LIFE CYCLE COST (LCC) FOR SUSTAINABLE BUILDING RUSDY HARTUNGI, CHRIS PYE School of Built and Natural Environment University of Central Lancashire, (UCLan) Preston PR1 2HE, Lancashire, UK Email: [email_address]
Sustainable Technology in Building is commonly known as more expensive then their Traditional counterparts (e.g. Traditional Ltg Vs Daylighting and Daylighting Harvesting Technology, Manual Control Vs. BMS, ABS/IBS, Others: Solar Panel / PV, GSHP, etc.
They are more Energy Efficient/Save Energy , Lower Operation and Maintenance Cost (O&M).
The Energy Saving, O&M feature occur over The Life-time of the Building (Benefits accrue over the life of the building)
It is essential to use the analysis which recognizes the cost saving which spread over the life-time - the Life Cycle Cost (LCC) analysis
Why LCC is Matter in Sustainable Building
Illustration: An Office building Office building: 1: 5 : 200 * 1 = Construction Cost 5 = Maintenance and Building Operating Costs 200 = Business Operating Costs *source: The Royal Academy of Engineering
For energy efficient technology e.g.: BMS , automatic lighting control system is operated for longer life during their life span, the initial cost is normally not the major cost of the Building System life cycle
Replacement costs are anticipated expenditures to major components required to maintain the operation of the Building system.
The replacement expenditure from some of light fixtures
Understanding fixture characteristics is the key feature to understand the O&M and Replacement cost behaviour.
LCC in Building : Residual Value/Disposal Cost
RESIDUAL VALUE (RV) : the net worth of a lighting system at the end of LCC analysis study period. In general RV of Lighting system is sometimes less important as the net worth value at the end of LCC analysis is ignorable or can not be materialized. BUT Some fixture components, Lighting Control Component could still be sold on the market in exchange for the newest generation.
DISPOSAL COSTS (DC) : the cost of disposing of the fixture or lighting components when it has failed EXAMPLE : Compact fluorescence lamps ( CFL ) and High Intensity Discharge Lamp ( HID ), for instance, due to the mercury content of the gas inside lamp that might contaminate groundwater and toxin build-up in the soil , it must be disposed of properly at a hazardous waste site. disposal cost of lighting is important when evaluating the lighting solution that might have different life expectancies.
The result showed that in term of the initial investment cost, LED lighting system is the most expensive solution , among any other alternatives, reaching approximately 186% in comparison to the investment cost of tungsten incandescent lighting
BUT in year 20 (end of life Cycle): the LED achieved the lowest total life cycle cost
In Fact: In term of Pay Back Period (PBP)
Tungsten Incandescent Vs ( Halogen, CFL, LED): 3.10, 1.42, 1,33 years