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Planning
 

Planning

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    Planning Planning Presentation Transcript

    • Planning
      • Planning is the process of establishing goals and a suitable course of action to achieve these goals. It requires decision making, that is, choosing future courses of action from alternatives
      Er.Sartaj Singh Bajwa
    • Characteristics Of Planning
      • Planning is an intellectual process
      • Primacy of planning ( all other functions come later on after planning )
      • Focus on objectives
      • Leads to efficiency and economical use
      • Flexibility
      • Realistic
      • Planning is continuous
      Er.Sartaj Singh Bajwa
    • Types Of Planning
      • Corporate Planning
      • Strategic Planning
      • Operational Planning
      Er.Sartaj Singh Bajwa
    • Corporate Planning
      • It includes the setting of objectives , organizing the work, people & systems to enable those objectives to be attained , motivating through the planning process , measuring performance and controlling the progress of the plan . And developing people through better decision making , clear objectives & more involvement
      • When planning is done for the whole enterprise it is known as corporate planning
      • It lays down the basic goals , strategies and policies for the enterprise as a whole
      • It is done at the top level management
      • Corporate planning is divided in two parts :
      • a – Strategic planning or long term planning
      • b – Tactical planning or short term planning
      Er.Sartaj Singh Bajwa
    • Strategic Planning
      • Strategic planning is the process of planning as to how to achieve organizational objectives with the available resources
      • Planning that apply to the entire organization, establishes the organization’s overall objectives and seek to positions an organization in terms of its environment is called strategic planning
      • It takes place at the highest level of the organization
      • Need for Strategic Planning :
      • a – Impact of external factors
      • b – Proper use of resources
      • c – Ensuring success
      Er.Sartaj Singh Bajwa
    • Operational Planning
      • It involves the conversion of strategic plans into detailed and specific action plans
      • Operational planning is generally done for one year or so
      • It is done at the middle & lower level of management
      • It is also known as tactical or shirt term planning
      • Eg sudden changes in prices of products due to price changes in raw material or other factors
      Er.Sartaj Singh Bajwa
    • Planning-Timeframe
      • Long-Range Planning
      • Intermediate Planning
      • Short-Range Planning
      Er.Sartaj Singh Bajwa
    • Planning Process
      • 1 – Recognizing the need for action(knowing about the business opportunity &the need for taking action , knowing about the pros and cons)
      • 2 – Gathering necessary information
      • 3 – Laying down objectives
      • 4 – Determining planning premises
      • Forecasts will be made for the following :
      • a – Expectation of demand
      • b – Likely volume of production
      • c – Anticipation of prices
      • d – Supply of labour , raw material
      • e – Economic policies of the goverment
      Er.Sartaj Singh Bajwa
    • CONTD.
      • 5 – Examining alternative course of action
      • 6 – Evaluation of action patterns
      • 7 – Determining secondary plans ( along with the main plans there must be supportive plans )
      • 8 – Implementation of Plans
      Er.Sartaj Singh Bajwa
    • Barriers to Planning
      • Inappropriate Goals
      • Improper Reward System
      • Complex Environment
      • Resistance to Change
      • Constraints
      • Information Deficiency
      Er.Sartaj Singh Bajwa
    • Making Planning Effective
      • Factors essential for making planning effective :
      • Consciousness for planning(cooperation by all for making the plan effective )
      • Initiative at top level
      • Proper communication
      • Participation in planning
      • Emphasis on long term and short term planning
      Er.Sartaj Singh Bajwa