The Social Impact of ICT
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The Social Impact of ICT

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Understand the positive impacts of technology & communications and the downsides also

Understand the positive impacts of technology & communications and the downsides also

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The Social Impact of ICT The Social Impact of ICT Presentation Transcript

  • The Social Impact of Information and Communication Technology Sudhendu Bali 4 August, 2010 Guest Faculty University Institute of Applied Management Sciences, Panjab University, Chandigarh
    • Explain the benefits and drawbacks of the use of information and communication technology in:
      • manufacturing,
      • industry,
      • commerce,
      • medicine,
      • the home,
      • education
      • tele-working.
  • Computers and Employment
    • Has machinery displaced workers?
      • Steam engine turbines – Industrial revolution.
      • Factory workers and robotics.
    • Have computers replaced workers?
    • Have more jobs have been created by the new technology (computerisation)?
    • What has happened to clerical workers over the last 20 years? Have their skills changed ?
  • More jobs : Computer manufacturers, delivery drivers, call centre employees, etc. Skills : Constant retraining needed More flexibility : No longer jobs for life Working patterns : More flexible employment/working, more part time working Telecommuting : Working from home Jobs New jobs : Programmers, web designers, ICT teachers, etc. Fewer jobs : Filing clerks, shop workers, postal workers; manual/repetitive jobs replaced
  • The Changing Nature of Employment
    • What has happened to the Farm and Factory workers?
    • What are the Service industries?
    • How do computers assist employment in the Service industry?
      • Consider: banking, travel, supermarket etc.
    • Has computerisation given greater job satisfaction?
      • Consider: engineering, architecture, accounting etc.
  • Changing Locations of Work
    • Where did the population move from/to during the Industrial revolution?
    • With Communications technology is this being reversed?
    • Where does data processing need to be done, in the office or at the end of a ‘phone line?
      • Consider Telecom and Airline and Banking using call centres, where are these centres?
  • Tele-working
    • What is Tele-working?
    • What are the benefits of Tele-working?
      • Consider: environment, commuting, working hours, commitments, space saving, team-working in a network.
    • What are the problems with Tele-working?
      • Consider: management, organisational loyalty, social isolation, separation of work with leisure time.
    • Would you do any form of Tele-working?
      • Consider doing school-work at home and e-mailing it to your teacher.
  • The Other Side
    • What happens to older workers who may find it difficult to re-train to adapt to the new technology?
    • What happens to people that do not have access to the new technology?
    • What about people who try to ignore the new technology?
    • What can happen when people rely on technology?
      • Consider: back up systems for breakdown, fault handling, natural accidents, malicious damage.
  • Using ICT to Run a Small Business
    • What could the following software packages be useful for?
      • Spreadsheet
      • Graphics
      • Word Processing
      • Desktop publishing
      • Database
      • Accounts
      • E-mail
      • Internet browser
  • Other: Paperless office, teleconferencing Robots : Used on production lines – repetitive/hazardous jobs, reduces human error, increases efficiency Computer Aided Manufacture (CAM) : Control of the manufacture process by computer Internet : Drastically changed the businesses operate Business Computer Aided Design (CAD) : 3D designs, scale drawings, interface with manufacturing machines Teleworking : Fewer desks needed – hot desking, workers control the times they work, etc.
  • IT in Banking
    • How is IT used in Banking?
      • Consider: telephone banking, Internet banking, ATM’s, Debit cards, Credit cards, MICR (Magnetic Ink Character Recognition) e.g. cheque processing, Direct debiting, etc.
    • How is IT used with a Store Card?
  • Internet Shopping
  • Electronic Funds Transfer Home Banking : Customers use the internet or telephone to administer their account Cheque Processing: Cheques are scanned, account numbers read (MICR) to identify the account EFT : Credit/Debit card details sent for authorisation, from retailers or ATMs Credit/Debit Cards: Magnetic stripe holds the card details which are read when swiped Cash Machines: Automated Teller Machine (ATM) – “hole in the wall” access to bank accounts Smart Cards : Chip and Pin – data held on a small silicon chip rather than magnetic stripe, customer enters a pin rather than signs receipt Money and Banking Automated Payments : Bankers Automated Clearing House (BACS) – Credits, e.g. salary payments, etc.; Debits, e.g. direct debits, loan payments, etc.
  • Manufacturing
    • How are computers used in manufacturing?
      • Consider: order processing, stock reports and replacement, progress tracking. Project management – budgets, on-time.
    • What is CAD (Computer aided Design)?
    • What is CAM (Computer aided Manufacture)?
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  • Medicine
    • Give some example where computers are used in the Health service?
      • Consider: records, databases, computerised medical devices, monitoring, expert systems (diagnosis), surgery.
    • What is an expert (knowledge-based) system?
      • Consider: image capture and processing.
    • What is robotic surgery?
      • Consider: operations.
    • How important are computers for the disabled?
      • Consider: blind, deaf, special devices, implants.
  • The Patient at the Center of Care Courtesy of Paul Wallace, Kaiser
  • Monitoring/Diagnosis : Heart rate, blood pressure, etc. Expert systems, CAT scans NHSnet : Project to connect all GP surgeries, networked to hospitals NHS Direct : Web site for information on health care, treatments, conditions, etc. Hospital Administration : Patient attendance, print labels, allocate beds, order food, make appointments, send letters, staff rotas Pharmacy records : Contra-indications, stock Medical Training : Simulation software, on-line data sources Health Patient Records : Held electronically, rather than paper files
  • Education
    • Why are there so many computers in schools?
    • How do computers assist with teaching and learning?
    • What is an interactive teaching package?
    • How should the Internet be used to assist learning?
    • How can computers help with distance learning?
  •  
  • Letters : Mail merge not typed on a typewriter Timetables : Generated by computer Computer Aided Learning : On-screen learning materials, computer aided assessment Registration : OMR registers, scanned to update central database, produce absence lists Reports : Produced electronically, e.g. mail merge Records : Details of all pupils held on file, reduces administration Teaching : Interactive whiteboards, internet, projectors Education
  • Dependence on IT & Communications
    • How are individuals dependant on IT?
      • Routine chores: money, shopping, holiday,
      • Scanners and imaging systems,
      • Traffic control, and car parking, motorway,
      • Flood warning systems,
      • Computer controlled braking, fuel, on cars,
      • Personal use, data, accounts, education,
      • Electrical devices in the home, washing machines, video DVD players, microwaves, etc,
      • Telephone lines for Internet communications.
  • Mobile telephones : Can send voice, image, text, data (from a linked computer) Fax : Sending an image of a document electronically Tele/Video Conferencing: people in different locations communicating as if they were in the same location E-mail : Message sent from 1 person to another using computers connected to a network WWW: World Wide Web – collection of pages with links to other pages (hyperlinks) Internet: Largest WAN, international network of computers connected by communication lines Connection Methods : Cable, radio/microwaves, infra-red, satellite, etc. Networks : LANs or WANs Communication
    • How are organisations dependant on IT?
    • Consider the type of organisation:
      • Supermarkets,
      • Hospitals,
      • The emergency services,
      • The utility companies,
      • Schools,
      • Air traffic control,
      • Nuclear power stations.
    • What would be the consequences of failure on the organisations above?