AMERICAN COLONIES:PRELUDE TO REVOLUTIONS Sayda Vega EXTRA CREDIT HIST 140
*Men and Money -The English needed a new powerful army -William of Orange persuaded parliament to expand the English military -They had an army of 48,000 subjects and 21,000 German mercenaries -The needed funding for the military so they used heavy new taxes -Creation of the Bank of England 13- Revolutions(1685-1730) *Union -English union with Scotland -Each kingdom remained distinctive and independent from each other -Many merchants had their own commercial business -In 1707 the Scottish Parliament embraced a union that created “a new composite realm ‘ by the mane of Great Britain’”. -Great Britain and Scotland had common things but different legal, educational and church establishments.
14- The Atlantic (1700-1780) *News -By 1730, many ships arrived to the colonies with letters, and newspapers from England. -It gave to the colonies a feeling of better informed about different aspects form Europe. -They also felt more secure for being aware of many things -The Boston News-Letter was the first colonial newspaper in 1704. *Trade -Trade became played an important role during the 18th Century. -The colonies developed a multilateral trading system. -The Navigation Act also helped a lot on exporting merchandise such as sugar and tobacco, fish, provisions, wheat, flour, salt and wine. -They traded with England, West Indies, Iberia, some Atlantic Islands. -It contributed to the economic growth of the colonies.
15- Awakenings(1700-1775) *Growth and Limits -There were 450 Congregationalists churches mostly in New England by 1750 -Anglicans 300 parishes -Quakers with 250 meetings -Presbyterians 160 churches -Religion played an important role on providing social services, books, etc. -High church attendance -Evangelicals vs. rationalists *Revivals -Evangelical traditions of Congregational and Presbyterian congregations -There were 6 main revivals: in 1679, 1683, 1696, 1712, 1718, and 1727. -Emotional process of conversion that transformed sinners into saints -Usage of “awakening“ sermons
16- French America (1650-1750) *Opportunity -Many French who emigrate to Canada improved their life style -Opportunities of hunting, fishing, keeping warm during cold seasons -Limited opportunities of employment in rural New France -”Little effect on the legal and cultural subordination of women”. -Patriarchal authority -Women also helped in the field work -Women could remarry if widowed *Authority -French colonies revealed more militaristic, paternalistic and centralized form of authority. -Louis XIV 1661-1715 -Competititon for power -The New French tolerated no other faith -Seigneurs -Every male between the ages of 16 and 60 to serve in the militia
17- The great Plains (1680-1800) *Genizaros -Colony of New Mexico -There were a decrease of trade with nomads because of the Hispanics -Slavery -Nomads killed and captured Hispanics, and people from the pueblo. -Nomads traded everything in exchange of deer and buffalo hides, gold and silver -People who were sold were sent to work in the silver mines of Northern Mexico -They were called Genizaros. *Comanche and Apache -Comanche lived in the southern plains, and they were the most important -Important usage of horses -Moved from one place to another for hunting -The Apache were another tribe -The Comanche made an alliance with the Wichita -Some Apache were known as Hispanics as the Apache de Navihua, and later on as Navajo -New Mexico, Texas -Rivality-Comanche against Apache
18- Imperial wars and crisis (1739-1775) *Renewed War -Renewed war with France -War of Jenkins’s Ear -Spanish assault on the new colony of Georgia in 1742 -The War of Austrian Succession; the French government supported Spain -Louisburg commander -The France vs. Britain War finally ended nine years later, after many incidents and deaths *The Seven Years War -It officially began in 1756 in Europe -George Washington played an important role -Great Britain main purpose was to destroy France’s colony empire -More than 20,000 soldiers were sent to America to fight -At the end France ceded the New France colony -The War finally ended in 1763
19-The pacific (1760-1820) *Missions -Native people labeled as gente sin razon -Hispanics against California Indians -Hispanics wanted to convert gente sin razon into gente de razon -Baptism -Made use of mass, Holy days, and powerful and magic objects -All conversions were voluntary -Conversion offered security -Neophytes were mission Indians -New converts should live apart from the unconverted *Kamehameha -Hawaiian Island became a place to rest, repair, resupply water, wood and provisions for the new transpacific trade. -Chief Kamehameha of Hawaii became the dominant chief of the islands from 1780 to 1790 -He was a man with “restless intelligence, and voracious ambition” -He contributed to invade many islands including Maui and Oahu -He died in 1819 and helped Hawaii to recover from his wars of conquest.