Modern Latin America Sayda Vega History 141 Class # 50587
BRITAIN AND LATIN AMERICA *Britain’s economic interest in Latin America was much more noticeable during the mid 1870’s and early 1890’s *Britain’s interests in River Plate *Britain also played an important role in Argentina since most of its trading businessmen were British. *Britain was a dominant role in Brazil’s trade, shipping, and imports. *Britain had investments all over Mexico, Peru, Chile and Uruguay *Everything changed by the end of the 20th Century when Britain’s influence almost dissapeared.
*The Second World War brought more problems and automatically reduced trade. This put Britain into debt to Latin America and to the United States too. *”At the time of independence Latin America was still a frontier of European colonization.” *There were huge differences in wealth, social status and income all along the Latin American countries. *Slavery remained to be vital for some of the Spanish Colonies due to the commercial agriculture. *The Latin America’s reorientation of external connections was influenced by independence.
*Many problems of different types after independence including, fiscal problems, external security problems and intense civil conflicts. *Some of the most instable counties at the time were: Mexico, Peru and Bolivia. *Paraguay’s President Jose Gaspar Rodriguez de Francia (2814-1840) *“In British eyes there were two exceptions of instability and caudallismo: Brazil and Chile. *Formation of strong national structures.
*Predomination of Liberalism *Balmaceda President of Chile and the end of his term culminated in a civil war, in which at the end he committed suicide. LATIN AMERICA’S WARS OF THE 19TH CENTURY *The main causes of the Latin America’s Wars were: race war, ideology of independence, separation versus union, boundary disputes, territorial conquests, caudilloism, resource wars, interclass struggles, capitalism and religious wars. *Political, economic, and social frustrations were the result of the Latin America Wars of independence
*Another events happening in Europe and North America helped to achieve independence as well. *American Revolution (1775-1783) *French Revolutions (1789-1799) *Both revolutions were very influential to other countries and persons such as Simon Bolivar and Miguel Hidalgo. *“Not all wars of independence in Latin America were against the European Monarchy. *Break up-separation versus union. *During the colonial era kings of Spain and Portugal were at war.
*Golden Rule of Latin America power politics: “Relations between nations which share a common border are cool, and those who do not, are warm.” *Frontier wars began right after the wars of independence and continued during the 19th Century. *“The post-independence wars of territorial conquest were and extension to the colonial experience.” *Participants in territorial conquest just wanted to gain more land. *British expansion in Central America (1821-1856) *War of Tripe Alliance (1864-1870)
MEXICO: CONTINENT ON THE MOVE *Migration has transformed the Americas *Zacatecas was once the silver capital of the nation. It only remains its colonial architecture. *Zacatecas was one of the richest agriculture areas buy today it is an example of Mexico’s decay. *Older people remember how it was like before when the time of revolution came. *President Lazaro Cardenas was in charge during the 1930’s. *Mexico became the main supply of winter vegetables and fruits for the United States. *Mexico City became a powerful attraction for people with the creation of thousands of jobs *Creation of government programs in education and health care. *More immigrants arrived, now the city of Tijuana. *Tijuana counts with many maquiladora industries that’s why many people from other places come to work.
MIGUELHIDALGO (Wikipedia) *Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla was a Mexican cleric and important leader who played an important role during the Mexican Independence. *He was born on May 8, 1753 in Penjamo, Guanajuato *Miguel Hidalgo strongly believed in the Virgin of Guadalupe and always would go into revolts accompanied by groups of mestizos with the banner of the Virgin. *He was captured on March 21, 1811 and executed on July 30. *He was the first man who started to fight for independence.
*Later on, he was supported by Jose Maria Morelos and Agustin de Iturbide. *He was influenced by American Revolution (1775-1783) and French Revolution (1789-1799). *Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla is considered “Father of the Nation of Mexico.” *He was responsible for the Grito de Dolores on September 16, in which he called a mass and urged people to join him in the fight against the vice regal government. *Hidalgo’s Grito de Dolores focused on being loyal to the Catholic Religion. He firmly believed on Catholicism.