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  • 1. Planning
    • Planning is the process of establishing goals and a suitable course of action to achieve these goals. It requires decision making, that is, choosing future courses of action from alternatives
    Er.Sartaj Singh Bajwa
  • 2. Characteristics Of Planning
    • Planning is an intellectual process
    • Primacy of planning ( all other functions come later on after planning )
    • Focus on objectives
    • Leads to efficiency and economical use
    • Flexibility
    • Realistic
    • Planning is continuous
    Er.Sartaj Singh Bajwa
  • 3. Types Of Planning
    • Corporate Planning
    • Strategic Planning
    • Operational Planning
    Er.Sartaj Singh Bajwa
  • 4. Corporate Planning
    • It includes the setting of objectives , organizing the work, people & systems to enable those objectives to be attained , motivating through the planning process , measuring performance and controlling the progress of the plan . And developing people through better decision making , clear objectives & more involvement
    • When planning is done for the whole enterprise it is known as corporate planning
    • It lays down the basic goals , strategies and policies for the enterprise as a whole
    • It is done at the top level management
    • Corporate planning is divided in two parts :
    • a – Strategic planning or long term planning
    • b – Tactical planning or short term planning
    Er.Sartaj Singh Bajwa
  • 5. Strategic Planning
    • Strategic planning is the process of planning as to how to achieve organizational objectives with the available resources
    • Planning that apply to the entire organization, establishes the organization’s overall objectives and seek to positions an organization in terms of its environment is called strategic planning
    • It takes place at the highest level of the organization
    • Need for Strategic Planning :
    • a – Impact of external factors
    • b – Proper use of resources
    • c – Ensuring success
    Er.Sartaj Singh Bajwa
  • 6. Operational Planning
    • It involves the conversion of strategic plans into detailed and specific action plans
    • Operational planning is generally done for one year or so
    • It is done at the middle & lower level of management
    • It is also known as tactical or shirt term planning
    • Eg sudden changes in prices of products due to price changes in raw material or other factors
    Er.Sartaj Singh Bajwa
  • 7. Planning-Timeframe
    • Long-Range Planning
    • Intermediate Planning
    • Short-Range Planning
    Er.Sartaj Singh Bajwa
  • 8. Planning Process
    • 1 – Recognizing the need for action(knowing about the business opportunity &the need for taking action , knowing about the pros and cons)
    • 2 – Gathering necessary information
    • 3 – Laying down objectives
    • 4 – Determining planning premises
    • Forecasts will be made for the following :
    • a – Expectation of demand
    • b – Likely volume of production
    • c – Anticipation of prices
    • d – Supply of labour , raw material
    • e – Economic policies of the goverment
    Er.Sartaj Singh Bajwa
  • 9. CONTD.
    • 5 – Examining alternative course of action
    • 6 – Evaluation of action patterns
    • 7 – Determining secondary plans ( along with the main plans there must be supportive plans )
    • 8 – Implementation of Plans
    Er.Sartaj Singh Bajwa
  • 10. Barriers to Planning
    • Inappropriate Goals
    • Improper Reward System
    • Complex Environment
    • Resistance to Change
    • Constraints
    • Information Deficiency
    Er.Sartaj Singh Bajwa
  • 11. Making Planning Effective
    • Factors essential for making planning effective :
    • Consciousness for planning(cooperation by all for making the plan effective )
    • Initiative at top level
    • Proper communication
    • Participation in planning
    • Emphasis on long term and short term planning
    Er.Sartaj Singh Bajwa