63 ch51behavior2005


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  • Proximate cause questions The red–crowned cranes, like many animals, breed in spring and early summer. A proximate question about the timing of breeding by this species might be, How does day length influence breeding by red–crowned cranes? A reasonable hypothesis for the proximate cause of this behavior is that breeding is triggered by the effect of increased day length on an animal’s production of and responses to particular hormones. Indeed, experiments with various animals demonstrate that lengthening daily exposure to light produces neural and hormonal changes that induce behavior associated with reproduction, such as singing and nest building in birds. Ultimate cause questions In contrast to proximate questions, ultimate questions address the evolutionary significance of a behavior. Ultimate questions take such forms as, Why did natural selection favor this behavior and not a different one? Hypotheses addressing “why” questions propose that the behavior increases fitness in some particular way. A reasonable hypothesis for why the red–crowned crane reproduces in spring and early summer is that breeding is most productive at that time of year. For instance, at that time, parent birds can find ample food for rapidly growing offspring, providing an advantage in reproductive success compared to birds that breed in other seasons.
  • Do humans exhibit Fixed Action Patterns? This question was addressed by Irenaeus Eibl-Eibesfeldt and Hans Hass who worked at the Max-Planck-Institute for Behavioural Physiology in Germany. They created a Film Archive of Human Ethology of unstaged and minimally disturbed social behaviour. They filmed people across a wide range of cultures with a right-angle reflex lens camera i.e. the subjects did not realize that they were being filmed because the camera lens did not appear to be pointing at them! Eibl-Eibesfeldt has identified and recorded on film, several human Fixed Action Patterns or human 'universals' e.g. smiling and the "eyebrow-flash" Eibl-Eibesfeldt took these pictures of a Himba woman from Namibia (SW-Africa). She shows a rapid brow raising (between the second and third still images) which coincides with raising her eyelids. Because all the cultures he examined showed this behaviour, Eibl-Eibesfeldt concluded that it was a human 'universal' or Fixed Action Pattern. Some Sphex wasps drop a paralyzed insect near the opening of the nest. Before taking provisions into the nest, the sphex first inspects the nest, leaving the prey outside. During the sphex's inspection of the nest an experimenter can move the prey a few inches away from the opening of the nest. When the sphex emerges from the nest ready to drag in the prey, it finds the prey missing. The sphex quickly locates the moved prey, but now its behavioral "program" has been reset. After dragging the prey back to the opening of the nest, once again the sphex is compelled to inspect the nest, so the prey is again dropped and left outside during another stereotypical inspection of the nest. This iteration can be repeated again and again, with the sphex never seeming to notice what is going on, never able to escape from its genetically-programmed sequence of behaviors. Douglas Hofstadter and Daniel Dennett have used this mechanistic behavior as an example of how seemingly thoughtful behavior can actually be quite mindless, the opposite of human behavioral flexibility that we experience as free will
  • The sow bugs become more active in dry areas and less active in humid areas. Though sow bugs do not move toward or away from specific conditions, their increased movement under dry conditions increases the chance that they will leave a dry area and encounter a moist area. And since they slow down in a moist area, they tend to stay there once they encounter it. In contrast to a kinesis, a taxis is a more or less automatic, oriented movement toward (a positive taxis) or away from (a negative taxis) some stimulus. For example, many stream fish, such as trout, exhibit positive rheotaxis (from the Greek rheos, current); they automatically swim or orient themselves in an upstream direction (toward the current). This taxis keeps the fish from being swept away and keeps them facing the direction from which food will come.
  • Bird migration, a behavior that is largely under genetic control. Each spring, migrating western sandpipers (Calidris mauri), such as those shown here, migrate from their wintering grounds, which may be as far south as Peru, to their breeding grounds in Alaska. In the autumn, they return to the wintering grounds.
  • But how do the young know on whom—or what—to imprint? How do young geese know that they should follow the mother goose? The tendency to respond is innate in the birds; the outside world provides the imprinting stimulus, something to which the response will be directed. Experiments with many species of waterfowl indicate that they have no innate recognition of “mother.” They respond to and identify with the first object they encounter that has certain key characteristics. In classic experiments done in the 1930s, Konrad Lorenz showed that the most important imprinting stimulus in graylag geese is movement of an object away from the young. When incubator–hatched goslings spent their first few hours with Lorenz rather than with a goose, they imprinted on him, and from then on, they steadfastly followed him and showed no recognition of their biological mother or other adults of their own species. Again, there are both proximate and ultimate explanations
  • Cranes also imprint as hatchlings, creating both problems and opportunities in captive rearing programs designed to save endangered crane species. For instance, a group of 77 endangered whooping cranes hatched and raised by sandhill cranes imprinted on the sandhill foster parents; none of these whooping cranes ever formed a mating pair–bond with another whooping crane. As a consequence, captive breeding programs now isolate young cranes and expose them to the sights and sounds of members of their own species. But imprinting can also be used to aid crane conservation Young whooping cranes imprinted on humans in “crane suits” have been taught to follow these “parents” flying ultralight aircraft along new migration routes. And importantly, such cranes have formed mating pair–bonds with other whooping cranes.
  • The luring function of sex pheromones is a perfect way for predators to get heir prey without having to work too hard. The spider Mastophora hutchinsoni spreads sex pheromones of moths, using them as allomones. This way he can lure about enough moths to sustain. When the moths fly in, convinced they are about to mate, the spider shoots a sticky ball on wire towards them. As they stick to the ball, he drags them in and eats them.
  • 63 ch51behavior2005

    1. 1. AP Biology 2005-2006 Animal Behavior Chapter 51. meerkats
    2. 2. AP Biology 2005-2006 What is behavior & Why study it?  Behavior  everything an animal does & how it does it  link between animal & its environment  innate = inherited or developmentally fixed  learned = develop during animal’s lifetime  Why study behavior?  part of phenotype  acted upon by natural selection  lead to greater fitness?  greater reproductive success?  greater survival?
    3. 3. AP Biology 2005-2006 What questions do we ask?  Proximate causes  immediate stimulus & mechanism  “how” & “what” questions  Ultimate causes  evolutionary significance  how does behavior contribute to survival & reproduction  “why” questions Courtship behavior in cranes →consider how & why questions
    4. 4. AP Biology 2005-2006 Ethology pioneers in the study of animal behavior Karl von Frisch Niko Tinbergen Konrad Lorenz 1941 | 1973
    5. 5. AP Biology 2005-2006 Types of behaviors  Innate behaviors  automatic, fixed, “built-in”  despite different environments, all individuals exhibit the behavior  triggered by a stimulus  Learned behaviors  modified by experience  variable  triggered by a stimulus does lipstick create a supernormal stimulus in humans
    6. 6. AP Biology 2005-2006 Innate behavior  Fixed action patterns (FAP)  sequence of behaviors essentially unchangeable & usually conducted to completion once started  sign stimulus  releaser that triggers FAP male sticklebacks exhibit aggressive territoriality attack on red belly stimulus court on swollen belly stimulus
    7. 7. AP Biology 2005-2006 Fixed Action Pattern courtship display in sticklebacks
    8. 8. AP Biology 2005-2006 Fixed Action Patterns (FAP) Do humans exhibit Fixed Action Patterns? The “eyebrow-flash” Digger wasp egg rolling in geese
    9. 9. AP Biology 2005-2006 Directed movements  Taxis  change in direction  automatic movement toward (positive taxis) or away from (negative taxis) a stimulus  phototaxis  chemotaxis  Kinesis  change in rate of movement in response to a stimulus
    10. 10. AP Biology 2005-2006 Migration  Complex behavior, but still under genetic control  “migratory restlessness” seen in birds bred & raised in captivity migrating western sandpipers Monarch migration
    11. 11. AP Biology 2005-2006 Migration Bobolink Golden plover Summer nesting range Winter range Summer nesting range Winter range  Following ancient fly-ways  navigate by sun, stars, magnetic fields
    12. 12. AP Biology 2005-2006 Imprinting  Learning at a specific critical time forming social attachments  both learning & innate components Konrad Lorenz was “mother” to these imprinted graylag goslings
    13. 13. AP Biology 2005-2006 Imprinting for conservation Conservation biologists have taken advantage of imprinting by young whooping cranes as a means to teach the birds a migration route. A pilot wearing a crane suit in an ultralight plane acts as a surrogate parent. Imprinting Wattled crane conservation teaching cranes to migrate
    14. 14. AP Biology 2005-2006 Critical period in some species
    15. 15. AP Biology 2005-2006 Learned behavior  Associative learning  learning to associate 1 feature of the environment (stimulus) with another  operant conditioning  trial & error learning  classical conditioning  stimulus & reward/punishment QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
    16. 16. AP Biology 2005-2006 Operant conditioning  Skinner box QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
    17. 17. AP Biology 2005-2006 Classical conditioning  Ivan Pavlov’s dogs  connect reflex behavior to associated stimulus
    18. 18. AP Biology 2005-2006 Habituation  Loss of response to stimulus  “cry-wolf” effect  learn not to respond to repeated occurrences of stimulus
    19. 19. AP Biology 2005-2006 Thinking & problem-solving  Do other animals think? tool use problem-solving crow
    20. 20. AP Biology 2005-2006 Do other animals think & plan?
    21. 21. AP Biology 2005-2006 Social behaviors  Contests for resources  develop as evolutionary adaptations  agonistic behaviors  threatening & submissive rituals  symbolic, usually no harm done
    22. 22. AP Biology 2005-2006 Social behaviors  Dominance hierarchy  social ranking within a group  pecking order
    23. 23. AP Biology 2005-2006 Social behaviors  Altruistic behavior  reduces individual fitness but increases fitness of recipient  kin selection How can this be of adaptive value? Belding ground squirrel
    24. 24. AP Biology 2005-2006 Social behaviors  Territoriality nesting in birds
    25. 25. AP Biology 2005-2006 Territoriality
    26. 26. AP Biology 2005-2006 Mating & parental behavior  Genetic influences  changes in behavior in different stages of mating  pair bonding  competitor aggression  Environmental influences  modifies behavior  quality of diet  social interactions  learning opportunities
    27. 27. AP Biology 2005-2006 Social interaction requires communication  Pheromones  chemical signal that stimulates a response from other individuals  alarm pheromones  sex pheromones
    28. 28. AP Biology 2005-2006 Pheromones Spider using moth sex pheromones, as allomones, to lure its prey The female lion lures male by spreading sex pheromones, but also by posture & movements Female mosquito use CO2 concentrations to locate victims marking territory
    29. 29. AP Biology 2005-2006 Pheromones Human pheromones?
    30. 30. AP Biology 2005-2006 Honeybee communication  Honey bee dance to communicate location of food source  waggle dance
    31. 31. AP Biology 2005-2006 Auditory communication  Bird song  species identification & mating ritual  mixed learned & innate  critical learning period  Insect song  mating ritual & song  innate, genetically controlled Red-winged blackbird
    32. 32. AP Biology 2005-2006 Social behaviors  Cooperation Pack of African dogs hunting wildebeest cooperatively White pelicans “herding” school of fish
    33. 33. AP Biology 2005-2006 Colonial mammals  Naked mole rats  underground colony, tunnels  queen, breeding males, non-breeding workers  hairless, blind “Picture a hot dog that's been left in a microwave a little too long, add some buck teeth at one end, and you've got a fairly good idea of what a Naked Mole Rat looks like.” convergent evolution: bees, ants, termites… mole rats
    34. 34. AP Biology 2005-2006 Any Questions??