Controlling

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Controlling

  1. 1. Controlling <ul><li>It is the process of monitoring organizational activities to ensure that they are being accomplished as they planned and taking corrective actions if there are significant deviations </li></ul><ul><li>Controlling is checking current performance against predetermined standards contained in the plans with a view to ensure satisfactory performance </li></ul>
  2. 2. Characteristics Of Controlling <ul><li>Forward looking </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous process </li></ul><ul><li>Exercised at all levels </li></ul><ul><li>Identified with individuals </li></ul><ul><li>End function </li></ul>
  3. 3. Importance Of Controlling <ul><li>Ensures better performance </li></ul><ul><li>Helps in coordination </li></ul><ul><li>Efficiency and Effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Managerial Responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Source of motivation </li></ul><ul><li>To identify potential of the organization </li></ul>
  4. 4. Control Process Measure Performance Does it match Standard performance Establish Standards Do Nothing Take Corrective Action No Yes Feedback
  5. 5. Stages of Controls <ul><li>Preliminary or Feed forward Control </li></ul><ul><li>( These controls are based upon the future ) </li></ul><ul><li>Screening or Concurrent Control </li></ul><ul><li>( These are the controls which are being done when the activities are performed ) </li></ul><ul><li>Post Action or Feedback Control </li></ul><ul><li>( Analyses of the final output ) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Levels of Controls <ul><li>Strategic Control </li></ul><ul><li>( Long term control , corporate level ) </li></ul><ul><li>Tactical Control </li></ul><ul><li>( Intermediate control , Middle level ) </li></ul><ul><li>Operational Control </li></ul><ul><li>( Short term control , Lower level control ) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Barriers to Control <ul><li>System Barriers </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral Barriers </li></ul><ul><li>Political Barriers </li></ul>
  8. 8. Controlling Techniques <ul><li>Budgetary Control / Traditional </li></ul><ul><li>Budgeting ( preplanned expenditure ) </li></ul><ul><li>Cost Control ( control key resources ) </li></ul><ul><li>Production Planning & Control </li></ul><ul><li>Inventory Control </li></ul><ul><li>Breakeven Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Profit & Loss Control </li></ul><ul><li>Statistical Data Analysis </li></ul>
  9. 9. Controlling Techniques <ul><li>Non Budgetary Control / Modern </li></ul><ul><li>Return On Investment (ROI) </li></ul><ul><li>PERT ( Programme Evaluation & Review Technique ) </li></ul><ul><li>MIS </li></ul><ul><li>Management Audit </li></ul>

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