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Quality
 

Quality

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    Quality Quality Presentation Transcript

    • Quality Er.Sartaj Singh Bajwa
    • Quality
      • Quality
        • The extent to which a product or service is able to meet customer needs and expectations.
          • Customer’s needs are the basic standard for measuring quality
          • High quality does not have to mean high price.
      • ISO 9000
        • The quality standards of the International Standards Organization.
      Er.Sartaj Singh Bajwa
    • Quality Control Process
      • 1-Prepration of policies regarding quality
      • 2-Fixation of quality standard relating to material & process
      • 3-Designing the production system
      • 4-Inspection and control of materials
      • 5-Inspection and control of process
      • 6-Production of goods and services
      • 7-Inspection of final product and service
      Er.Sartaj Singh Bajwa
    • Objectives of Quality Control
      • Increased sales volume
      • Increased profits
      • Improving the company`s image
      • Improving the production system
      • Better procurement of material
      • To reduce the cost of inspection and losses
      Er.Sartaj Singh Bajwa
    • Quality Circles
      • Small group of employees who meet regularly for solving problems related to cost , quality , efficiency , equipment ,tools etc.
      • In QC it is believed that each individual worker is responsible for quality and productivity
      Er.Sartaj Singh Bajwa
    • Inspection
      • Process of examining an object for identification or checking it for verification of quality and quantity
      • Functions Of Inspection :
      • 1 – To maintain quality of RM , WIP , FG
      • 2 – To locate the defective items
      • 3 – To prevent losses
      • 4 – To detect sources of weakness
      Er.Sartaj Singh Bajwa
    • Types Of Inspection
      • Vendor place inspection ( For raw material )
      • In process inspection
      • 1–Trial run inspection ( to check tool & M/C )
      • 2–First off inspection (items produced at first step are checked )
      • 3–Inspection by self control( checking the operations)
      • 4–Floor inspection(semi-finished goods are checked)
      • Final inspection
      • Post sales quality evaluation ( items rejected by customers should be analyzed)
      Er.Sartaj Singh Bajwa
    • Control Charts
      • Whole production line is divided in sub groups such that variation in the quality , in each sub group is attributed to some change
      • Factors considered while making of the sub groups :
      • 1- Each sub group should be homogeneous
      • 2- Sample should not be taken at regular intervals
      Er.Sartaj Singh Bajwa
    • Control Charts
      • Characteristics/Quality on Y axis
      • Quantity/number on X axis
      Er.Sartaj Singh Bajwa
    • Interpretations of Control Chart
      • If all the points lie within UCL & LCL then the process is said to be in control
      • If one or more points lie beyond UCL & LCL then the process is said to be out of control
      • If points lie predominantly on one side of the central line then we cannot derive any conclusion
      Er.Sartaj Singh Bajwa
    • Types Of Control Charts
      • Control chart for variables
      • 1 – M or Mean charts
      • 2 – R or Range charts
      • Control chart for attributes
      • 1-P chart (to calculate the number of defective items)
      • 2–C chart (to calculate the number of defects)
      Er.Sartaj Singh Bajwa
    • Control Chart For Variables
      • When the quality characteristics is capable of direct quantitative measurement then the control chart is known as chart for variables.
      • Eg life of an item , diameter of a screw
      • Variables in these charts should be such that it can be measured and expressed in numbers.
      • It includes : Control chart for Mean
      • Control chart for Range
      Er.Sartaj Singh Bajwa
    • Control Chart For Mean
      • Basic assumption here is that variability of the characteristic is under control
      • Mean(M) and standard deviation(sigma) of each sub group is calculated with size of the sample(n) to be known then Charts are given by :
      • UCL = M+3 (sigma/square root of n)
      • CL = M
      • LCL = M-3 (sigma/square root of n)
      Er.Sartaj Singh Bajwa
    • Control Chart For Range
      • Basic assumption here is that variability of the characteristic is out of control
      • Value of d and standard deviation(sigma) of each sub group is calculated , with size of the sample(n) to be known then Charts are given by :
      • UCL = d2*sigma+3d3*sigma
      • CL = d2*sigma
      • LCL = d2*sigma-3d3*sigma
      Er.Sartaj Singh Bajwa
    • Control Chart For Attributes
      • In this we cannot have direct quantitative measurement and the items can be classified only as good or bad , accepted or rejected
      • Eg quality of cloth
      Er.Sartaj Singh Bajwa
    • Plotting the P Chart
      • Calculate p (fraction defective in the lot) in sample of size n
      • p = no. of defective items found , q=1-p
      • total no. of items
      • Control charts are given by :
      • UCL = p + 3*square root of(pq/n)
      • CL = p
      • LCL = p – 3*square root of(pq/n)
      Er.Sartaj Singh Bajwa
    • Plotting the C chart
      • Calculate c ( average no. of defects per unit )
      • C= mean of the given frequency
      • Control charts are given by :
      • UCL = c + 3*square root of c
      • CL = c
      • LCL = c – 3*square root of c
      Er.Sartaj Singh Bajwa