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Adoption of Policies Required for The Development of Sustainable Apparel Product
Adoption of Policies Required for The Development of Sustainable Apparel Product
Adoption of Policies Required for The Development of Sustainable Apparel Product
Adoption of Policies Required for The Development of Sustainable Apparel Product
Adoption of Policies Required for The Development of Sustainable Apparel Product
Adoption of Policies Required for The Development of Sustainable Apparel Product
Adoption of Policies Required for The Development of Sustainable Apparel Product
Adoption of Policies Required for The Development of Sustainable Apparel Product
Adoption of Policies Required for The Development of Sustainable Apparel Product
Adoption of Policies Required for The Development of Sustainable Apparel Product
Adoption of Policies Required for The Development of Sustainable Apparel Product
Adoption of Policies Required for The Development of Sustainable Apparel Product
Adoption of Policies Required for The Development of Sustainable Apparel Product
Adoption of Policies Required for The Development of Sustainable Apparel Product
Adoption of Policies Required for The Development of Sustainable Apparel Product
Adoption of Policies Required for The Development of Sustainable Apparel Product
Adoption of Policies Required for The Development of Sustainable Apparel Product
Adoption of Policies Required for The Development of Sustainable Apparel Product
Adoption of Policies Required for The Development of Sustainable Apparel Product
Adoption of Policies Required for The Development of Sustainable Apparel Product
Adoption of Policies Required for The Development of Sustainable Apparel Product
Adoption of Policies Required for The Development of Sustainable Apparel Product
Adoption of Policies Required for The Development of Sustainable Apparel Product
Adoption of Policies Required for The Development of Sustainable Apparel Product
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Adoption of Policies Required for The Development of Sustainable Apparel Product

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  • 1. Page 1 of 24 Assignment on Adoption of Policies Required for The Development of Sustainable Apparel Product Course code: TE-231 Course title: Apparel Manufacturing- I with Lab Submitted to: Adnan maroof khan Lecturer Department of Textile Engineering Daffodil International University Submitted by: Sazzad Ahmed ID: 121-23-3016 Section: D Department of Textile Engineering Daffodil International University Date of Submission:11-12-13
  • 2. Page 2 of 24 Abstract The readymade garment RMG industry in Bangladesh has experienced an unprecedented growth for its sustainable Apparel product in worldwide. Over the last three decades and become a fast growing industry in Bangladesh. This industry plays a vital role in the economy in terms of export earnings, employment generation, poverty alleviation and empowering the woman. For development of this sustainable product, Bangladesh needs to emphasize on the factory working environment, social issues, labor relations and compliances with codes of conduct. Besides, to ensure ecofriendly product manufacturing with minimization of cost with maximum cost.
  • 3. Table of content Serial No Topic… Abstract Page 3 of 24 Page… 2 Acknowledgement 4 1 Introduction 5-6 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 7 2.1 Sustainable product 7 2.2 Eco-friendly Product manufacturing 7 2.2.1 What is Eco-Friendly? 7 2.2.2 To produce eco-friendly product some criteria should be followed….. 7 2.2.3 Various terms used in eco-friendly processing 8-9 2.2.4 To ensure some criteria to development the sustainable product 9-10 2.2.5 Affordable, Eco-Friendly Packaging for Tee Shirts, Clothing and Soft 10 Goods 2.2.6 Some example of eco-friendly brand: 11 2.3 Worker Compliances in RMG 12 2.3.1 ILO CORE LABOR STANDARDS… 13-14 2.3.2 Employment Condition… 14-15 2.3.3 Occupational health & safety… 15-17 2.3.4 Others aspect’s… 18-19 2.4 Minimization of cost with maximum profit………… 20-21 3 Conclusion 22 Reference 23
  • 4. Page 4 of 24 Acknowledgement: At first our gratefulness goes to the Almighty Allah for giving us strength and ability to complete this assignment. We would like to give special thanks to Md.Adnan Maroof Khan, Lecturer, Department of Textile Technology, Daffodil International University for his valuable support to complete this assignment.
  • 5. Page 5 of 24 1. Introduction The readymade garment (RMG) industry of Bangladesh commenced its journey in the late 1970s and within a short period of time emerged as an important player in the economy in terms of export earnings, employment generation, and poverty alleviation and empowering of women. Bangladesh exports its RMG products mainly to the United States of America (USA) and the European Union (EU). Garments exports from Bangladesh have been growing at an impressive rate in recent years. In 2007-08 alone, the garment export earned a record level of US$10.7 billion in 2007-08. Moreover, it accounts for over 75 percent of the country’s total export earnings, provides employment almost 5 million people, accounts for over 10 percent of the country’s GDP, and contributes around 40% of its manufacturing output. The prospect of RMG sector, however, in Bangladesh not only depends on availability of cheap labor and government’s liberal policy but also depends on compliance with codes of conduct. Compliance means to comply with something or yield to the wishes of another. RMG sector of Bangladesh needs to improve the factory working environment and various social issues related to the industry. International buyers are very particular about compliance with codes of conduct before placing any import order. Poor housekeeping, storage system, ineffective monitoring and controlling system, disorganized production layout, lack of team– based work, rented factory premises, narrow staircases, closed environment, insufficient light and air, clean drinking water, separate wash room for male and female, etc. are common practices in most of the RMG factories in Bangladesh.
  • 6. Page 6 of 24 Bangladesh Garment Manufacturers and Exporters Association (BGMEA) and Bangladesh Knitwear Manufacturers and Exporters Association (BKMEA) set standards for compliance like factories must have alternative stairs, basic fire equipment, approved layout plan from concerned authority for ensuring safe building construction, group insurance for workers, hygienic sanitation facility and first aid appliance, as well as ensuring minimum wages and flexible jobs for the workers. There are many recognized compliance bodies worldwide like ILO, ISO 14001, WRAP, BSCI, ETI, SAI, FLA. Owners of RMG factories and government can seek help from those bodies to improve the standard of environment as well as products of their industries. In this paper, the existing compliance practices of RMG factories in Bangladesh, particularly factories located in Dhaka city are examined. This paper also tries to reveal the acceptability of compliance provisions to the employed workers.
  • 7. Page 7 of 24 2. LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Sustainable product:  Are beneficial, safe & healthy for individuals and communities throughout their life cycles.  Meet market criteria for both performance and cost.  Are sourced, manufactured, transported, and recycled using renewable energy.  Are manufactured using clean production technologies and best practices.  Are made from materials healthy in all probable end-of-life scenarios. 2.2 Eco-friendly Product manufacturing…………. 2.2.1 What is Eco-Friendly?  The term “eco-friendly” is used to describe activities which are good for the environment. It is a shortening of “ecologically friendly,” and you may also hear terms like “environmentally friendly” or “green” used to describe similar activities. There are a range of ways in which activities can be ecofriendly, ranging from products which are constructed in an environmentally friendly way to making lifestyle changes which are designed to benefit the environment. 2.2.2 To produce eco-friendly product some criteria should be followed…..  ECO FRIENDLY PRODUCTION ENVIROMENT  - ECO FRIENDLY PROCESS  - ECO FRIENDLY CHEMICAL  - ECO FRIENDLY FIBRE Eco-friendly Textile
  • 8. Page 8 of 24 2.2.3 Various terms used in eco-friendly processing…. The processor must be aware of certain terms and quantities used while determining the eco-friendliness of garment processing. Given below are the three methods used to determine the amount of water pollution: 1. Biological oxygen demand (BOD) BOD, mg/litre = (D1 – D2)/V Where D1 = Initial dissolved oxygen D2 = Dissolved oxygen after five days V = Volume of sample used 2. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) COD, mg/litre = (B – A) * N * 8000/V Where A= volume of ferrous ammonium sulphate solution used for titration in ml B= blank titration reading in ml N= normality of ferrous ammonium sulphate solution V= sample volume in ml 3. Adsorbable organic halogen (AOX) In this method, the organic substances are adsorbed from the sample onto (halogen free) activated charcoal. The charcoal is then burnt in a stream of oxygen and the hydrogen chloride formed is determined quantitatively. This parameter includes a wide range of compounds like volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons, plastic (PVC), toxic chlorophenols, etc.
  • 9. Page 9 of 24 Eco-labels Eco labels are fast assuming great significance for the successful export and market promotion in apparel textile industry. Eco-labels are used as tools to identify green products. Some of the popular eco-labels are: ISO 14000, The EU Eco-label, OKO-TEX Standard 100, Eco Mark, Green Seal, Blue Angel, etc. ISO 14000 The ISO 14000 series of International Standards have been designed to address those issues confronting environment today. More than 110 countries around the globe accept ISO 14000, which will be helpful in terms to shape the future of environmental protection and sustainable developments. The main goals of ISO 14000 are: • Conservation of natural resources. • Reduction and abatement of waste and emission. • Continuous improvement in environmental performances. • Efficiency in operation by use of best available technology. • Compliance to national and international environmental laws and convention. 2.2.4 To ensure some criteria to development the sustainable product  Eco-friendly raw materials- Reducing the environmental impact of the Raw materials by using Eco-friendly Raw materials.  Become carbon neutral  Send no waste to landfill  Extend sustainable sourcing  Help improve the lives of people in our supply chain  Help customers and employees live a healthier life-style
  • 10. Page 10 of 24 Eco-friendly T-shirt 2.2.5 Affordable, Eco-Friendly Packaging for Tee Shirts, Clothing and Soft Goods – We are pleased to work with a number of different tee shirt and clothing apparel companies shipping everything from sports apparel to infant clothing. As a result we have developed one of the most extensive products lines for the soft good industry. Eco-friendly packaging
  • 11. Page 11 of 24 2.2.6 Some example of eco-friendly brand: Bibico BohoHemp Featured product
  • 12. Page 12 of 24 2.3 Worker Compliances in RMG: Some code of conduct are required to maintain worker compliance for sustainable product which shown in a chart………………………………………………….. The basic principles of COC have been derived from the principles of international human rights norms as delineated in International Labor Organization Conventions, the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
  • 13. Page 13 of 24 2.3.1 ILO CORE LABOR STANDARDS… Child Labor: Violation: Child labor was found at the factory. It was confirmed from the verification of personal document and the appearance of the employee. From the workers interview, it was understood that one worker was about 13 years old. Corrective Action: According to The Factory Act of 1968 in the Bangladesh Labor Code, any person who has not completed sixteen years of age is defined as a child. Article 66 prohibits the employment of any children under the age of fourteen. Factory management agreed to take care of this matter. Most child laborers have been cleared out of Bangladesh RMG sector under international pressure, but sporadic cases still exist due to economic reason. Forced Labor: No such cases were found wherein there was use of forced labor in the factories. Direct evidence which indicates personnel shall require to lodge deposits or identity papers upon commencing employment with the company was also not available. . Freedom of Association and Collective Bargaining: Violation: Employees were not permitted to bargain collectively about their requirements. Corrective Action: All employees shall be permitted to bargain collectively about their rights. Discrimination: Violation: Factory management is reluctant to recruit employees from the area where the factory is situated. This is not only to avoid local protests against working condition, but also due to fear of post scenario of a disciplinary case. Thus, there is discrimination in hiring workforce.
  • 14. Page 14 of 24 Corrective Action: To comply with social accountability standard, recruitment shall not be biased towards avoiding local candidate at the time of recruitment 2.3.2 Employment Condition… Compensation and Working Hours: Violation: Weekend and overnight worked hours were not recorded in the time cards and payroll sheets and also not compensated properly. Corrective Action: Factory shall record all worked hours in payroll sheets and time cards and shall compensate those correctly. This is to satisfy The Payment of Wage Rules, 1937 of Bangladesh. Violation: Female workers were working from 8 a.m. to 12 a.m. as overtime. Corrective Action: Factory shall allow female workers to work between 7 a.m. to 8 p.m. only with a view to comply with The Factories Act, 1965, Chapter-6, Bangladesh. Violation: Overtime worked hours had exceeded the legal limits of stipulated hours per month with a large margin. Corrective Action: Factory shall not allow anyone to work more than 10 hours per day and 60 hours per week. The duration of 60 hours per week shall be represented as 48 hours general duty plus 12 hours overtime as per the local law of Bangladesh. Violation: Factory did not comply with the local law of Bangladesh in the payment of overtime wages for all the workers in the factory. Corrective Action: Factory shall follow legal requirement for overtime compensation, which is double of the basic pay.
  • 15. Page 15 of 24 Salary & wages  To fix wages in considering minimum wages which is declared by the government.  Try to give Salary and wages given before 10th day of month.  Leaves & holidays 1. Weekly holiday 2. Annual leave with wage 3. Festival holiday 4. Casual leave 5. Sick leave 2.3.3 Occupational health & safety… Health & Safety: Violation: Workers did not use gloves and/or masks while handling chemicals and dyes in chemical storage area of Dyeing Department. Corrective Action: In order to comply with The Factories Act, 1965, Chapter 3 and 4 of Bangladesh, management shall provide adequate gloves and/or masks to the appropriate workers. They must be motivated through training to use such protective equipment for safety. Violation: Number of toilets in the production floor is not sufficient to cover all the employees. Corrective Action: Factory shall construct sufficient number of toilets in accordance with The Factories Act, 1965, Chapter- 3 and 4. Violation: No soap and towels were there inside all the toilets in a factory. Corrective Action: Soaps and towels are to be provided at all the toilets in the factory.
  • 16. Page 16 of 24 Violation: Fire extinguishers were found blocked in some areas of the factory and were not easily accessible. Corrective Action: All fire extinguishers shall be cleared from obstruction at all time. Area in front of fire extinguishers shall be marked on the ground with yellow lines to indicate that the area must be kept clear at all times. Violation: Aisles were not marked at different sections of the factory. Corrective Action: Factory shall put marking on the floor with yellow lines to indicate the evacuation paths. Violation: No evacuation plan was observed throughout the factory. Corrective Action: Factory shall prepare and post evacuation plan at different areas of the factory to facilitate smooth evacuation in the case of emergency. Violation: Drinking water closets were found very near (2-3 feet) to the toilets. Corrective Action: As per The Factories Act, 1965 of Bangladesh, factory shall place drinking water closets at a minimum of 20 feet distance from the toilets Violation: Primary/secondary aisles were found blocked by fabric roll, cartons, garments etc. in different sections of the factory. Electrical control panel was also found blocked.
  • 17. Page 17 of 24 Corrective Action: Factory, in accordance with The Factories Act in Bangladesh, shall make sure that all the passages and control panels remain unblocked at all times. Violation: No protective hand gloves were in use by the fabric cutting knife operators which might cause serious accident at any time. Corrective action: Factory management shall supply metal hand gloves to the operators and motivate them to use such protective equipment’s for safet  Workplace condition  Working place will be safe and hygienic.  Safety of building and machineries.  Lighting.  Welfare  Welfare committee  Safety  Safety committee  Needle detector  Fire alarm & switch  Evacuation plan  Personal protective equipment’s  Rubber mats to every iron man
  • 18. Page 18 of 24 2.3.4 Others aspect’s…  Environment: Procedure and standards for waste management, handling and disposure of chemicals and other dangerous materials, emissions & effluent treatment must or exceed minimum legal requirements. Management Systems: Violation: Factory paid wages in installment throughout a month instead of disbursing the payment within particular period of the next month. Corrective Action: This is considered as a delayed payment. To comply with The Payments of Wages Act of Bangladesh, 1937, wages shall be paid by 7th of the next month up to 1000 workers. Violation: Employees punched their time cards two hours earlier (7 p.m.) than the actual time of departure (9 p.m.) from the factory. Factory management wanted to hide the actual working hours. Corrective Action: To comply with The Payment of Wages Rules, 1936 of Bangladesh, all working hours shall be recorded in the time card.  Employment relationship: Communication & relationship between management and workers are very good.
  • 19. Page 19 of 24  Others  To maintain daily labor or manpower report  Canteen facility  Compliance item:  Attendance & leave register card
  • 20. Page 20 of 24 2.4 Minimization of cost with maximum profit………… Profit is revenue-cost. To have the maximum profit you not only need minimized costs, but also maximized revenue. A business with minimum costs but no revenue will still lose money. To Minimization of cost with maximum profit all factory should follow this criteria…………………………..  All sections of the garments factory have been pointed out for assessment. It is observed that the goal of all factory improvement activity is to increase Productivity by minimizing input and maximizing output.  Equipment and machinery are the crucial factors in increasing output. Productivity, quality, cost and delivery, as well as safety, hygiene, environment, and morale are all influenced significantly by equipment conditions  MAXIMIZING OVERALL EQUIPMENT  EFFICIENCY  After studying all the sections of the factory, the Sewing section was taken for the Project purpose.  There are 4 lines in the Sewing section.  The production rate of different lines in sewing section is considered and seen that Line 5B has the lowest production rate. So, Line 5B is considered for identifying and reducing equipment losses to maximize overall equipment efficiency (OEE)  To identify losses and equipment efficiency, loss data is collected for several machines for  10 days during operation.
  • 21. Page 21 of 24  Set up and adjustment  Defects in process and rework  Reduced yield between machine startup and stable
  • 22. Page 22 of 24 3. Conclusion: From the study, we know the adoption of policies which required for the development of sustainable apparel product. To produce sustainable product it is essential to ensure eco-friendly product manufacturing. Worker compliance needed to reach the goal of a company but every company’s main target to gain profit. A company not only maximum profit but also minimizing production cost.
  • 23. Page 23 of 24 References: 1. http://www.fibre2fashion.com/industry-article/market-research-industry-reports/socialcompliance-issues-in-the-apparel-sector-of-bangladesh/social-compliance-issues-in-theapparel-sector-of-bangladesh3.asp 2. http://apparelbrief.wordpress.com/merchandising-term/compliance-of-apparelgarmentindustry-in-bangladesh/ 3. http://www.thefinancialexpressbd.com/index.php?ref=MjBfMDFfMzFfMTNfMV8xXzE1ODY3 Ng== 4. http://indian-garment-industry.tumblr.com/ 5. : http://blog.salazarpackaging.com/sustainable-packaging/affordable-eco-friendlypackaging-for-tee-shirts-clothing-and-soft-goods/#sthash.dWVvTobf.dpuf 6. http://www.wisegeek.org/what-is-eco-friendly.htm 7. http://www.indiantextilejournal.com/articles/FAdetails.asp?id=4865 8. http://www.stylewithheart.com/bohohemp/#sthash.UKxh25eG.dpuf 1. ALLTEX INDUSTRIES LIMITED 2. ANLYMA YARN DYEING LIMITED 3. APEX ADELCHI FOOTWEAR LIMITED 4. APEX SPINNING & KNITTING MILLS 5. APEX WEAVING & FINISHING MILLS 6. ASHRAF TEXTILE MILLS LIMITED 7. BD DYEING & FINISHING INDS LTD 8. BEXIMCO SYNTHETICS LIMITED 9. BEXTEX LIMITED 10. CHICTEX LIMITED 11. CMC KAMAL TEXTILE MILLS LTD 12. DELTA SPINNERS LIMITED 13. DULAMIA COTTON SPINNING MILLS 14. DYNAMIC TEXTILE INDUSTRIES LTD
  • 24. Page 24 of 24 15. EAGLE STAR TEXTILE MILLS LTD 16. GMG INDUSTRIAL CORPORATION LTD 17. H.R.TEXTILE MILLS LIMITED 18. LEXCO LIMITED 19. LIBRA INFUSIONS LIMITED 20. M HOSSAIN GARMENTS WASHING & D 21. METRO SPINNING LIMITED 22. MITA TEXTILES LIMITED 23. MITHUN KNITTING & DYEING (CEPZ) LTD. 24. MONNO FABRICS LIMITED 25. ORION INFUSION LIMITED 26. PRIME TEXTILE SPINNING MILLS 27. RECKITT BENCKISER (BD) LIMITED 28. SAFKO SPINNING MILLS LTD 29. SAIHAM TEXTILE MILLS LTD 30. SAJIB KNITWEAR & GARMENTS LTD 31. SAMATA LEATHER COMPLEX LTD 32. SONARGAON TEXTILES LIMITED 33. SQUARE TEXTILES LIMITED 34. SREEPUR TEXTILE MILLS LIMITED 35. TALLU SPINNING MILLS LIMITED 36. TAMIJUDDIN TEXTILE MILLS L

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