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Physical science final exam review

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  • 1. Physical Science Final Exam REVIEW NAME: ____________________________ CLASS:_________ The following Physical Science competencies included in this exam packet: 1. Understand and apply concepts of the scientific method, introductory mathematical modeling, the use of scientific equipment, and scientific reporting in solving basic physics and chemistry problems. 2. Model, apply concepts, and solve problems related to the motion of objects and underlying forces. 3. Demonstrate, apply concepts, and solve problems related to the properties of light and sound waves. 4. Show the relationships between electricity and magnetism, apply those concepts and describe their roles in technology. 5. Make use of thermodynamic principles to show how matter and energy change within a system. 6. Show how the evolution of the atomic model explains the structure of the periodic table, the nature of atoms and make use of the periodic table to examine properties of elements. 7. Demonstrate their understanding of nuclear radiation, atomic energy, and the evolution of the universe. 8. Illustrate, apply concepts, and solve problems related to molecular bonding and chemical reactions. 9. Describe, apply concepts, and solve problems related to acids, bases, and carbon-based chemistry.
  • 2. From Competency 1: 1. What are some of the most important lab safety points? 2. What are the basic units of length, mass, area, volume, energy, and density? 3. What tools would you use, and how would you find each of the items in #2 for an object? 4. Same question as #3, but what if the object were round? 5. Double check your ability to use a triple-beam balance, ruler, and graduated cylinder. 6. What are the physical properties of Water including its BP, MP, density, and maximum density? 7. How does density tell you if an object’s will sink or float in another substance? 8. What are names and definitions of the parts of the scientific method? 9. Define the different types of variables, a constant, and a control. Give an example of each.
  • 3. Graphing skills: Graph the following points Miles (Y) Hours (x) 5 2 7 4 9 9 After graphing, predict (extrapolate) what how many miles you would have traveled after 18 hours, based on the trend shown in the graph.
  • 4. From Competency 2: 10. What are Newton’s Three laws, inertia, and friction? Define them. 11. Give an example of each one in action. 12. Define speed and acceleration. How is speed measured – explain how you would do it. 13. Draw a graph that shows a car going at a constant speed 14. Draw a graph that shows a car slowing down. 15. How do you measure inertia and momentum? Give examples of items with different momentum and inertia.
  • 5. 16. Compare and contrast the potential and kinetic energy of a snowboarder at the top, middle, and bottom of a ski hill. 17. What is driving that snowboarder down the hill? If he goes off a cliff, what is her acceleration? 18. Define work. If you held a bowling ball over your head very still for one hour without a break, how much work have you done on the ball? Explain!! From Competency 3: 19. Draw a transverse wave with an amplitude of three and wavelength of 8. Label the wave’s amplitude, crest, and trough. Show three places where you can find its wavelength. What is its wavelength? If the window above was a one second image of the wave, what is it’s frequency? Label it properly!
  • 6. 20. What kind of energy does the wave in #19 carry? Are there other types of waves? Compare and contrast them! 21. What is the #1 job of ALL waves? 22. What is the Doppler effect, where do you hear it, and what is it? 23. Compare the speeds of light and sound. 24. List the types of energy found in the electromagnetic spectrum from low to high energy. 25. List the types of energy found in the electromagnetic spectrum from short waves to long waves. 26. Can you see through something opaque? How about transparent or translucent? Give examples. 27. What colors REALLY make up your cell phone display? 28. Why is the sky blue?
  • 7. 29. Give an example of how the law of reflection works. 30. Why do glasses help someone see? What is that “bending light” thing called and why does it happen? 31. What are the different lens shapes and what are they commonly found? From Competency 4: 32. Define AC, DC, and Static electricity. Give an example of where you would find each type. 33. What are the voltage and frequency of the American power system? 34. Define volts, amps, resistance and watts. What are their proper units. 35. If you have ten strings of Christmas lights on your tree, and each string uses 120 V and 75 W, will you blow out the room’s 15 A circuit breaker? Prove it. 36. Describe the area both around a magnet and at the “ends” of a magnet. What are the proper names for this area?
  • 8. 37. Draw a series circuit with a switch, battery and three light bulbs. Describe what would happen to the other lights if you were to pull out one of the lights from the string. Where might you find this type of circuit? Are there other kinds of circuits? How are they different? From Competency 5 38. Define heat, temperature, and thermal energy. 39. Revisit the idea of an iceberg and a steaming hot mug of coffee sitting on it… which would have more: Temperature / Energy? How do you know? What direction does the energy flow? Why does it flow that direction? 40. What are the three laws of Thermodynamics? 41. Define the temperature found in the third law. What scale would you use to measure it and what is different about that temperature?
  • 9. 42. Why do you wear a winter coat? What does the coat provide? Why would you not want to make a winter coat out of only aluminum foil? 43. How does energy move between objects – define the three ways and give an example of each. 44. What happens to the particles of matter as it is heated and cooled? 45. Define the five states of matter and give an example of each. From Competency 6 46. Draw a correct picture of each model of the atom from Democritus through Chadwick
  • 10. 47. Draw a single Helium atom and label its parts and charges. 48. Define ion, isotope, and element. 49. What are the differences between metals and nonmetals? How can you tell which is which from the periodic table? 50. Identify the names of areas of the periodic table in columms 1, 2, 3-12, 17, and 18 51. What is the “magic number” and why are Noble Gases “happy?” 52. Draw a Lewis dot diagram for Calcium. Is it happy? What would it need to be happy? 54. What do you call the movement of electrons between levels as they gain/lose energy?
  • 11. 55. For Calcium, calculate the number of protons, neutrons, electrons, tell its atomic number, atomic mass, mass number, its symbol, group name, and group number. 56. Balance this equation. Why KIND of equation is it? This is hydrogen balloon equation. Is the reaction exothermic or endothermic? How do you know? 02 + H2 H2O From Competency 7 57. How do stars generate energy? 58. What is a black hole believed to be? 59. How was the universe formed, from a scientific perspective, and what is some of the evidence used to prove that hypothesis? 60. What are the forms of nuclear decay? What do they cause to happen? 61. What kinds of nuclear radiation are there? How are they different?
  • 12. 62. Describe, in your own words, what a half-life would be. 63. What is the difference between nuclear fission and nuclear fusion. Where can we find each type and why are they important? 64. Briefly describe our sun, in terms of other stars. From Competency 8 65. How can you speed up a chemical reaction? List the four ways and give an example of each. 66. What is the law of conservation of matter and energy? How did the steel wool getting heavier when burned prove this? 67. Calculate the chemical formula for Nitrogen and Beryllium using the criss-cross method. How many total atoms would be in the final compound?
  • 13. 68. Compare and contrast ionic and covalent bonds. What charge does ionic bonding try to reach? 69. Name the following: NH4OH, CaCl2, Ca3P2 From Competency 9 70. How are Hydrocarbons and Carbohydrates different? Which one is good food source for you? Which is better for your car? Give an example of each! 71. Compare and contrast Acids and Bases. What makes an acid “acidic” & what makes a base “basic?” What happens to them when they get into water? 72. Define pH and draw a labeled scale from 1-14. 73. Mix equal amounts of strong acids and strong bases and what do you get? What is this reaction called?