CaliforniaPart 3 Sayda Vega History 141 Class # 50587
*A man, a plan, a canal; Panama* *The Panama Canal was the largest single project undertaken. *The project began on the 1880’s *People wanted to connect the Atlantic Ocean and Pacific Oceans to find a shorter route. *The design was thought on water elevators. *The canal was the success that remarked the era. *The French were the Pioneers of this construction in 1879. *Ferdinand de Lesseps from France an engineer of 74 years was the only person able to build this canal. *He first traveled to Panama and observed the working area. *They cleared the jungle by hand, made calculations and then the digging began. *Many people died for food poisoning, snake bite, typhoid and yellow fever (malaria).
*A man, a plan, a canal; Panama* *French engineers worked on their own way. *They remained 10 years in Panama building the Canal, they lost around 20,000 men and then they run out of money. *It was impossible to keep working, they thought they wasted life, time, and money. But they didn’t know they just had to wait a little bit longer for technology to come and help. *They left and then years later the turn of The Builders (Americans) arrived. *President of the U.S. Theodore Roosevelt was in charge in 1901, when William McKinley was assassinated. *He thought it was important sea power and the command of it, that’s why he supported the construction of Panama Canal. *In 1903 was the Panama Revolution. *On November 18, 1903 Secretary John and Bruno Burela signed a treaty. *With 10 million dollars, the United States was in power to build the Canal.
*A man, a plan, a canal; Panama* *The construction began one more time, but the yellow fever killed many people again. *This time the project was on the hands of new engineer John Stevens. *He first wanted to clean everything to avoid mosquitoes and yellow fever afterwards. By 1905 there were no more yellow fever and the living conditions changed dramatically. *Railroads played an important role during this time too. *With the construction of the Panama Canal, they created the largest men-made lake in the world.*Roosevelt traveled to Panama for the first time and observed the progress made. *After John Stevens quit, George Washington Goethals took the power. *Workers arrived by sea and they were paid 10 Cents per hour, 10hrs per day, 6 days per week. *Working conditions were dangerous.
*A man, a plan, a canal; Panama* *By 1912 there were more than 50,000 workers in the Panama Canal. *The Canal provided its own power, it works because the supply of water from the rain forest is never ending. *For the years coming up, the canal became a big attraction for tourists. *The Great opening was August 15, 1914. *The approximate total costs of it was: 352 million dollars, the French and American total expenses was of 639 million dollars. *50 miles crossing takes about 9 hours. *”The canal remains the busiest sea land in the world, it carries crude oil, Italian marble, coffee and bananas among some other things.” *The Canal belongs to Panama buy the United States have the permanent right to protect and defend the neutrality of it. *President Theodore Roosevelt never saw the canal finished. *Science and technology made history one more time by helping out on the construction of this important canal.
*Los Angeles aqueduct* *In 1913 the City of Los Angeles completed the construction of the first aqueduct. *In 1902 Los Angeles purchased the Los Angeles City Water Company for $2 million dollars. *William Mulholland was the superintendent of this company and was in charge for many years. *“The 11 families who founded El Pueblo de NuestraSeñora La Reina de Los Angeles constructed the city’s first water system” *Mulholland watched the effect of Los Angeles growth for many years. *He was concerned about the usage and administration of water, so he made some changes to save more water. *In order to have more water, he began to search a new supply of water *Fred Eaton and Joseph Barlow Lippincott played an important role too.
*Los Angeles aqueduct* *Fred Eaton convinced William Mulholland that the Owens River would provide Los Angeles with water. *Mulholland estimated that the cost of the project would be $25 million dollars. *They needed community support. *They presented an application to build the aqueduct on May 13th. *By June 30th 1906 Los Angeles obtained permission to start working on this dreamed project. *This was a good paying job and many people from many different nationalities such as Greeks, Serbs, and Mexicans contributed on the construction of the aqueduct. *They obtained shelter, food and medical care. *Medical director of this project was Dr. Raymond C. Taylor.
*Los Angeles aqueduct* *Later on Los Angeles obtained water form Owens River, Colorado River, Mono Lake’s Seven Tributary Streams, and Haiwee Reservoir. *But they faced another problem when Owens Valley population began to dispute their water. *Los Angeles Aqueduct was limited *The Second Aqueduct of Los Angeles was finished in 1870 with a total amount of $89 million dollars, and it is said it was much easier to build due to improved construction equipment. *Both of the Los Angeles Aqueducts deliver an average of 430 million gallons per day
*Los Angeles aqueduct* *The growing population of Los Angeles is a concern for the adequacy of supply. *Now, there is a new focus on the administration of water. *“There are 3 sources for Los Angeles’ water: approximately 60% comes from the Los Angeles Aqueduct system, 15% from the San Fernando groundwater basin, and 25% from the Metropolitan Water District’s Colorado and Feather River supplies.” *Los Angeles has become the nation’s second largest city. *Creation of new better conservation measures. *Public information and school education programs to promote conservation of water.