04 ch04carbon2005

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  • Why do we study carbon -- is it the most abundant element in living organisms? H & O most abundant C is the next most abundant
  • Carbon chemistry = organic chemistry Why is it a foundational atom? What makes it so important? Can’t be a good building block if you only form 1 or 2 bonds.
  • Like sugars: C 6 H 12 O 6 But can be arranged in different ways -glucose -galactose -dextrose
  • Same formula but different structurally & therefore different functionally. Molecular shape determines biological properties. Ex. Isomers may be ineffective as medicines
  • The properties of an organic molecule are not solely determined by the carbon skeleton but also by the arrangements of atoms attached to it. Certain groupings of atoms called functional groups are found to reoccur time and time again in many different molecules, often having important roles in the reactions the molecule can participate in.
  • For example the male and female hormones, testosterone and estradiol, differ from each other only by the attachment of different functional groups to an identical carbon skeleton.
  • 04 ch04carbon2005

    1. 1. AP Biology 2003-2004 Chapter 4. The Chemistry of Carbon
    2. 2. AP Biology 2003-2004 Why study Carbon?  All living things are made of cells  Cells  ~72% H2O  ~3% salts (Na, Cl, K…)  ~25% carbon compounds carbohydrates lipids proteins nucleic acids
    3. 3. AP Biology 2003-2004 Chemistry of Life  Organic chemistry is the study of carbon compounds  C atoms are versatile building blocks  bonding properties  4 stable covalent bonds
    4. 4. AP Biology 2003-2004 Complex molecules assembled like TinkerToys
    5. 5. AP Biology 2003-2004 Hydrocarbons  Simplest C molecules = hydrocarbons  combinations of C & H  Simplest HC molecule = methane  1 carbon bound to 4 H atoms  non-polar  not soluble in H2O  hydrophobic  stable  very little attraction between molecules  a gas at room temperature
    6. 6. AP Biology 2003-2004 Hydrocarbons can grow  adding C-C bonds  straight line  ethane  hexane  branching  isohexane  ring  cyclohexane ethane hexane cyclohexaneisohexane methane
    7. 7. AP Biology 2003-2004 Diversity of organic molecules
    8. 8. AP Biology 2003-2004 Isomers  Molecules with same molecular formula but different structures  different chemical properties
    9. 9. AP Biology 2003-2004 Structural isomers  Molecules differ in structural arrangement of atoms
    10. 10. AP Biology 2003-2004 Geometric isomers  Molecules differ in arrangement around C=C double bond  same covalent partnerships
    11. 11. AP Biology 2003-2004 Enantiomer (stereo) isomers  Molecules which are mirror images of each other  C bonded to 4 different atoms or groups  assymetric  left-handed & right-handed versions  “L” versions are biologically active
    12. 12. AP Biology 2003-2004 Form affects function  Structural differences create important functional significance  amino acid alanine  L-alanine used in proteins  but not D-alanine  medicines  L-version active  but not D-version  sometimes with tragic results…
    13. 13. AP Biology 2003-2004 Form affects function  Thalidomide  prescribed to pregnant women in 50’s & 60’s  reduced morning sickness, but…  stereoisomer caused severe birth defects
    14. 14. AP Biology 2003-2004 Diversity of molecules  Substitute other atoms or groups around the C  ethane vs. ethanol  H replaced by an hydroxyl group (–OH)  nonpolar vs. polar  gas vs. liquid  biological effects! ethanolethane
    15. 15. AP Biology 2003-2004 Functional Groups
    16. 16. AP Biology 2003-2004 Functional groups  Components of organic molecules that are involved in chemical reactions  give organic molecules distinctive properties  ex: male & female hormones…
    17. 17. AP Biology 2003-2004 Viva la difference!  Basic structure of male & female hormones is identical  identical C skeleton  attachment of different functional groups  interact with different targets in the body
    18. 18. AP Biology 2003-2004 Types of functional groups  6 functional groups most important to chemistry of life:  hydroxyl amino  carbonyl sulfhydryl  carboxyl phosphate  Affect reactivity  hydrophilic  increase solubility in water
    19. 19. AP Biology 2003-2004 Hydroxyl  –OH  organic compounds with OH = alcohols  names typically end in -ol  ethanol
    20. 20. AP Biology 2003-2004 Carbonyl  C=O  O double bonded to C  if C=O at end molecule = aldelhyde  if C=O in middle of molecule = ketone
    21. 21. AP Biology 2003-2004 Carboxyl  –COOH  C double bonded to O & single bonded to OH group  compounds with COOH = acids fatty acids amino acids
    22. 22. AP Biology 2003-2004 Amino  -NH2  N attached to 2 H  compounds with NH2 = amines amnio acids  NH2 acts as base ammonia picks up H+ from solution
    23. 23. AP Biology 2003-2004 Sulfhydryl  –SH  S bonded to H  compounds with SH = thiols  SH groups stabilize the structure of proteins
    24. 24. AP Biology 2003-2004 Phosphate  –PO4  P bound to 4 O  connects to C through an O  PO4 are anions with 2 negative charges  function of PO4 is to transfer energy between organic molecules (ATP)
    25. 25. AP Biology 2003-2004 Why study Functional Groups?  These are the building blocks for biological molecules …and that comes next!
    26. 26. AP Biology 2003-2004 Any Questions??

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