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Unit 6 chapters 12   15, 19 - new curriculum
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Unit 6 chapters 12 15, 19 - new curriculum

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  • 1. Unit 6 – Heredity – Chapters 12, 13, 14, 15, and Parts of 19] **** Chapter 12 and 19 have already been completed from the cells unit Chapter 13 – meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles Objective questions: An Introduction to Heredity 1. Explain why organisms reproduce only their own kind and why offspring more closely resemble their parents than unrelated individuals of the same species. 2. Explain what makes heredity possible. 3. Distinguish between asexual and sexual reproduction. The Role of Meiosis in Sexual Life Cycles 4. Diagram the human life cycle and indicate where in the human body that mitosis and meiosis occur; which cells are the result of meiosis and mitosis; which cells are haploid. 5. List the phases of meiosis I and meiosis II and describe the events characteristic of each phase. Recognize the phases of meiosis from diagrams or micrographs. 6. Describe the process of synapsis during prophase I and explain how genetic recombination occurs. 7. Describe the key differences between mitosis and meiosis. Explain how the end result of meiosis differs from that of mitosis. Origins of Genetic Variation 8. Explain how independent assortment, crossing over and random fertilization contribute to genetic variation in sexually reproducing organisms. 9. Explain why inheritable variation was crucial to Darwin’s theory of evolution. Key terms: heredity asexual reproduction life cycle sex chromosome fertilization meiosis gametophyte tetrad variation locus somatic cell autosome syngamy alternation of generations meiosis I crossing over genetics gene clone sexual reproduction karyotype homologous chromosome gamete haploid cell zygote diploid cell sporophyte spore meiosis II synapsis recombinant chromosomes Chapter 14 – Mendel and the Gene Idea Objective questions: Gregor Mendel’s Discoveries 1. Describe the favored model of heredity in the 19th century prior to Mendel. 2. Explain how observations by Mendel and others and Mendel’s hypothesis of inheritance differed from the blending theory of inheritance. 3. List several features of Mendel’s methods that contributed to his success. 4. Define true breeding, hybridization, monohybrid cross, P generation, F 1 generation and F2 generation. 5. List and explain the four components of Mendel’s hypothesis that led him to deduce the law of segregation. 6. Use a Punnett square to predict the results of a monohybrid cross and state the phenotypic and genotypic ratios of the F2 generation. 7. Distinguish between the following pairs of terms: dominant and recessive; heterozygous and homozygous; genotype and phenotype. 8. Explain how a testcross can be used to determine if a dominant phenotype is homozygous or heterozygous. 9. Use a Punnett square to predict the results of a dihybrid cross and state the phenotypic and genotypic ratios of the F2 generation. 10. Define Mendel’s law of independent assortment. 11. Use the rule of multiplication to calculate the probability that a particular F 2 individual will be homozygous recessive or dominant. 12. Given a Mendelian cross, use the rule of addition to calculate the probability that a particular F2 individual will be heterozygous. 13. Explain why Mendel was wise to use large sample sizes in his studies.
  • 2. Extending Mendelian Genetics 16. Give an example of incomplete dominance and explain why it is not evidence for the blending theory of inheritance. 17. Explain how the phenotypic expression of the heterozygote is affected by complete dominance, incomplete dominance, and co-dominance. 18. Explain why Tay-Sachs is considered recessive at the organismic level but co-dominant at the molecular level. 19. Explain why genetic dominance does not mean that the dominant allele subdues a recessive allele. Illustrate your explanation with the use of the round versus wrinkled pea seed shape. 20. Explain why dominant alleles do not necessarily mean that the allele is more common in a population. Illustrate your explanation with the character polydactyly. 21. Describe the inheritance of the ABO blood system and explain why the I A and IB alleles are said to be co-dominant. 22. Define and give examples of pleiotropy and epistasis. 23. Describe a simple model for polygenic inheritance and explain why most polygenic characters are described in quantitative terms. 24. Describe how environmental conditions can influenced the phenotypic expression of a character. Explain what is meant by “a norm of reaction.” 25. Distinguish between the specific and broad interpretations of the terms “phenotype” and “genotype.” Mendelian Inheritance in Humans 26. Explain why studies of human inheritance are not as easily conducted as Mendel’s work with his peas. 27. Given a simple family pedigree, deduced the genotypes of some of the family members. 28. Explain how a lethal recessive gene can be maintained in a population. 29. Describe the inheritance and expression of cystic fibrosis, Tay-Sachs disease, and sickle-cell disease. 30. Explain why consanguinity increases the probability of homozygosity in offspring. 31. Explain why lethal dominant genes are much rarer than lethal recessive genes. 32. Give an example of a late-acting lethal dominant in humans and explain how it can escape elimination. 33. Define and give examples of multifactorial disorders in humans. Explain what can currently be done to reduce the frequency of these diseases. 34. Explain how carrier recognition, fetal testing, and newborn screening can be used in genetic screening and counseling. Key terms: character trait P generation F1 generation dominant allele recessive allele homozygous heterozygous testcross monohybrid incomplete dominance complete dominance epistasis quantitative character multifactorial pedigree Tay-Sachs disease sickle-cell disease chorionic villus sampling (CVS) true-breeding F2 generation law of segregation phenotype dihybrid codominance polygenic inheritance carrier Huntington’s disease hybridization alleles Punnett square genotype law of independent assortment pleiotropy norm of reaction cystic fibrosis amniocentesis Chapter 15 – The Chromosomal Basics of Inheritance Objective questions: Relating Mendelism to Chromosomes 1. Explain how the observations of cytologists and geneticists provided the basis for the chromosome theory of inheritance. 2. Describe the contributions that Walter Sutton, Theodor Boveri and Thomas Hunt Morgan made to current understanding of chromosomal inheritance. 3. Explain why Drosophila melanogaster is a good experimental organism. 4. Define and compare linked genes and sex-linked genes. Explain why the inheritance of linked genes is different from independent assortment. 5. Distinguish between parental and recombinant phenotypes. 6. Explain why linked genes do not assort independently. 7. Explain how crossing over can unlink genes. 8. Explain how Sturtevant created linkage maps. 9. Define a map unit. 10. Explain why Mendel did not find linkage between seed color and flower color.
  • 3. 11. Explain how genetic maps are constructed for genes located far apart on a chromosome. 12. Explain the impact of multiple crossovers between loci. 13. Explain what additional information cytological maps provide over linkage. Sex Chromosomes 14. Explain how sex is genetically determined in humans and the significance of the SRY gene. 15. Explain why sex-linked diseases are more common in human males. 16. Describe the inheritance patterns and symptoms of color blindness, Duchenne muscular dystrophy and hemophilia. 17. Describe the process of X inactivation in female mammals. Explain how this phenomenon produces the tortoiseshell coloration in cats. Errors and Exceptions in Chromosomal Inheritance 18. Distinguish among nondisjunction, aneuploidy, trisomy, triploidy and polyploidy. Explain how these major chromosomal changes occur and describe the consequences. 19. Distinguish among deletions, duplications, inversions, and translocations. 20. Describe the type of chromosomal alterations implicated in the following human disorders: Down syndrome, Klinefelter’s syndrome, extre Y, triple-X syndrome, Turner’s syndrome,cri du chat syndrome and chronic myelogenous leukemia. 21. Define genomic imprinting and provide evidence to support this model. 22. Give some exceptions to the chromosome theory of inheritance. Explain why extranuclear genes are not inherited in a Mendelian fashion and how they can contribute to disease. Key terms: chromosomal theory of inheritance genetic recombination linkage map hemophilia trisomic duplication genomic imprinting wild type parental types map units Barr body monosomic inversion fragile X syndrome sex-linked gene recombinant cytological maps nondisjunction polyploidy translocation linked gene genetic map Duchenne muscular dystrophy aneuploidy deletion Down syndrome