and essential to the safeguarding of Asia’s ports and maritime assets. The Port security in the Asia-Pacific Region ranges from non- challenge remains as to how best to implement and maintain existent to high tech, dependent on the individual country. adequate security in the often fast-paced, operational and The entrances to some port facilities are either open to production-driven port and shipping community. all traffic or minimally guarded, with individual terminal operators bearing full responsibility for their own security. REGIONAL CONCERNS Some commercial ports have non-existent or limited daily security boat activity, and even when the boats are present, Acts of piracy, the threat of terrorism and common criminal lack of adequate training and experience for the crew activity continue to highlight the necessity for security as an diminishes their capabilities to detect, deter and defend integral part of a ship and port’s everyday operations. While against a potential threat. most piracy in the Asia-Pacific region today has reportedly Guard force in the ports usually includes private security focused on non-violent theft from ships at anchor, there companies and local law enforcement personnel who in many continue to be incidents involving violence against the crew locations, are not properly vetted for criminal or subversive and kidnapping for ransom. backgrounds; lack proper training; are sparsely equipped; For centuries pirates in the region have plied their trade, and infrequently train together in scenario-based events. taking advantage of the abundance of commercial shipping Corruption, or what is more commonly known as “the culture16 | APSMAustralian Security Magazine | April / May 2012 ASM Asia Pacific Security Magazine | June/July 2012 June/July 2012 | Asia Pacific Security Magazine APSM | 17
  • 2. Asia/Pacific Australian Security “During the course of a ship visit, NCIS personnel expensive waterside stand-off barriers if the primary threat in your location is from landside criminals. Know that face now: • Teamwork - Work together with local law enforcementcontinually monitor the local threat environment and security services. Without their knowledge and expertise of the local environment, it would be difficult to Real-time Face Recognitionthrough teamwork and close coordination with the • ascertain the extent of the threat. Employee Welfare - Sensitize the crew and employees for Video Screeninglocal government and security services.” to the current threat situation and relate this to how “The F negative situations affect the overall organization and, ace recognition technology can significantly reduce implement this technology. Shopping malls and stores can subsequently, their personal interests. Invest in employees’ investigation times by performing real-time identity use cameras throughout the facility to compare live facial Cognitec >> security of maritime and port assets does not lie with the futures through various training programs designed to checks and finding known or suspicious suspects, images to a database of known shoplifters. Airports can contractors, but rests with the ship and port operators. enhance their functional skills and job performance. therefore helping businesses and organizations detect, use video screening for both security and border control product Set job performance standards and expectations and solve and prevent crime or unauthorized behavior in more procedures. Casinos are using the technology to identify THE NCIS MODEL link work performance to salary increases and bonuses. efficient ways. unwanted individuals and compulsive gamblers. Gambling FaceVACS- Ensure adequate family medical plans are in place. The Cognitec product FaceVACS-VideoScan instantly addicts can also self-enroll and restrict their own entry. The US Naval Criminal Investigative Service (NCIS), with Bottom line is that if the employer takes care of its detects faces in video streams or footage and compares single As face recognition applications are moving from VideoScan worldwide responsibilities to protect the people, family and employees, they will respond in kind. or multiple facial images to large image databases. Operators analyzing still images to recognizing faces in real-time, assets of the US Navy and US Marine Corps, routinely • Outside Agency Assistance - Many official agencies can focus on the identified person instead of simultaneously recognition engines need to cope with images in lower instantly interacts with US and foreign government agencies, port especially when the maritime asset or port facility has observing multiple video screens, using the software to track resolutions and taken under imperfect lighting conditions. operators and husbanding agents to develop seamless port direct connections to a specific country’s trade interests individuals during their visits. Security staff can also receive Inside buildings and venues, people move quickly and in detects faces security programs in locations frequented by US Department offer free security advice, assistance and training. The US alerts on mobile devices to act within the immediate vicinity groups, they rarely look directly into the camera, or their of the Navy personnel. NCIS special agents and physical Coast Guard, for example, maintains an International of a suspect. faces are hidden by hats, objects, and other people. Therefore, in video security specialists develop critical security relationships in Port Security Program focused on assisting port facilities On the other hand, FaceVACS-VideoScan can identify Cognitec is concentrating its algorithm development on each port; conduct host nation-coordinated physical security that are in line with US Trade interests. The basic authorized individuals or high-ranking customers to promptly low-quality facial images, with faces turned sideways, up and streams or surveys of these locations; and work closely with the local standard utilized is the ISPS code. Another example is grant access, give special permissions or alert personnel to down, or partially hidden, and on the speed of the recognition police and military security forces, husbanding agents and the US Department of Homeland Security Customs provide special treatment. engine. The company’s latest algorithm B6 already shows footage” port operators to implement enhanced security measures in Trade Partnership Against Terrorism (C-TPAT). This is Airports, stores and casinos have started to successfully significant improvements in these areas. support of visiting maritime assets. a joint government-business initiative designed to build During the course of a ship visit, NCIS personnel cooperative relationships focused on the maritime supply continually monitor the local threat environment through chain and border security. teamwork and close coordination with the local government and security services, effectively mitigating potential criminal • Private Security Company Assistance - Dependent upon the ship or port operator’s budget, private Face Recognition Technology for enhanced security or terrorist threats. In addition, the NCIS Security Training, businesses can assist in developing a security program Assistance and Assessment Team (STAAT) conducts that not only keeps personnel and assets safe and secure training and seminars in port security and related disciplines, significantly impacting and enhancing the security capabilities • but also meets ISPS standards. Due Diligence - Critical to any successful program Real-time in the ports. The effective integration and teamwork of all available NCIS, host government and commercial port are the background checks accomplished on all security providers and contractors. Reputation and integrity are video screening operator security assets remain the foundation of this program. very important, ultimately impacting operations as well FaceVACS-VideoScan tracks as business development. and identifies single or multiple THE WAY AHEAD faces from live video cameras CONCLUSION Protecting maritime assets and port facilities need not be a or video footage and performs lesson in futility. The tools and capabilities are available to Maritime and port security in the Asia-Pacific Region varies real-time comparison to image even the most budget-strapped organization. Understanding from location to location. A true understanding of the threat databases and watch lists. the threat as well as knowing what resources are available and environment, knowledge of the resources available to mitigate how best to utilize them will ensure a cost-effective and viable the threat and how best to utilize them, as well as teamwork See a live demo at security posture. (both from within and outside your organization) will ensure By following these basic principles and procedures ship the effectiveness of any security program. Security Expo Sydney, and port operators can be well on their way to establishing a booth A17! confident and successful security program: About the Author Scott M. Bernat is the US Naval Criminal • Understand The Threat - Design the program so that Investigative Service Special Agent in it relates to the known level of criminal, terrorist or Charge of the US Embassy Jakarta, Cognitec develops market-leading face recognition technologies and applications subversive activity in the area. Does it affect personnel Indonesia Force Protection Detachment. for industry customers and government agencies around the world. or assets and if so, how? Are the threats to the maritime His previous assignments included Chief of In various independent evaluation tests, our FaceVACS® recognition software has asset or port facility criminal or terrorist-related? This US Naval Security, US Embassy Thailand and Assistant Force proven to be the premier technology available on the market. common sense approach will ensure money is spent Protection Officer/Security Advisor to the Commander, US www.cognitec.com in functional areas directly related to the correct type Seventh Fleet (Asia-Pacific Region). and level of threat. There is no need to invest in or rent See http://id.linkedin.com/in/scottbernat.18 | APSM Asia Pacific Security Magazine | June/July 2012 June/July 2012 | Asia Pacific Security Magazine APSM | 19