63 bacterialgenecontrol2007

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  • Remember:
    rapid growth
    generation every ~20 minutes
    108 (100 million) colony overnight!
    Anybody that can put more energy to growth & reproduction takes over the toilet.
    An individual bacterium, locked into the genome that it has inherited, can cope with environmental fluctuations by exerting metabolic control.
    First, cells vary the number of specific enzyme molecules by regulating gene expression.
    Second, cells adjust the activity of enzymes already present (for example, by feedback inhibition).
  • 63 bacterialgenecontrol2007

    1. 1. Control of Prokaryotic (Bacterial) Genes AP Biology 2007-2008
    2. 2. Bacterial metabolism Bacteria need to respond quickly to changes in their environment  STOP  GO AP Biology if they have enough of a product, need to stop production why? waste of energy to produce more how? stop production of enzymes for synthesis if they find new food/energy source, need to utilize it quickly why? metabolism, growth, reproduction how? start production of enzymes for digestion
    3. 3. Remember Regulating Metabolism? Feedback inhibition  product acts as an allosteric inhibitor of 1st enzyme in tryptophan pathway  but this is wasteful production of enzymes Oh, I remember this from our Metabolism Unit! AP Biology - = inhibition -
    4. 4. Different way to Regulate Metabolism Gene regulation  AP Biology instead of blocking enzyme function, block transcription of genes for all enzymes in tryptophan pathway saves energy by not wasting it on unnecessary protein synthesis Now, that’s a good idea from a lowly bacterium! - = inhibition -
    5. 5. Gene regulation in bacteria Cells vary amount of specific enzymes by regulating gene transcription  turn genes on or turn genes off turn genes OFF example if bacterium has enough tryptophan then it STOP doesn’t need to make enzymes used to build tryptophan turn genes ON example if bacterium encounters new sugar (energy GO source), like lactose, then it needs to start making enzymes used to digest lactose AP Biology
    6. 6. Bacteria group genes together Operon  genes grouped together with related functions example: all enzymes in a metabolic pathway  promoter = RNA polymerase binding site single promoter controls transcription of all genes in operon transcribed as one unit & a single mRNA is made  AP Biology operator = DNA binding site of repressor protein
    7. 7. So how can these genes be turned off? Repressor protein binds to DNA at operator site  blocking RNA polymerase  blocks transcription  AP Biology
    8. 8. Operon model Operon: operator, promoter & genes they control serve as a model for gene regulation RNA polymerase RNA TATA repressor polymerase gene1 gene2 gene3 gene4 1 2 3 4 enzyme1 enzyme2 enzyme3 enzyme4 mRNA promoter DNA operator Repressor protein turns off gene by blocking RNA polymerase binding site. AP Biology repressor = repressor protein
    9. 9. Repressible operon: tryptophan Synthesis pathway model When excess tryptophan is present, it binds to tryp repressor protein & triggers repressor to bind to DNA RNA polymerase  RNA trp TATArepressor polymerase blocks (represses) transcription gene1 gene2 gene3 gene4 1 2 3 4 enzyme1 enzyme2 enzyme3 enzyme4 mRNA promoter operator DNA trp trp trp repressor repressor protein trp trp trp trp trp trp conformational change in AP Biology repressor protein! trp repressor tryptophan trp tryptophan – repressor protein complex
    10. 10. Tryptophan operon What happens when tryptophan is present? Don’t need to make tryptophan-building enzymes Tryptophan AP Biology is allosteric regulator of repressor protein
    11. 11. Inducible operon: lactose lac lac RNA polymerase lac Digestive pathway model lac When lactose is present, binds to lac repressor protein & triggers repressor to release DNA lac lac lac  RNA lac TATA repressor polymerase induces transcription gene3 gene4 gene1 gene2 1 2 3 4 enzyme1 enzyme2 enzyme3 enzyme4 mRNA promoter operator repressor lac conformational change in AP Biology repressor protein! lac repressor DNA repressor protein lactose lactose – repressor protein complex
    12. 12. Lactose operon What happens when lactose is present? Need to make lactose-digesting enzymes Lactose is allosteric regulator of repressor protein AP Biology
    13. 13. 1961 | 1965 Jacob & Monod: lac Operon Francois Jacob & Jacques Monod first to describe operon system  coined the phrase “operon”  AP Biology Jacques Monod Francois Jacob
    14. 14. Operon summary Repressible operon  usually functions in anabolic pathways synthesizing end products  when end product is present in excess, cell allocates resources to other uses Inducible operon  usually functions in catabolic pathways, digesting nutrients to simpler molecules  AP Biology produce enzymes only when nutrient is available cell avoids making proteins that have nothing to do, cell allocates resources to other uses
    15. 15. Don’t be repressed! How can I induce you to ask Questions? AP Biology 2007-2008

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