The Social Impact of ICT
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5

The Social Impact of ICT



Understand the positive impacts of technology & communications and the downsides also

Understand the positive impacts of technology & communications and the downsides also



Total Views
Views on SlideShare
Embed Views



2 Embeds 19 13 6



Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
Post Comment
Edit your comment

The Social Impact of ICT The Social Impact of ICT Presentation Transcript

  • The Social Impact of Information and Communication Technology Sudhendu Bali 4 August, 2010 Guest Faculty University Institute of Applied Management Sciences, Panjab University, Chandigarh
    • Explain the benefits and drawbacks of the use of information and communication technology in:
      • manufacturing,
      • industry,
      • commerce,
      • medicine,
      • the home,
      • education
      • tele-working.
  • Computers and Employment
    • Has machinery displaced workers?
      • Steam engine turbines – Industrial revolution.
      • Factory workers and robotics.
    • Have computers replaced workers?
    • Have more jobs have been created by the new technology (computerisation)?
    • What has happened to clerical workers over the last 20 years? Have their skills changed ?
  • More jobs : Computer manufacturers, delivery drivers, call centre employees, etc. Skills : Constant retraining needed More flexibility : No longer jobs for life Working patterns : More flexible employment/working, more part time working Telecommuting : Working from home Jobs New jobs : Programmers, web designers, ICT teachers, etc. Fewer jobs : Filing clerks, shop workers, postal workers; manual/repetitive jobs replaced
  • The Changing Nature of Employment
    • What has happened to the Farm and Factory workers?
    • What are the Service industries?
    • How do computers assist employment in the Service industry?
      • Consider: banking, travel, supermarket etc.
    • Has computerisation given greater job satisfaction?
      • Consider: engineering, architecture, accounting etc.
  • Changing Locations of Work
    • Where did the population move from/to during the Industrial revolution?
    • With Communications technology is this being reversed?
    • Where does data processing need to be done, in the office or at the end of a ‘phone line?
      • Consider Telecom and Airline and Banking using call centres, where are these centres?
  • Tele-working
    • What is Tele-working?
    • What are the benefits of Tele-working?
      • Consider: environment, commuting, working hours, commitments, space saving, team-working in a network.
    • What are the problems with Tele-working?
      • Consider: management, organisational loyalty, social isolation, separation of work with leisure time.
    • Would you do any form of Tele-working?
      • Consider doing school-work at home and e-mailing it to your teacher.
  • The Other Side
    • What happens to older workers who may find it difficult to re-train to adapt to the new technology?
    • What happens to people that do not have access to the new technology?
    • What about people who try to ignore the new technology?
    • What can happen when people rely on technology?
      • Consider: back up systems for breakdown, fault handling, natural accidents, malicious damage.
  • Using ICT to Run a Small Business
    • What could the following software packages be useful for?
      • Spreadsheet
      • Graphics
      • Word Processing
      • Desktop publishing
      • Database
      • Accounts
      • E-mail
      • Internet browser
  • Other: Paperless office, teleconferencing Robots : Used on production lines – repetitive/hazardous jobs, reduces human error, increases efficiency Computer Aided Manufacture (CAM) : Control of the manufacture process by computer Internet : Drastically changed the businesses operate Business Computer Aided Design (CAD) : 3D designs, scale drawings, interface with manufacturing machines Teleworking : Fewer desks needed – hot desking, workers control the times they work, etc.
  • IT in Banking
    • How is IT used in Banking?
      • Consider: telephone banking, Internet banking, ATM’s, Debit cards, Credit cards, MICR (Magnetic Ink Character Recognition) e.g. cheque processing, Direct debiting, etc.
    • How is IT used with a Store Card?
  • Internet Shopping
  • Electronic Funds Transfer Home Banking : Customers use the internet or telephone to administer their account Cheque Processing: Cheques are scanned, account numbers read (MICR) to identify the account EFT : Credit/Debit card details sent for authorisation, from retailers or ATMs Credit/Debit Cards: Magnetic stripe holds the card details which are read when swiped Cash Machines: Automated Teller Machine (ATM) – “hole in the wall” access to bank accounts Smart Cards : Chip and Pin – data held on a small silicon chip rather than magnetic stripe, customer enters a pin rather than signs receipt Money and Banking Automated Payments : Bankers Automated Clearing House (BACS) – Credits, e.g. salary payments, etc.; Debits, e.g. direct debits, loan payments, etc.
  • Manufacturing
    • How are computers used in manufacturing?
      • Consider: order processing, stock reports and replacement, progress tracking. Project management – budgets, on-time.
    • What is CAD (Computer aided Design)?
    • What is CAM (Computer aided Manufacture)?
  • Medicine
    • Give some example where computers are used in the Health service?
      • Consider: records, databases, computerised medical devices, monitoring, expert systems (diagnosis), surgery.
    • What is an expert (knowledge-based) system?
      • Consider: image capture and processing.
    • What is robotic surgery?
      • Consider: operations.
    • How important are computers for the disabled?
      • Consider: blind, deaf, special devices, implants.
  • The Patient at the Center of Care Courtesy of Paul Wallace, Kaiser
  • Monitoring/Diagnosis : Heart rate, blood pressure, etc. Expert systems, CAT scans NHSnet : Project to connect all GP surgeries, networked to hospitals NHS Direct : Web site for information on health care, treatments, conditions, etc. Hospital Administration : Patient attendance, print labels, allocate beds, order food, make appointments, send letters, staff rotas Pharmacy records : Contra-indications, stock Medical Training : Simulation software, on-line data sources Health Patient Records : Held electronically, rather than paper files
  • Education
    • Why are there so many computers in schools?
    • How do computers assist with teaching and learning?
    • What is an interactive teaching package?
    • How should the Internet be used to assist learning?
    • How can computers help with distance learning?
  • Letters : Mail merge not typed on a typewriter Timetables : Generated by computer Computer Aided Learning : On-screen learning materials, computer aided assessment Registration : OMR registers, scanned to update central database, produce absence lists Reports : Produced electronically, e.g. mail merge Records : Details of all pupils held on file, reduces administration Teaching : Interactive whiteboards, internet, projectors Education
  • Dependence on IT & Communications
    • How are individuals dependant on IT?
      • Routine chores: money, shopping, holiday,
      • Scanners and imaging systems,
      • Traffic control, and car parking, motorway,
      • Flood warning systems,
      • Computer controlled braking, fuel, on cars,
      • Personal use, data, accounts, education,
      • Electrical devices in the home, washing machines, video DVD players, microwaves, etc,
      • Telephone lines for Internet communications.
  • Mobile telephones : Can send voice, image, text, data (from a linked computer) Fax : Sending an image of a document electronically Tele/Video Conferencing: people in different locations communicating as if they were in the same location E-mail : Message sent from 1 person to another using computers connected to a network WWW: World Wide Web – collection of pages with links to other pages (hyperlinks) Internet: Largest WAN, international network of computers connected by communication lines Connection Methods : Cable, radio/microwaves, infra-red, satellite, etc. Networks : LANs or WANs Communication
    • How are organisations dependant on IT?
    • Consider the type of organisation:
      • Supermarkets,
      • Hospitals,
      • The emergency services,
      • The utility companies,
      • Schools,
      • Air traffic control,
      • Nuclear power stations.
    • What would be the consequences of failure on the organisations above?