The Social Impact of ICT


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Understand the positive impacts of technology & communications and the downsides also

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The Social Impact of ICT

  1. 1. The Social Impact of Information and Communication Technology Sudhendu Bali 4 August, 2010 Guest Faculty University Institute of Applied Management Sciences, Panjab University, Chandigarh
  2. 2. <ul><li>Explain the benefits and drawbacks of the use of information and communication technology in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>manufacturing, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>industry, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>commerce, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>medicine, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the home, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tele-working. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Computers and Employment <ul><li>Has machinery displaced workers? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Steam engine turbines – Industrial revolution. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Factory workers and robotics. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Have computers replaced workers? </li></ul><ul><li>Have more jobs have been created by the new technology (computerisation)? </li></ul><ul><li>What has happened to clerical workers over the last 20 years? Have their skills changed ? </li></ul>
  4. 4. More jobs : Computer manufacturers, delivery drivers, call centre employees, etc. Skills : Constant retraining needed More flexibility : No longer jobs for life Working patterns : More flexible employment/working, more part time working Telecommuting : Working from home Jobs New jobs : Programmers, web designers, ICT teachers, etc. Fewer jobs : Filing clerks, shop workers, postal workers; manual/repetitive jobs replaced
  5. 5. The Changing Nature of Employment <ul><li>What has happened to the Farm and Factory workers? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the Service industries? </li></ul><ul><li>How do computers assist employment in the Service industry? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider: banking, travel, supermarket etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Has computerisation given greater job satisfaction? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider: engineering, architecture, accounting etc. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Changing Locations of Work <ul><li>Where did the population move from/to during the Industrial revolution? </li></ul><ul><li>With Communications technology is this being reversed? </li></ul><ul><li>Where does data processing need to be done, in the office or at the end of a ‘phone line? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider Telecom and Airline and Banking using call centres, where are these centres? </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Tele-working <ul><li>What is Tele-working? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the benefits of Tele-working? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider: environment, commuting, working hours, commitments, space saving, team-working in a network. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What are the problems with Tele-working? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider: management, organisational loyalty, social isolation, separation of work with leisure time. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Would you do any form of Tele-working? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider doing school-work at home and e-mailing it to your teacher. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. The Other Side <ul><li>What happens to older workers who may find it difficult to re-train to adapt to the new technology? </li></ul><ul><li>What happens to people that do not have access to the new technology? </li></ul><ul><li>What about people who try to ignore the new technology? </li></ul><ul><li>What can happen when people rely on technology? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider: back up systems for breakdown, fault handling, natural accidents, malicious damage. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Using ICT to Run a Small Business <ul><li>What could the following software packages be useful for? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spreadsheet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Graphics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Word Processing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Desktop publishing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Database </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accounts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E-mail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet browser </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Other: Paperless office, teleconferencing Robots : Used on production lines – repetitive/hazardous jobs, reduces human error, increases efficiency Computer Aided Manufacture (CAM) : Control of the manufacture process by computer Internet : Drastically changed the businesses operate Business Computer Aided Design (CAD) : 3D designs, scale drawings, interface with manufacturing machines Teleworking : Fewer desks needed – hot desking, workers control the times they work, etc.
  11. 11. IT in Banking <ul><li>How is IT used in Banking? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider: telephone banking, Internet banking, ATM’s, Debit cards, Credit cards, MICR (Magnetic Ink Character Recognition) e.g. cheque processing, Direct debiting, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How is IT used with a Store Card? </li></ul>
  12. 12. Internet Shopping
  13. 13. Electronic Funds Transfer Home Banking : Customers use the internet or telephone to administer their account Cheque Processing: Cheques are scanned, account numbers read (MICR) to identify the account EFT : Credit/Debit card details sent for authorisation, from retailers or ATMs Credit/Debit Cards: Magnetic stripe holds the card details which are read when swiped Cash Machines: Automated Teller Machine (ATM) – “hole in the wall” access to bank accounts Smart Cards : Chip and Pin – data held on a small silicon chip rather than magnetic stripe, customer enters a pin rather than signs receipt Money and Banking Automated Payments : Bankers Automated Clearing House (BACS) – Credits, e.g. salary payments, etc.; Debits, e.g. direct debits, loan payments, etc.
  14. 14. Manufacturing <ul><li>How are computers used in manufacturing? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider: order processing, stock reports and replacement, progress tracking. Project management – budgets, on-time. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What is CAD (Computer aided Design)? </li></ul><ul><li>What is CAM (Computer aided Manufacture)? </li></ul>
  15. 17. Medicine <ul><li>Give some example where computers are used in the Health service? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider: records, databases, computerised medical devices, monitoring, expert systems (diagnosis), surgery. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What is an expert (knowledge-based) system? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider: image capture and processing. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What is robotic surgery? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider: operations. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How important are computers for the disabled? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider: blind, deaf, special devices, implants. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 18. The Patient at the Center of Care Courtesy of Paul Wallace, Kaiser
  17. 19. Monitoring/Diagnosis : Heart rate, blood pressure, etc. Expert systems, CAT scans NHSnet : Project to connect all GP surgeries, networked to hospitals NHS Direct : Web site for information on health care, treatments, conditions, etc. Hospital Administration : Patient attendance, print labels, allocate beds, order food, make appointments, send letters, staff rotas Pharmacy records : Contra-indications, stock Medical Training : Simulation software, on-line data sources Health Patient Records : Held electronically, rather than paper files
  18. 20. Education <ul><li>Why are there so many computers in schools? </li></ul><ul><li>How do computers assist with teaching and learning? </li></ul><ul><li>What is an interactive teaching package? </li></ul><ul><li>How should the Internet be used to assist learning? </li></ul><ul><li>How can computers help with distance learning? </li></ul>
  19. 22. Letters : Mail merge not typed on a typewriter Timetables : Generated by computer Computer Aided Learning : On-screen learning materials, computer aided assessment Registration : OMR registers, scanned to update central database, produce absence lists Reports : Produced electronically, e.g. mail merge Records : Details of all pupils held on file, reduces administration Teaching : Interactive whiteboards, internet, projectors Education
  20. 23. Dependence on IT & Communications <ul><li>How are individuals dependant on IT? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Routine chores: money, shopping, holiday, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scanners and imaging systems, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traffic control, and car parking, motorway, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flood warning systems, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer controlled braking, fuel, on cars, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal use, data, accounts, education, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrical devices in the home, washing machines, video DVD players, microwaves, etc, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telephone lines for Internet communications. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 24. Mobile telephones : Can send voice, image, text, data (from a linked computer) Fax : Sending an image of a document electronically Tele/Video Conferencing: people in different locations communicating as if they were in the same location E-mail : Message sent from 1 person to another using computers connected to a network WWW: World Wide Web – collection of pages with links to other pages (hyperlinks) Internet: Largest WAN, international network of computers connected by communication lines Connection Methods : Cable, radio/microwaves, infra-red, satellite, etc. Networks : LANs or WANs Communication
  22. 25. <ul><li>How are organisations dependant on IT? </li></ul><ul><li>Consider the type of organisation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supermarkets, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hospitals, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The emergency services, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The utility companies, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Schools, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Air traffic control, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nuclear power stations. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What would be the consequences of failure on the organisations above? </li></ul>