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Adoption of Policies Required for The
Development of Sustainable Apparel Product
Course code: TE-231
Course title: Apparel Manufacturing- I with Lab
Adnan maroof khan
Department of Textile Engineering
Daffodil International University
Department of Textile Engineering
Daffodil International University
Date of Submission:11-12-13
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The readymade garment RMG industry in Bangladesh has experienced an
unprecedented growth for its sustainable Apparel product in worldwide. Over
the last three decades and become a fast growing industry in Bangladesh.
This industry plays a vital role in the economy in terms of export earnings,
employment generation, poverty alleviation and empowering the woman. For
development of this sustainable product, Bangladesh needs to emphasize on
the factory working environment, social issues, labor relations and
compliances with codes of conduct. Besides, to ensure ecofriendly product
manufacturing with minimization of cost with maximum cost.
Table of content
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Eco-friendly Product manufacturing
What is Eco-Friendly?
To produce eco-friendly product some criteria should be followed…..
Various terms used in eco-friendly processing
To ensure some criteria to development the sustainable product
Affordable, Eco-Friendly Packaging for Tee Shirts, Clothing and Soft 10
Some example of eco-friendly brand:
Worker Compliances in RMG
ILO CORE LABOR STANDARDS…
Occupational health & safety…
Minimization of cost with maximum profit…………
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At first our gratefulness goes to the Almighty Allah for giving us strength and
ability to complete this assignment.
We would like to give special thanks to Md.Adnan Maroof Khan, Lecturer,
Department of Textile Technology, Daffodil International University for his
valuable support to complete this assignment.
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The readymade garment (RMG) industry of Bangladesh commenced its
journey in the late 1970s and within a short period of time emerged as an
important player in the economy in terms of export earnings, employment
generation, and poverty alleviation and empowering of women. Bangladesh
exports its RMG products mainly to the United States of America (USA) and
the European Union (EU). Garments exports from Bangladesh have been
growing at an impressive rate in recent years. In 2007-08 alone, the garment
export earned a record level of
US$10.7 billion in 2007-08.
Moreover, it accounts for over
75 percent of the country’s
total export earnings, provides
employment almost 5 million
people, accounts for over 10
percent of the country’s GDP,
and contributes around 40% of
its manufacturing output.
The prospect of RMG sector,
however, in Bangladesh not
only depends on availability of
cheap labor and government’s
liberal policy but also depends
on compliance with codes of conduct. Compliance means to comply with
something or yield to the wishes of another. RMG sector of Bangladesh needs
to improve the factory working environment and various social issues related
to the industry. International buyers are very particular about compliance with
codes of conduct before placing any import order. Poor housekeeping, storage
system, ineffective monitoring and controlling system, disorganized
production layout, lack of team– based work, rented factory premises, narrow
staircases, closed environment, insufficient light and air, clean drinking water,
separate wash room for male and female, etc. are common practices in most
of the RMG factories in Bangladesh.
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Bangladesh Garment Manufacturers and Exporters Association (BGMEA) and
Bangladesh Knitwear Manufacturers and Exporters Association (BKMEA) set
standards for compliance like factories must have alternative stairs, basic fire
equipment, approved layout plan from concerned authority for ensuring safe
building construction, group insurance for workers, hygienic sanitation facility
and first aid appliance, as well as ensuring minimum wages and flexible jobs
for the workers. There are many recognized compliance bodies worldwide like
ILO, ISO 14001, WRAP, BSCI, ETI, SAI, FLA. Owners of RMG factories and
government can seek help from those bodies to improve the standard of
environment as well as products of their industries. In this paper, the existing
compliance practices of RMG factories in Bangladesh, particularly factories
located in Dhaka city are examined. This paper also tries to reveal the
acceptability of compliance provisions to the employed workers.
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2. LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Sustainable product:
Are beneficial, safe & healthy for individuals and communities throughout
their life cycles.
Meet market criteria for both performance and cost.
Are sourced, manufactured, transported, and recycled using renewable
Are manufactured using clean production technologies and best practices.
Are made from materials healthy in all probable end-of-life scenarios.
2.2 Eco-friendly Product manufacturing………….
2.2.1 What is Eco-Friendly?
The term “eco-friendly” is used to describe activities which are good for the
environment. It is a shortening of “ecologically friendly,” and you may also
hear terms like “environmentally friendly” or “green” used to describe
similar activities. There are a range of ways in which activities can be ecofriendly, ranging from products which are constructed in an environmentally
friendly way to making lifestyle changes which are designed to benefit the
2.2.2 To produce eco-friendly
product some criteria should
ECO FRIENDLY PRODUCTION
- ECO FRIENDLY PROCESS
- ECO FRIENDLY CHEMICAL
- ECO FRIENDLY FIBRE
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2.2.3 Various terms used in eco-friendly processing….
The processor must be aware of certain terms and quantities used while
determining the eco-friendliness of garment processing.
Given below are the three methods used to determine the amount of water
1. Biological oxygen demand (BOD)
BOD, mg/litre = (D1 – D2)/V
Where D1 = Initial dissolved oxygen
D2 = Dissolved oxygen after five days
V = Volume of sample used
2. Chemical oxygen demand (COD)
COD, mg/litre = (B – A) * N * 8000/V
Where A= volume of ferrous ammonium sulphate solution used for titration in
B= blank titration reading in ml
N= normality of ferrous ammonium sulphate solution
V= sample volume in ml
3. Adsorbable organic halogen (AOX)
In this method, the organic substances are adsorbed from the sample onto
(halogen free) activated charcoal. The charcoal is then burnt in a stream of
oxygen and the hydrogen chloride formed is determined quantitatively. This
parameter includes a wide range of compounds like volatile chlorinated
hydrocarbons, plastic (PVC), toxic chlorophenols, etc.
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Eco labels are fast assuming great significance for the successful export and
market promotion in apparel textile industry. Eco-labels are used as tools to
identify green products. Some of the popular eco-labels are: ISO 14000, The
EU Eco-label, OKO-TEX Standard 100, Eco Mark, Green Seal, Blue Angel, etc.
The ISO 14000 series of International Standards have been designed to
address those issues confronting environment today. More than 110 countries
around the globe accept ISO 14000, which will be helpful in terms to shape
the future of environmental protection and sustainable developments. The
main goals of ISO 14000 are:
Conservation of natural resources.
Reduction and abatement of waste and emission.
Continuous improvement in environmental performances.
Efficiency in operation by use of best available technology.
Compliance to national and international environmental laws and
2.2.4 To ensure some criteria to development the sustainable
Eco-friendly raw materials- Reducing the environmental impact of the Raw
materials by using Eco-friendly Raw materials.
Become carbon neutral
Send no waste to landfill
Extend sustainable sourcing
Help improve the lives of people in our supply chain
Help customers and employees live a healthier life-style
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2.2.5 Affordable, Eco-Friendly Packaging for Tee Shirts, Clothing and
Soft Goods –
We are pleased to work with a number of different tee shirt and clothing
apparel companies shipping everything from sports apparel to infant clothing.
As a result we have developed one of the most extensive products lines for
the soft good industry.
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2.2.6 Some example of eco-friendly brand:
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2.3 Worker Compliances in RMG:
Some code of conduct are required to maintain worker compliance for
sustainable product which shown in a chart…………………………………………………..
The basic principles of COC have been derived from the principles of
international human rights norms as delineated in International Labor
Organization Conventions, the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the
Child and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
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2.3.1 ILO CORE LABOR STANDARDS…
Violation: Child labor was found at the factory. It was confirmed from the
verification of personal document and the appearance of the employee. From
the workers interview, it was understood that one worker was about 13 years
Corrective Action: According to The Factory Act of 1968 in the Bangladesh
Labor Code, any person who has not completed sixteen years of age is
defined as a child. Article 66 prohibits the employment of any children under
the age of fourteen. Factory management agreed to take care of this matter.
Most child laborers have been cleared out of Bangladesh RMG sector under
international pressure, but sporadic cases still exist due to economic reason.
No such cases were found wherein there was use of forced labor in the
factories. Direct evidence which indicates personnel shall require to lodge
deposits or identity papers upon commencing employment with the company
was also not available. .
Freedom of Association and Collective Bargaining:
Violation: Employees were not permitted to bargain collectively about their
Corrective Action: All employees shall be permitted to bargain collectively
about their rights.
Violation: Factory management is reluctant to recruit employees from the
area where the factory is situated. This is not only to avoid local protests
against working condition, but also due to fear of post scenario of a
disciplinary case. Thus, there is discrimination in hiring workforce.
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Corrective Action: To comply with social accountability standard, recruitment
shall not be biased towards avoiding local candidate at the time of
2.3.2 Employment Condition…
Compensation and Working Hours:
Violation: Weekend and overnight worked hours were not recorded in the time
cards and payroll sheets and also not compensated properly.
Corrective Action: Factory shall record all worked hours in payroll sheets and
time cards and shall compensate those correctly. This is to satisfy The
Payment of Wage Rules, 1937 of Bangladesh.
Violation: Female workers were
working from 8 a.m. to 12 a.m. as
Corrective Action: Factory shall
allow female workers to work
between 7 a.m. to 8 p.m. only with
a view to comply with The Factories
Act, 1965, Chapter-6, Bangladesh.
Violation: Overtime worked hours
had exceeded the legal limits of stipulated hours per month with a large
Corrective Action: Factory shall not allow anyone to work more than 10 hours
per day and 60 hours per week. The duration of 60 hours per week shall be
represented as 48 hours general duty plus 12 hours overtime as per the local
law of Bangladesh.
Violation: Factory did not comply with the local law of Bangladesh in the
payment of overtime wages for all the workers in the factory.
Corrective Action: Factory shall follow legal requirement for overtime
compensation, which is double of the basic pay.
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Salary & wages
To fix wages in considering minimum wages which is declared
by the government.
Try to give Salary and wages given before 10th day of month.
Leaves & holidays
1. Weekly holiday
2. Annual leave with wage
3. Festival holiday
4. Casual leave
5. Sick leave
2.3.3 Occupational health & safety…
Health & Safety:
Violation: Workers did not use gloves and/or masks while handling chemicals
and dyes in chemical storage area of Dyeing Department.
Corrective Action: In order to comply with The Factories Act, 1965, Chapter 3
and 4 of Bangladesh, management shall provide adequate gloves and/or
masks to the appropriate workers. They must be motivated through training
to use such protective equipment for safety.
Violation: Number of toilets in the production floor is not sufficient to cover all
Corrective Action: Factory shall construct sufficient number of toilets in
accordance with The Factories Act, 1965, Chapter- 3 and 4.
Violation: No soap and towels were there inside all the toilets in a factory.
Corrective Action: Soaps and towels are to be provided at all the toilets in the
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Violation: Fire extinguishers were found blocked in some areas of the factory
and were not easily accessible.
Corrective Action: All fire extinguishers shall be cleared from obstruction at all
time. Area in front of fire extinguishers shall be marked on the ground with
yellow lines to indicate that the area must be kept clear at all times.
Violation: Aisles were not marked at different sections of the factory.
Corrective Action: Factory shall put marking on the floor with yellow lines to
indicate the evacuation paths.
Violation: No evacuation plan
was observed throughout the
Corrective Action: Factory shall
prepare and post evacuation
plan at different areas of the
factory to facilitate smooth
evacuation in the case of
Violation: Drinking water closets
were found very near (2-3 feet)
to the toilets.
Corrective Action: As per The Factories Act, 1965 of Bangladesh, factory shall
place drinking water closets at a minimum of 20 feet distance from the
Violation: Primary/secondary aisles were found blocked by fabric roll, cartons,
garments etc. in different sections of the factory. Electrical control panel was
also found blocked.
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Corrective Action: Factory, in accordance with The Factories Act in
Bangladesh, shall make sure that all the passages and control panels remain
unblocked at all times.
Violation: No protective hand gloves were in use by the fabric cutting knife
operators which might cause serious accident at any time.
Corrective action: Factory management shall supply metal hand gloves to the
operators and motivate them to use such protective equipment’s for safet
Working place will be safe and hygienic.
Safety of building and machineries.
Fire alarm & switch
Personal protective equipment’s
Rubber mats to every iron man
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2.3.4 Others aspect’s…
Procedure and standards for waste management, handling
and disposure of chemicals and other dangerous materials, emissions &
effluent treatment must or exceed minimum legal requirements.
Violation: Factory paid wages in installment throughout a month instead of
disbursing the payment within particular period of the next month.
Corrective Action: This is considered as a delayed payment. To comply with
The Payments of Wages Act of Bangladesh, 1937, wages shall be paid by 7th
of the next month up to 1000 workers.
Violation: Employees punched their time cards two hours earlier (7 p.m.) than
the actual time of departure (9 p.m.) from the factory. Factory management
wanted to hide the actual working hours.
Corrective Action: To comply with The Payment of Wages Rules, 1936 of
Bangladesh, all working hours shall be recorded in the time card.
Communication & relationship between management and workers are very
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To maintain daily labor or manpower report
Attendance & leave register card
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2.4 Minimization of cost with maximum profit…………
Profit is revenue-cost. To have the maximum profit you not only
need minimized costs, but also maximized revenue. A business with
minimum costs but no revenue will still lose money.
To Minimization of cost with maximum profit all factory should
follow this criteria…………………………..
All sections of the garments factory have been pointed out for assessment. It
is observed that the goal of all factory improvement activity is to increase
Productivity by minimizing input and maximizing output.
Equipment and machinery are the crucial factors in increasing output.
Productivity, quality, cost and delivery, as well as safety, hygiene,
environment, and morale are all influenced significantly by equipment
MAXIMIZING OVERALL EQUIPMENT
After studying all the sections of the factory, the Sewing section was taken
for the Project purpose.
There are 4 lines in the Sewing section.
The production rate of different lines in sewing section is considered and
seen that Line 5B has the lowest production rate. So, Line 5B is considered
for identifying and reducing equipment losses to maximize overall
equipment efficiency (OEE)
To identify losses and equipment efficiency, loss data is collected for several
10 days during operation.
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Set up and adjustment
Defects in process and rework
Reduced yield between machine startup and stable
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From the study, we know the adoption of policies which required for the
development of sustainable apparel product. To produce sustainable product it is
essential to ensure eco-friendly product manufacturing. Worker compliance needed
to reach the goal of a company but every company’s main target to gain profit. A
company not only maximum profit but also minimizing production cost.