Title Page                                                                         Introductory ContextYour Name: Stephani...
presentation to their classmates. Students will listen to their classmates explain their examples ofmetaphors and similes....
Students will work on their own when creating their own metaphors and similes. This creativework will allow students to de...
groups to work on their presentation. This would make the total number of days until the end ofthe unit 15 days.Resources ...
exciting as a rollercoaster. The book is like a rollercoaster. The book is a           rollercoaster.   After the class co...
    “Troops all here?” he asks cheerily (6).                                       The children are not actually “troops”...
Example questions: Why did you like these examples? How do they add meaning              to their original objects? What m...
information. Guided practice is also taking place when the groups provide verbal examples ofmetaphors and similes.Independ...
Metaphors and Similes                                           Activity Sheet                                           U...
Metaphors and Similes                                    Teacher Presentation Model                                       ...
Metaphors and Similes                                                                  Using Before we were Free          ...
Conventions Plan
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Conventions Plan

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Conventions Plan

  1. 1. Title Page Introductory ContextYour Name: Stephanie BakerBook Title: Before we were Free by Julia AlvarezTitle of Lesson: Language Lesson for Figurative Language Using Before we were FreeGrade Level: 9Four-part Performance Objective:Given the definitions of similes and metaphors students will be able to identify metaphors andsimiles and their literary significance in sentences in Before we were Free that use metaphorsand similes and analyze the way they are used by working in small groups to present and explainthe examples they found, then individually in a written quiz, and finally by creating their ownsimiles and metaphors at 100% accuracy in identification and application.Standards and Background Information Ohio ELA Academic Content StandardsAcquisition of Vocabulary Recognize the importance and function of figurative language.Reading Applications: Literary Text Identify and analyze how an author uses figurative language, sound devices and literary techniques to shape plot, set meaning and develop tone. Explain techniques used by authors to develop style.Writing Conventions Demonstrate understanding of the grammatical conventions of the English language. Background InformationLanguage Arts Strands: All strands are incorporated.Students will read the definitions of figurative language and similes and metaphors as well as thenovel to find examples. Students will write down the examples of similes and metaphors thatthey found in the novel as well as create their own. Students will also read and write in the quizdeveloped from examples they found in the novel. Students will present their examples in an oral
  2. 2. presentation to their classmates. Students will listen to their classmates explain their examples ofmetaphors and similes. Students will draw a visual representation of their simile or metaphor.Primary Domains of Learning: The cognitive and psychomotor domains will be addressed inthis lesson.CognitiveLearners will acquire the knowledge regarding the definitions of metaphors and similes byworking in small groups to identify examples within the novel and then by identifying andexplaining examples in a written quiz. This investigation and application of the definition willhelp to ensure that students understand the definitions.PsychomotorStudents will master metaphors and similes by drawing a picture of the relationship between ametaphor or simile and its original word or phrase. They will also have to create their ownsentences using similes and metaphors.Skill Level: This lesson addresses all levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy.KnowledgeFirst the students will need to know and present the definitions of similes and metaphors.ComprehensionThen, students will have to relate the definitions of similes and metaphors in their own words.ApplicationStudents will apply the definition of similes and metaphors to find examples within the novel andto identify examples in a written quiz.AnalysisStudents will examine how the smile or metaphor is being used in the sentences they found toenhance meaning. This level is also used when students illustrate the similes and metaphorsfound in the novel.SynthesisStudents will create their own sentences with metaphors and similes. This will ensure that theyunderstand the connection between definition and application enough to use it in their own lives.EvaluationStudents will select their favorite similes and metaphors from the class based on criteriaestablished when discussing the effectiveness of similes and metaphors within the novel.Multiple intelligencesKinestheticStudents will be interacting with their environment when they use the text to find examples andwhen they illustrate these examples.ExistentialStudents will be connecting to larger understandings when they examine how figurative languagelike similes and metaphors work within a text to create writing that is more interesting anddescriptive. The connections between the textbook definitions and the actual text of Before wewere Free will also connect to a larger understanding because the definitions will go into the realworld.InterpersonalThe cooperative groups will provide an opportunity to interact with others when working withthe definitions to find examples in the text.Intrapersonal
  3. 3. Students will work on their own when creating their own metaphors and similes. This creativework will allow students to develop their own feelings and attitudes regarding similes andmetaphors and to exhibit their feelings and attitudes about other things through the use of similesand metaphors.LogicalStudents will have to use reasoning and problem solving when looking for examples within thetext. They will have to analyze sentences to see if they meet the criteria to be a metaphor or asimile.RhythmicThis MI is not used in this lesson, but could be used in future lessons or modifications by usingsongs or poems that have similes and metaphors or having students create a song or poem thatcontains similes and metaphors and/or their definitions.NaturalistThis MI is not prominent within the lesson, but separating sentences into similes or metaphorsmay appeal to the naturalist intelligence.LinguisticStudents will present their examples of metaphors and similes in an oral presentation as well asturn in a written copy of their examples. Students will also write their own sentences usingmetaphors and similes.Visual - seeing and imaginingStudents will create visual representations of the similes and metaphors they found in the text.These images will help them to understand the relationships between the original object and itsmetaphor or simile.Developmental ContextBefore this lesson plan can be effective, students must already be familiar with the context of thesimiles and metaphors within the novel. This background information will help studentsunderstand how the similes and metaphors work within the novel to enhance understanding. Itwould also be helpful for students to have an understanding of different parts of speech so thatthey can understand the structures metaphors and similes take (see Procedures and Handout). Ifstudents have an understanding of how adjectives and adverbs are modifiers, this may be a placeto start when discussing how metaphors and similes modify different parts of a sentence.TimingThis activity will take seven class periods of active time and 15 days total time. Before thislesson series, the class should have read the first chapter in Before we were Free. The first classperiod will be a lecture by the teacher explaining metaphors and similes and dividing the classinto groups that are assigned a set of chapters from the novel. The teacher will also model thepresentations students will give on the other days by using Chapter 1. This first day will be thelongest and will probably take 45 minutes. The remaining four class periods will be about 15minutes each if one group presents its chapters each day. The chapters are grouped into twos:chapters 2 and 3, 4 and 5, 6 and 7, 8 and 9, (skipping Anita’s Diary,) and 10 and 11. So, groupone would present a simile and metaphor example within chapters 2 and 3 on day two, and onday three group two would present their examples within chapters 4 and 5. This will continueuntil day seven, when students will have completed their presentations and the novel. Theclosing activity will be done on this final day and will last about 45 minutes. Between eachlesson day, there should be a reading and work day where students can get together with their
  4. 4. groups to work on their presentation. This would make the total number of days until the end ofthe unit 15 days.Resources and MaterialsBefore we were FreePencils, pensNotebook paperHandout with definitions of metaphors and similesRubricDrawing paperArt supplies (markers, crayons)ProcedureAnticipatory Set Have you ever been frustrated when trying to describe something to someone? Have youever tried to get over this by describing the thing in terms of something else? Have you everexplained something by comparing it to something else?Key ConceptAfter this lesson, students will be able to distinguish between metaphors and similes and howeach can be used to enhance meaning. Students will also be able to come up with their ownmetaphors and similes to develop style.Instructional MethodsDay 1—Introduction of activity, teacher model—45 minutes 1. Direct Instruction/Whole Class Discussion: Attention Getter—15 minutes To begin the lesson, the teacher will ask students how they feel about Before we were Free after reading Chapter 1. To answer this question, students must respond in one of three constructions that will anticipate the lesson on similes and metaphors. a. Constructions written on board The book is as (adjective/adverb) as (noun). The book is like (noun). The book is (noun). b. Examples using constructions The book is as slow as molasses. The book is like a thread that is unwinding. The book is a spell that keeps you reading. c. Help with creating examples If students are having difficulty coming up with these constructions, have them list adjectives that describe the novel (interesting, boring, slow, exciting) and then list other objects that could be described with these adjectives. For example they could have the adjective “exciting” connected with “a rollercoaster.” From here, the teacher can coach students to create the different constructions: The book is as
  5. 5. exciting as a rollercoaster. The book is like a rollercoaster. The book is a rollercoaster. After the class comes up with examples using the constructions, the teacher should explain to the students that they are using similes and metaphors to describe the novel and pass out the handout that has these definitions and describes the activity.2. Direct Instruction: Introduction to group activity—5 minutes Next, the teacher should introduce the group activity. The teacher should break the class into five groups. In their groups, students will be assigned a section of the novel in which they will find one example of a simile and one example of a metaphor to present to the classroom. Use the handout to explain the content of the presentations: definitions, examples, explanations, and illustration.3. Direct Instruction: Teacher model—25 minutes Finally, the teacher will use Chapter one to model the class presentations that the groups will do, but with more examples to show different types of metaphors and similes that are present in the novel. First, the teacher will give the definitions of similes and metaphors: o Simile—a figure of speech in which a comparison is drawn using the words “like” or “as” to begin a phrase o Metaphor—a figure of speech in which a direct comparison is drawn between two seemingly unlike things; metaphors can linked using the verb “to be” or as a verb, an adjective or adverb, a prepositional phrase, or as an appositive. Then, the teacher will give examples of each from Chapter 1, asking students to identify and circle the part of the sentence that is a simile or a metaphor based on the definitions. The teacher should also ask students to explain the connections between the objects being compared. o Simile Examples in Chapter 1 (from “Teacher Model” handout)  Some of the American students are complaining that it doesn’t feel like Thanksgiving when it’s as hot as the Fourth of July (1). A comparison is being drawn between hot weather and the Fourth of July, because the Fourth of July takes place in summer. This is ironic because the novel is about the fight for freedom in the Dominican Republic and the Fourth of July is the United States’ Independence Day.  She hands each of us a headband with a feather sticking up like one rabbit ear (1). The feather is being compared to a rabbit ear in the way it sticks up. This is a humorous connection that pokes fun at the headband.  A look passes from one adult to another as if they are playing musical chairs with their eyes, trying to decide who’ll be the one stuck answering Yo’s question (6). The look that passes between adults is being compared to a game of musical chairs. In musical chairs, someone always loses and has to sit out. In this case, they have to answer the question. o Metaphor Examples in Chapter 1 (from “Teacher Model” handout)
  6. 6.  “Troops all here?” he asks cheerily (6). The children are not actually “troops” but they are being compared to them because they are assembling to leave. This is ironic because of the militaristic rule of El Jefe.  “This place is just… just… just… so… sad,” she sobs, then storms out of the room (11). She is not actually becoming a storm as she leaves the room, but she leaves in a way that is similar to a storm.  As he goes by me, he plants a kiss on top of my head (11). He is not actually planting a kiss to grow on her head (that’s impossible), but the movement is similar to planting.  I feel the sadness stir up again like a storm inside me (12). The first part of this sentence is a metaphor: The sadness cannot be stirred like a kettle, but a comparison is being drawn between what she is feeling and the action of stirring. The second part is a simile because the stirring is being compared to a storm inside her, even though there isn’t actually a storm inside her. Finally, the teacher should discuss possible illustrations for some of the sentences. The teacher could also let students choose one of the examples for him or her to quickly illustrate on the board. o An Illustration in words: (from “Teacher Model” handout)  Example: She hands each of us a headband with a feather sticking up like one rabbit ear (1). This could be illustrated by drawing the headband with the feather and a rabbit with one ear up and one ear down.  Example: “Troops all here?” he asks cheerily (6). This could be illustrated by drawing the children in the compound gathering in military gear. 4. The remaining class time should be spent taking questions regarding similes and metaphors and the presentations. The rubric should be given to the students.Days 2 through 6—Group presentations—15 minutes 1. Student groups will present their chapters to the class. An addition that can be made is to include chapter summaries as part of the presentation. This can serve as a bridge into classroom discussion after the presentations. 2. These days are numbered based on active time giving presentations, but a work day should take place between each active day so that students can read and work on their presentations (see Timing above). 3. Small Group Presentations: When students give presentations, they should begin with the definitions of metaphors and similes. Then, they should one example of each and explain the connection being made between the metaphor or simile and the original object. Finally, students should show the class their illustration of one of their examples. 4. Class Discussion: The teacher should ask presenters questions to help create an agreed- upon set of criteria for judging metaphors and similes for use when judging their own sentences.
  7. 7. Example questions: Why did you like these examples? How do they add meaning to their original objects? What makes this comparison effective? Possible criteria the students could offer: Creative connections, makes us think about usual objects in unusual ways, Adds something to the object that wasn’t there before 5. The remaining class time after the presentations could be spent discussing the novel.Day 7—Written quiz and Creating sentences 1. Individual Work: Written Quiz—15 minutes Students will be given a written quiz to complete individually that consists of examples given in group presentations. The quiz will ask students to underline and identify the simile or metaphor and to explain the connection being made between the simile or metaphor and the original object. The quiz should be graded on similar criteria as the presentations for awarding points. 2. Individual Work: Creating sentences and Gallery Walk—25 minutes The teacher should ask students to write their own creative sentences using either a metaphor or a simile on a piece of paper and to illustrate the connection they created. Then, students should showcase their creations in a Gallery Walk where student sentences and illustrations are hung around the room. Students should be given a silent ballot where they vote for their favorite sentence based on the criteria they established to judge similes and metaphors. The winning authors from each class will receive a bonus point toward their presentation grade and be entered into a final round with the winning authors from the other classes. The winner of this final round will receive another bonus point toward their presentation grade (for a total of 2 extra credit points) and admission to the metaphor and simile wall- of-fame, which could just be a bulletin board where their work will be displayed. 3. Class Discussion: (See “Closure” below)ModelingModeling takes place extensively on the first day of the lesson (See “Instructional Methods, Day1” above), when the teacher gives a presentation over similes and metaphors in Chapter 1 similarto the presentations students will give later. The teacher model handout will give the students aresource to return to when they are working on their own presentations. Students will also bemodeling for each other as they give presentations. If the teacher notices that groups are missingpart of the presentation, he or she can coach the group through questions and by making anannouncement to the class.Monitoring to Check for UnderstandingThe teacher will check for understanding by questioning the whole group for answers during theteacher model presentation. This will ensure that that students understand the difference betweenmetaphors and similes before working on their own presentations. Monitoring will also takeplace when the teacher observes groups on work days to make sure that they are finding correctexamples and understanding how to explain the connections.Guided PracticeGuided practice is offered within the small groups. Students can work with each other tounderstand the definitions and identification of similes and metaphors. The teacher should beobserving this interaction to make sure that students are providing each other with accurate
  8. 8. information. Guided practice is also taking place when the groups provide verbal examples ofmetaphors and similes.Independent PracticeAfter several examples offered throughout the novel, students will take a written quiz made up ofthe examples offered by the group presentations. This quiz builds on the guided practice they didin their groups and as a class and asks students to recall these skills to identify and explain thesimiles and metaphors within the written quiz.Closure (Day 7)After the Gallery Walk, discuss the criteria the class developed to judge sentences usingmetaphors and similes. Possible closing questions are “What is the importance of using similesand metaphors?” and “How do similes and metaphors work to enhance writing?”Handout, Teacher Model, and RubricHandout to explain group presentationsTeacher Model for first presentationAssessment rubric for presentation
  9. 9. Metaphors and Similes Activity Sheet Using Before we were Free This group activity will allow you to demonstrate your understanding of similes and metaphors by finding and explaining examples within the novel. Circle your assigned group and chapters so that you do not forget. Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4 Group 5Chapters 2 and 3 Chapters 4 and 5 Chapters 6 and 7 Chapters 8 and 9 Chapters 10 and 11For this activity you and your group will need to find at least one example of a metaphor and atleast one example of a simile within your assigned chapters. Notice that we are not findingmetaphors and similes within the “Anita’s Diary” chapter. You will be presenting your examplesto the class the day your chapters are due for assigned reading.What to include in your presentation: (50 pts) 1. Definitions of metaphors and similes. (10 pts) 2. One example of a metaphor and one example of a simile. (10 pts) 3. Explanation of the comparison drawn between the metaphor/simile and the original object. Do this for each example. (20 pts) 4. Illustration of one of the examples you chose. (10 pts) 5. Each of these components should be completed in writing as well, and turned in with the rubric.The examples you provide in your presentations could be used in a written quiz at the end ofthe novel, where you will be asked to underline and identify the simile or metaphor in thesentence as well as explain the comparison that is being made.After the all presentations, we will be creating our own sentences usingmetaphors and similes. These sentences will be voted on by the class basedon an agreed-upon set of criteria to determine the best sentence from eachclass. The winning authors from each class will receive a bonus point towardtheir presentation grade and enter into a final round with the winning authorsfrom the other classes. The winner of this final round will receive anotherbonus point toward their presentation grade and admission to the metaphorand simile wall-of-fame.Book cover from http://www.juliaalvarez.com/img/before_we_were_free.jpgTrophy from Microsoft Office 2007 Clip Art
  10. 10. Metaphors and Similes Teacher Presentation Model Using Before we were Free This is an extended example of the content needed in your presentation. You will only need one example for a simile and one example for a metaphor. You must also restate the definition of a metaphor or a simile in your own words and actually draw a picture to turn in with your written examples.Simile—a figure of speech in which a comparison is drawn using the words “like” or “as” tobegin a phrase Examples in Chapter 1—Underline the simile Some of the American students are complaining that it doesn’t feel like Thanksgiving when it’s as hot as the Fourth of July (1). She hands each of us a headband with a feather sticking up like one rabbit ear (1). A look passes from one adult to another as if they are playing musical chairs with their eyes, trying to decide who’ll be the one stuck answering Yo’s question (6).Metaphor—a figure of speech in which a direct comparison is drawn between two seeminglyunlike things; metaphors can linked using the verb “to be” or as a verb, an adjective or adverb,a prepositional phrase, or as an appositive.Examples in Chapter 1—Underline the metaphor “Troops all here?” he asks cheerily (6). “This place is just… just… just… so… sad,” she sobs, then storms out of the room (11). As he goes by me, he plants a kiss on top of my head (11). I feel the sadness stir up again like a storm inside me (12).An Illustration in words: Example: She hands each of us a headband with a feather sticking up like one rabbit ear (1). o This could be illustrated by drawing the headband with the feather and a rabbit with one ear up and one ear down. Example: “Troops all here?” he asks cheerily (6). o This could be illustrated by drawing the children in the compound gathering in military gear.Book cover from http://www.juliaalvarez.com/img/before_we_were_free.jpgCartoon from http://faculty.smu.edu/tmayo/metaphor.gif
  11. 11. Metaphors and Similes Using Before we were Free Presentation Rubric Names of Group Members Chapters ______________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Total/50 Excellent Good Acceptable Needs Attempt is not Improvement apparent or not present Attempt to present Definitions clearly Definitions definitions, but not explain in their own adequately, but Definitions are in the presenter’s No apparent words metaphors individually, explain presented, but not Definitions own words and the presentation of ____ x1 and similes and metaphors and in the presenter’s meaning is lost; or definitions how they are similes in their own own words only one definition different words is presented Examples depict Examples depict Examples are the use of the use of Examples are present, but one of metaphor and metaphor and difficult to the examples does simile and the simile, the group understand the use not depict the use Neither example group accurately has difficulty Examples of metaphor and of metaphor or uses metaphor or ____ x1 identifies the identifying the simile, the group simile, but the other simile metaphor and metaphor and has difficulty example is simile and the simile and the identifying the parts accurately objects they objects they identified describe describe Explanation is Explanation clearly thorough in connects the simile Explanation was connecting the Explanation with the object and not given or was simile with the connects the simile Explanation doesExplanation of comments on the too unclear to object and with the object, but not clearly connect Connections simile’s impact on determine comments on the does not comment the simile with the ____ x1 in Simile the image created, understanding of simile’s impact on on the simile’s object and the Example but doesn’t the connection the image created impact on the image comment on a between the simile and its relationship image larger picture in the and object to other ideas in novel the text Explanation is Explanation clearly thorough in connects the Explanation was connecting the metaphor with the Explanation not given or was metaphor with the object and connects the Explanation does too unclear toExplanation of object and comments on the metaphor with the not clearly connect determine Connections comments on the metaphor’s impact object, but does not the metaphor with understanding of ____ x1 in Metaphor metaphor’s impact on the image comment on the the object and the the connection Example on the image created, but metaphor’s impact image between the created and its doesn’t comment on the image metaphor and relationship to on a larger picture object other ideas in the in the novel text Illustration appears Illustration is neat Illustration is not Illustration is neat thrown together and creative and Illustration shows neat and it is and shows the with no effort to obviously shows the relationship difficult to see the relationship show the Illustration the relationship between the relationship ____ x1 between the relationship between the metaphor/simile between the metaphor/simile between the metaphor/simile and its object metaphor/simile and its object metaphor/simile and its object and its object and its object Total and additional ____ /50 comments

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