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EXTRA CREDIT American Colonies

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  • 1. AMERICAN COLONIES:PRELUDE TO REVOLUTIONS
    Sayda Vega
    EXTRA CREDIT
    HIST 140
  • 2. *Men and Money
    -The English needed a new powerful army
    -William of Orange persuaded parliament to expand the English military
    -They had an army of 48,000 subjects and 21,000 German mercenaries
    -The needed funding for the military so they used heavy new taxes
    -Creation of the Bank of England
    13- Revolutions(1685-1730)
    *Union
    -English union with Scotland
    -Each kingdom remained distinctive and independent from each other
    -Many merchants had their own commercial business
    -In 1707 the Scottish Parliament embraced a union that created “a new composite realm ‘ by the mane of Great Britain’”.
    -Great Britain and Scotland had common things but different legal, educational and church establishments.
  • 3. 14- The Atlantic (1700-1780)
    *News
    -By 1730, many ships arrived to the colonies with letters, and newspapers from England.
    -It gave to the colonies a feeling of better informed about different aspects form Europe.
    -They also felt more secure for being aware of many things
    -The Boston News-Letter was the first colonial newspaper in 1704.
    *Trade
    -Trade became played an important role during the 18th Century.
    -The colonies developed a multilateral trading system.
    -The Navigation Act also helped a lot on exporting merchandise such as sugar and tobacco, fish, provisions, wheat, flour, salt and wine.
    -They traded with England, West Indies, Iberia, some Atlantic Islands.
    -It contributed to the economic growth of the colonies.
  • 4. 15- Awakenings(1700-1775)
    *Growth and Limits
    -There were 450 Congregationalists churches mostly in New England by 1750
    -Anglicans 300 parishes
    -Quakers with 250 meetings
    -Presbyterians 160 churches
    -Religion played an important role on providing social services, books, etc.
    -High church attendance
    -Evangelicals vs. rationalists
    *Revivals
    -Evangelical traditions of Congregational and Presbyterian congregations
    -There were 6 main revivals: in 1679, 1683, 1696, 1712, 1718, and 1727.
    -Emotional process of conversion that transformed sinners into saints
    -Usage of “awakening“ sermons
  • 5. 16- French America (1650-1750)
    *Opportunity
    -Many French who emigrate to Canada improved their life style
    -Opportunities of hunting, fishing, keeping warm during cold seasons
    -Limited opportunities of employment in rural New France
    -”Little effect on the legal and cultural subordination of women”.
    -Patriarchal authority
    -Women also helped in the field work
    -Women could remarry if widowed
    *Authority
    -French colonies revealed more militaristic, paternalistic and centralized form of authority.
    -Louis XIV 1661-1715
    -Competititon for power
    -The New French tolerated no other faith
    -Seigneurs
    -Every male between the ages of 16 and 60 to serve in the militia
  • 6. 17- The great Plains (1680-1800)
    *Genizaros
    -Colony of New Mexico
    -There were a decrease of trade with nomads because of the Hispanics
    -Slavery
    -Nomads killed and captured Hispanics, and people from the pueblo.
    -Nomads traded everything in exchange of deer and buffalo hides, gold and silver
    -People who were sold were sent to work in the silver mines of Northern Mexico
    -They were called Genizaros.
    *Comanche and Apache
    -Comanche lived in the southern plains, and they were the most important
    -Important usage of horses
    -Moved from one place to another for hunting
    -The Apache were another tribe
    -The Comanche made an alliance with the Wichita
    -Some Apache were known as Hispanics as the Apache de Navihua, and later on as Navajo
    -New Mexico, Texas
    -Rivality-Comanche against Apache
  • 7. 18- Imperial wars and crisis (1739-1775)
    *Renewed War
    -Renewed war with France
    -War of Jenkins’s Ear
    -Spanish assault on the new colony of Georgia in 1742
    -The War of Austrian Succession; the French government supported Spain
    -Louisburg commander
    -The France vs. Britain War finally ended nine years later, after many incidents and deaths
    *The Seven Years War
    -It officially began in 1756 in Europe
    -George Washington played an important role
    -Great Britain main purpose was to destroy France’s colony empire
    -More than 20,000 soldiers were sent to America to fight
    -At the end France ceded the New France colony
    -The War finally ended in 1763
  • 8. 19-The pacific (1760-1820)
    *Missions
    -Native people labeled as gente sin razon
    -Hispanics against California Indians
    -Hispanics wanted to convert gente sin razon into gente de razon
    -Baptism
    -Made use of mass, Holy days, and powerful and magic objects
    -All conversions were voluntary
    -Conversion offered security
    -Neophytes were mission Indians
    -New converts should live apart from the unconverted
    *Kamehameha
    -Hawaiian Island became a place to rest, repair, resupply water, wood and provisions for the new transpacific trade.
    -Chief Kamehameha of Hawaii became the dominant chief of the islands from 1780 to 1790
    -He was a man with “restless intelligence, and voracious ambition”
    -He contributed to invade many islands including Maui and Oahu
    -He died in 1819 and helped Hawaii to recover from his wars of conquest.