Unit3 – Cells –6thedition:Chapters 7, 8, 11, 12, 19 ( pgs. 368-372)& 28 (548-554) 8th edition: Chapters 6,7, 11, 12, 18 (373-377), 28& (575-589)1. Preview the chapter and focus on: a. Key Concept:s(noted at the beginning of the chapter) b. Objective questions: Concisely answer the questions below. Get to the main point and don’t copy every sentence as you will use these as a study aid in preparation for the AP Exam. c. Vocabulary Term: Correctly use as many as possible while answering the objective questions. (You might want to make some type of vocabulary list or flashcards to use when you review for the AP Exam in May) d. Graphic:s(read the captions and see if you understand the figure) 2. Read thoroughly the Summary of Key Concepts at the end of each chapterChapter 7/6 – A Tour of the CellObjective questions:How We Study Cells1. Distinguish between magnification and resolving power.2. Describe the principles, advantages, and limitations of the light microscope, transmission electron microscope, andscanning electron microscope.3. Describe the major steps of cell fractionation and explain why it is a useful technique.A Panoramic View of the Cell4. Distinguish between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.5. Explain why there are both upper and lower limits to cell size.6. Explain why compartmentalization is important in eukaryotic cells.The Nucleus and Ribosomes7. Describe the structure and function of the nucleus and briefly explain how the nucleus controls protein synthesis inthe cytoplasm.8. Describe the structure and function of a eukaryotic ribosome.The Endomembrane System9. List the components of the endomembrane system, describe their structures and functions, and summarize therelationships among them.10. Explain how impaired lysosomal function can cause the symptoms of storage disease.11. Describe the different structures and functions of vacuoles.12. Describe the structure of a mitochondrion and explain the importance of compartmentalization in mitochondrialfunction.13. Distinguish among amyloplasts, chromoplasts, and cholorplasts.14. Identify the three functional compartments of a chloroplast. Explain the importance of compartmentalization inchloroplast function.Other Membranous Organelles15. Explain the roles of mitochondria and chloroplasts.16. Explain the role of peroxisomes in eukaryotic cells.Thy Cytoskeleton17. describe the functions of the cytoskeleton.18. Describe the structure, monomers, and functions of microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments.19. Explain how the ultrastructure of cilia and flagella relate to their functions.Cell Surfaces and Junctions20. Describe the development of the plant cell walls.21. Describe the structure and list four functions of the extracellular matrix in animal cells.22. Describe the structures of intercellular junctions found in plant and animal cells and relate those structures to theirFunctions.
Key terms:light microscope (LM) resolving power organelle electron microscopetransmission electron microscope (TEM) scanning electron microscope (SEM)cell fractionation ultracentrifuge cytosol prokaryotic cellnucleoid cytoplasm plasma membrane mucleusnuclear lamina chromatin chromosome nucleolusribosome endomembrane system vesicle endoplasmic reticulum (ER)smooth ER rough ER glycoprotein transport vesiclegolgi apparatus lysosome phagocytosis food vacuolecontractile vacuole central vacuole tonoplast mitochondriachloroplast crista mitochondrial matrix plastidthylakoid granum stroma peroxisomecytoskeleton microtubule microfilament intermediate filamentcentrosome centriole flagellum xiliumbasal body dynein actin myosinpseudopodium cytoplasmic streaming cell wall primary cell wallmiddle lamella secondary cell wall extracellular matrix collagenproteoglycan fibronectin integrin plasmodesmatight junction desmosome gap junctionChapter 8/7 – Membrane Structure and FunctionObjective questions:Membrane Structure1. Describe the properties of phospholipids and their arrangement in cellular membranes.2. Explain what freeze-fracture techniques reveal about the involvement of proteins in membranes.3. Describe the fluid properties of the cell membrane and explain how membrane fluidity is influenced byMembrane composition.4. Describe how proteins and carbohydrates are spatially arranged in cell membranes and how they contribute toMembrane function.Traffic Across Membranes5. Describe factors that affect the selective permeability of membranes.6. Describe the locations and functions of transport proteins.7. Define diffusion. Explain what causes diffusion and why it is a spontaneous process.8. Explain what regulates the rate of passive transport.9. Explain why a concentration gradient across a membrane represents potential energy.10. Distinguish between hypertonic, hypotonic and isotonic solutions.11. Define osmosis and predict the direction of water movement based on differences in solute concentrations.12. Describe how living cells with and without walls regulate the balance of water content.13. Explain how transport proteins are similar to enzymes.14. Explain how transport proteins facilitate diffusion.15. Explain how active transport differs from diffusion.16. Explain what mechanism can generate a membrane potential or electrochemical gradient.17. Describe the process of co-transport.18. Explain how large molecules are transported across the cell membrane.19. Compare pinocytosis and recptor-mediated endocytosis.
Key terms:selective permeability amphipathic molecules fluid mosaic model integral proteinperipheral protein transport protein diffusion concentration gradientpassive transport hypertonic solution hypotonic solution isotonic solutionosmosis osmoregulation turgid flaccidplasmolysis facilitated diffusion aquaporin gated channelactive transport sodium-potassium pump membrane potential electrogenic pumpelectrochemical gradient proton pump cotransport exocytosisendocytosis phagocytosis pinocytosis ligandrecptor-mediated endocytosisChapter 11 – Cell CommunicationObjective questions.An Overview of Cell Signaling1.Describe the basic signal-transduction pathway of yeast. Explain why we believe these pathways in yeast, mammals, And plants evolved before the first multicellular organisms appeared on Earth.2. Categorize chemical signals in terms of the proximity of the communicating cells.3. Describe the three main stages of cell signaling.Signal Reception and the Initiation of Transduction4. Describe the nature of a ligand-receptor interaction and state how such interactions initiate a signal-transductionsystem.5. Compare and contrast G-protein-linked receptors, tyrosine-kinase receptors, and ligand-gated ion channels.Signal-Transduction Pathways6. Describe several advantages of using a multistep pathway in the transduction stage of cell signaling.7. Explain what is usually passed along in a signal-transduction pathway.8. Describe how phosphorylation propagates signal information.9. Describe how cyclic AMP is formed and how it propagates signal information.10. Describe how the cytoplasm concentration of Ca2+ can be altered and how this increased pool of Ca2+ is involvedwith signal transduction.Cellular responses to Signals11. Describe how signal information is transduced into cellular responses in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus.12. Describe how signal amplification is accomplished in target cells.13. Describe how target cells discriminate among signals and how the same signal can elicit multiple cellular responses.14. Explain how scaffolding proteins help to increase the efficiency of signal transduction.Key terms:signal-transduction pathway local regulator hormone ligandG-protein-linked receptor G protein tyrosine kinase tyrosine-kinase receptorligand-gated ion channel protein kinase protein phosphatase second messengercyclic AMP (cAMP) adenylyl cyclase diacylglycerol (DAG) inositol triphosphate (IP3)calmodulin scaffolding proteinChapter 12 – The Cell CycleObjective questions:The Key Roles of Cell Division1.Explain how cell division functions in reproduction, growth, and repair.2. Describe the structural organization of the genome.3. Describe the major events of cell division that enable the genome of one cell to be passed onto two daughter cells.4. Describe how the chromosome number changes throughout the human life cycle.
The Mitotic Cell Cycle5. List the phases of the cell cycle and describe the sequence of events that occurs during each phase.6. List the phases of mitosis and describe the events characteristic of each phase.7. Recognize the phases of mitosis from diagrams and micrographs.8. Draw or describe the spindle apparatus, including centrosomes, kinetochore, microtubules, nonkinetochonemicrotubules, asters and centrioles (in animal cells).9. Describe what characteristic changes occur in the spindle apparatus during each phase of mitosis.10. Explain the current models for poleward chromosomal movement and elongation of the cell’s polar axis.11. Compare cytokinesis in animals and plants.12. Describe the process of binary fission in bacteria and how this process may have evolved in eukaryotic mitosis.Regulation of the Cell Cycle13. Describe the roles of checkpoints, cyclin, Cdk, and MPF in the cell cycle control system.14. Describe the internal and external factors that influence the cell cycle control system.15. Explain how the abnormal cell division of cancerous cells differs from normal cell division.Key terms:cell division cell cycle genome chromosomesomatic cell gamete chromatin sister chromatidscentromere mitosis mitotic (M) phase interphaseG1 phase S phase G2 phase prophaseprometaphase metaphase anaphase telophasemitotic spindle centrosome kinetochore metaphase platecleavage cleavage furrow cell plate binary fissionorigin of replication cell cycle control system checkpoint G0 phasecyclin cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) MPF growth factordensity-dependent inhibition anchorage dependence transformation tumorbenign tumor malignant tumor metastasisChapter 19/18- The Organization and Control of Eukaryotic GenomesObjective questions:The Molecular Biology of Cancer1. Distinguish between proto-oncogenes and oncogenes. Describe three genetic changes that can convert proto-oncogenes to oncogenes.2. Explain how mutations in tumor-suppressor genes can contribute to cancer.3. Explain how excessive cell division can result from mutations in the ras oncogenes.4. Explain why a mutation knocking out the p53 gene can lead to excessive cell growth and cancer. Describe three waysthat p53 prevents a cell from passing on mutations caused by DNA damage.5. Describe the set of genetic factors typically associated with the development of cancer.6. Explain how viruses can cause cancer. Describe several examples.32. Explain how inherited cancer alleles can lead to a predisposition to certain cancers.Key terms:oncogene proto-oncogenetumor-suppressor gene ras gene p53 gene
Chapter 28 – 6thedition (548-554) 8th edition(575-589)The Origins of Eukaryotic DiversityObjective questions:A Sample of Protistan Diversity1. Describe the current hypothesis for the lack of mitochondria in diplomonads and parabasalids.2. Describe the structure, ecology, and human impact of diplomonads, parabasalids, euglenoids, kinetoplastids,dinoflagellates, apicomplexans, ciliates, stramenopiles, heterokont algae, oomycotes, bacillariophytes,chrysophytes, phaeophytes, rhodophytes, and chlorophytes.3. Describe thesimilarities and distinct characteristics of the rhizopods, actinopods, and foraminifers.4. Describe the adaptations of Mycetozoa that facilitate their role as decomposers.5. Compare the life cycles and ecology of plasmodial and cellular slime molds.Key terms:Plastid serial endosymbiosis secondary endosymbiosiskinetoplastids euglenoid