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Atoms and the periodic table

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  • 1. Atoms on the Periodic Table December 6, 2013
  • 2. Objectives 1. Describe the present model of the atom explaining electrons, neutrons, and protons
  • 3. Periodic Table Atoms make up all matter Elements are any material that is made up of only one type of atom Elements are organized onto the periodic table
  • 4. Each element is designated an atomic symbol on the periodic table
  • 5. Atoms Atoms cannot be seen with visible light Robert Brown First to discover direct evidence of the atom
  • 6. An Atom is made up of three parts:    Protons Neutrons Electrons
  • 7. Electrons Electrons surround the nucleus in an electron cloud Electrons carry a negative charge The atom is mostly empty space
  • 8. Electron Cloud Model
  • 9. Why don’t we pass through one another? Electrical repulsion – two electrons with negative charges will repel each other
  • 10. Protons Protons and neutrons are bound to the atomic nucleus Protons carry a positive charge Protons are identified by Atomic number atom is electrically neutral: Number of protons = number of electrons;
  • 11. Neutrons Neutron has no electrical charge, but the same mass as a proton Protons and neutrons are called nucleons Mass given to each proton and neutron is 1
  • 12. Atomic Mass • Electrons are so small they are considered negligible in mass • Atomic mass is measured in the unit – amu  Atomic Mass Unit Atomic mass on the periodic table
  • 13. Agenda • Review HW Bell work • Have HW out to be checked • Notes: Mass Number, • Give the protons, electrons, Isotopes, and Ions neutrons, and Atomic Mass for the following: – Carbon • Practice – – – – Hydrogen Neon Zinc Silver
  • 14. Mass Number, Isotopes and Ions December 10, 2013
  • 15. Electrons are so small they are considered negligible in mass Protons and neutrons in the nucleus • Atomic mass is measured in the unit – amu  Atomic Mass Unit
  • 16. Atomic Mass Atomic mass on the periodic table – average of all its isotopes Isotope – an Element with differing number of neutrons
  • 17. Mass Number Mass number = total number of protons and neutrons Identify isotopes by the mass number
  • 18. Isotopic Notation Hydrogen – 2  has one proton and one neutron Hydrogen – 3  has one proton and two neutrons
  • 19. Writing Isotopic Symbols X = element symbol A = Mass Number Z = Atomic Number Total number of neutrons:  Mass Number – Atomic number = number of neutrons
  • 20. Ions Atoms that gain or lose electrons Lose electrons – positive in charge Gain electrons – negative in charge
  • 21. Hydrogen that has lost an electron H+1 Hydrogen that has gained an electron H-1