How the Americas change: the long 19th century Sayda Vega/ History 141 Class # 50587
BACKGROUND READINGS: THE AMERICAS IN THE 19TH CENTURY (1) *FattHing Chin was one of the earliest Chinese migrants in 1849 *Started a business family *More migrants from China, Europe and Asia contributed to the transformation of the Americas *Stimulation of political, social and economic aspects *The U.S. then became the most powerful state *The 19th C. was characterized by constant migration, stagnation, civil war. *The main purpose of the U.S. after independence was to expand *Slavery played an important role *Civil War in the 1860’s *1780’s first draft of the constitution
BACKGROUND READINGS: THE AMERICAS IN THE 19TH CENTURY (2) *After The American Revolution, Britain ceded a big amount of land to the U.S *The United States doubled its size *In 1803 Napoleon Bonaparte sold Louisiana Territory to the U.S. *Struggle with Native Americans *Mexican-American War 1845-1848 *Texas, California and New Mexico was sold the U.S. for 15 million dollars. *President Abraham Lincoln (1860) *Canada became independent without fighting *John A. Macdonald became Canada first minister *Transcontinental railroad *Simon Bolivar *Liberals, conservators, centralists, federalists *Caudillo Juan Manuel de Rosas *La Reforma 1850’s *President Benito Juarez *The Mexican Rev. 1911-1920 *Fight for “tierra y libertad” *Emiliano Zapata y Pancho Villa were revolutionary leaders
THE LITTLE ICE AGE(1) *The Little Ice Age occurred between the 14th and 19th Centuries *30% percent of Earth was covered by Ice *Causes are not clear but it could be because of Cyclical lows in solar radiation, volcanic activity or changes in the ocean circulation *Last cold interval was in 1850 *Many people died, almost 1/3 from starving and many more from diseases *There is evidence found in Central America (Yucatan) *Aztecs chronicles support the existence of the Little Ice Age in America *Information gathered from La Patagonia in South America showed very cold periods ( 1670) *Anecdotal evidence proofs a general cooling in South America (1675-7898)
FRONTIERS OF THE AMERICAS (1) *The Americas went through a huge territorial change during the 19th C. *Louisiana was transferred from Spain to France *Emperor of France Napoleon Bonaparte told Francois de Barbe-Marbois to offer Louisiana Territory on sell to the U.S. *President Thomas Jefferson finally acquired Louisiana on April 30, 1803 for a total amount of 15 million dollars *This purchase doubled the size of the United States during the 19th C. Louisiana Purchase *The Missouri River was the North American Frontier 1830’s *Prince Maximilian of Weid played an important role. He was a German Aristocrat whose passion was science and the study of people’s culture *In the 1830’s Maximilian traveled to North America accompanied with Karl Bodmer The North America Frontier
FRONTIERS OF THE AMERICAS (2) *Fort Pierre, Fort Clark, Fort Union and Fort McKenzie were under the edges of upper Missouri River *Prince Maximilian was welcomed by Native Indians and obtained their trust. He wrote everything he saw in journal dairies and made excellent paintings. Maximilian liked to collect Indian artifacts, paintings. *Native Americans wore special robes and feathers. Their life changed since their land was took over and were sent to reservations. *William Hudson was a writer who wrote his experiences of violence in different places from South America *People were very violent and the use of cutting throats was very usual *Killing people was a system of honor for men during the 19th Century *Carlota Lucia de Brito was an allied with a local politician, who later on was sent to prison and rebuilt her life in a different place. She struggled issues of class, gender, politics and justice *Politics in the 19th Century Brazil centered around family and power *Juan Patricio Nolan was known as a brave man. Manuel Cardoso and Carmen Solveira were two gauchos from Cerro Largo who had disputes over animals. Besides this, they were interested in the same girl called La Serviliana *In 1870 a Brazilian soldier requested their service for their country The South American Frontier
CROSSROADS OF FREEDOM (1) **The book is divided into 4 chapters: 1)The Pendulum of War 1861-1862 2)Taking off the Kid Gloves 1862 3)The Federals Got a Very Complete Smashing 4)Showdown at Sharpsburg **The Antietam was the “event that decide the fate of the AmericanCivil War”, as well as the crossing of Confederate troops into Union territory, the book explains. **According to the book by McPherson the Antietam was the worst war in the U.S in which around 6,000 people died on September 17, 1862
CROSSROADS OF FREEDOM (2) Important people *Abraham Lincoln was the president of the U.S. during this important period of time in history. *General George B. McClellan commanded the Army of Potomac. At the beginning he was a great general but later on, many people such as Lieutenant Daniel, Joseph Hooker, Philip Kearny, Colonel Francis Barlow, General William Pope, and even President Lincoln started to doubt his loyalty and moral. *General Ulysses S. Grant: commander of the Union troops in Cairo. *General Ambrose E. Burnside. *Charles Colcock Jones Jr. *General Albert Sidney Johnston was The Confederate commander *After Albert Johnston’s death, we was replaced by General Robert E. Lee and General Pierre G. Beauregard
CROSSROADS OF FREEDOM (3) *Union Naval commander David Glasgow Farragut *Edwin M. Stanton was the Secretary of War. *General Nathaniel P. Banks: another Union commander *General Thomas Jackson also known as Stonewall became “the most renowned commander in the South and most feared in the North”. Important Facts and Events *Capture of Fort Donelson (February 1862) *Small Union Army won at Pea Ridge in Northwest Arkansas *Newspaper played an important role during this time. They were responsible for spreading all kind of news and had a profound effect. New York Times, New York Tribune, New York Hemerald and Richmond Dispatch “the newspaper with largest circulation in the Confederacy” were some of the most popular and read newspaper. *Virginia was the main focus in the North and South. *The British and French economy was based on the textile industry, especially cotton, but they faced a hard time when S. America kept all its crop home and decided not to export it.
CROSSROADS OF FREEDOM (4) **The Seven Days Battle was a war in which a total of 20,000 Confederates and 16,000 Federals fought from June 26th to July 2nd **Union generals took possession of slaves as war contraband without the approval of President Abraham Lincoln. **The Emancipation Proclamation was drawn up months before the battle of Antietam by President Lincoln but it wasn’t issued until five days after Antietam. **The Antietam battle helped somehow African-American slaves who gained freedom afterwards.
SOURCES ***The Americas in the 19th Century ***Frontiers of the Americas -Louisiana Purchase -The North American Frontier -The South American Frontier ***Crossroads of Freedom by James McPherson