Europe/France Summary

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Europe/France Summary

  1. 1. EARLY MODERN EUROPE SUMMARY<br />Early Modern Europe is the term used to refer to a period of the history of Western Europe and its first colonies. It was distinguished by intense human changes, such as the development of science, technological progress and establishment of law courts, among more. The early modern period is also known for the founding of regular European contact with the Americas, India, China, Japan, and Southeast Asia. <br />The most important events from the 15th and 16th Century that we still talk about now, are known as the Renaissance, the Scientific Revolution, the Reformation, and the Enlightenment. There were important events during this period of time, some of them are:<br />1450: The invention of the first European movable type printing process by Johannes Gutenberg<br />1453: The conquest of Constantinople by the Ottomans.<br />1492: First voyage to the Americas by Christopher Columbus<br />1517: The Reformation begins with Martin Luther<br />1526: Archduke Ferdinand of Austria takes over Bohemia and Hungary<br />Most people see the end of the early modern Europe as the beginning of the Industrial Revolution or the French Revolution. Also, a lot of people use erroneously the early modern period with the Renaissance; however, the Renaissance is a diverse series of cultural developments that happened hundreds of years ago in different parts of Europe while the early modern period is applied to Europe, its overseas empire and the history of the Ottoman Empire.<br />FRANCE DURING THE 15TH AND 16TH CENTURY<br />France during the 15th Century is characterized by the Armagnacs and Burgundians which were two influential parties. Both were responsible for creating a war with the purpose of controlling France during the period of King Charles VI (1380-1422). When it comes to the 16th Century, France is involved in some conflicts to take over several Italian city-states.; it was called the Habsburg-Valois War. They continued until 1559 and as a result there were an introduction the French to Italian Renaissance ideas.<br />An important person during this time was John Calvin (1509-1564) who by the mid-century started the Reform in France accompanied with his followers. Then the rest of the century is distinguished by civil wars between Protestants and Catholic groups until 1598.<br />Important dates and events:<br />1453: The Hundred Years’ War is over with the removal of English forces from France<br />1494: Charles VIII took over Italy to triumph over the kingdom of Naples.<br />1527: Francois I invited Italian artists, such as Leonardo Da Vinci, Rosso Fiorentino and Benvenuto Cellini       to contribute paintings and sculptures to the châteu.<br />1536: John Calvin (1504-1564) finished The Institutes of the Christian Religio. Calvinist theory includes the belief in predestination in which only certain people are chosen by God for salvation.<br />1562-1598: The Wars of Religion are fought.<br />MUSIC<br />During the early and middle 15th Century the Burgundy was the musical center of Europe and their style resulted on the new Franco-Flemish style which dominated the music until the early 16th Century. The majority of musicians at that time came from Burgundy, or studied over there so that was the reason of their dominance. However, by the end of the 15th Century a French national character made different the music for the French royal and aristocratic courts.<br />Francis I played a really important role during this period because the made “the creation of an opulent musical establishment a priority”. It is said that he traveled accompanied by his musicians to compete against Henry VIII at the Field of the Cloth of Gold for the most wonderful musical entertainment. <br />Chanson was a diversity of secular songs and it was characterized during the early 16th Century in Europe including France. Chanson was mainly sung by three of four voices without musical instruments. Some of the most recognized composers included Clement Janequin and Claudin de Sermisy. Then, there was a replacement of a new chanson style called musique mesuree, in which “the musical rhythm exactly matched the stress accents of the verse”. <br />By the end of the 16th Century this type of music named Chanson was progressively replaced by the air de court, “the most popular song type in France in the early 17th century”.<br /> <br /> <br />SOURCES<br />*http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Early_modern_europe<br />*France, 1400-1600 A.D./Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History/The Metropolitan Museum of Art<br />*http://www.discoverfrance.net/France/DF_music.shtml<br />

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