Sayda vega History 141 Class #50587 CALIFORNIAPart 1
Chapter 1.- Queen Calafia’s Island*Place and First People* -Garci Ordoñez de Montalvo was a Spanish writer from the 1510’s -According to him, California was “an island on the right hand of the Indies” full of gold and precious stones. -By this time California was under the rule of Queen Calafia; a beautiful, successful woman who later on became Christian. -When for the very first time Spanish explorers arrived to this place in 1533 they thought it was a peninsula and they call it California. -California resulted from a collision of the North American and Pacific plates. -Edward Everett Hale. -San Fancisco is one of the finest natural harbors on the planet.
Chapter 1.- Queen Calafia’s Island*Place and First People* -41 Californian mountains rise to more than 10,000 ft -The highest point on the state is Dead Valley. -There are two seasons in California, wet and dry. -Since California is surrounded by water, it counts with a plenty variety of sea food. -Red-woods. -Variety of birds. -Different types of bears including: black bears, brown bears and grizzly bears. -Initial moment of European contact 1492. Native Americans of California belonged to 22 linguistic families. Within these categories were some 135 separate language.
Chapter 1.- Queen Calafia’s Island*Place and First People* -There were many tribes all around California. Some of them were: the Yuki, Karok, The Pomo, the Wappo, The Miwok, the Costanoan and the Salinan among more. -The Gabrielino zone was what would later be known as Orange County. -Native Americans of California offered prototype of linguistic and cultural diversity. -During that time, there were no disputes over territory or power, no war at all. -Alfred and Theodora Kroeber, Thomas Waterman, and Saxton Pope studied first Californias.
Chapter 2.-Laws of the Indies The Spanish Colonial Era -Spanish explorers were motivated by dreams of beautiful places in the New World. -The Isthmus of Panama was first explored by Vasco Nuñez in 1513. -Ferdinand Magellan was a very important Portuguese navigator. -Magellan was able to reach South America, the Pacific, the Marianas, and the Philippines. -Hernan Cortes took over the Aztec Empire. -Fortun Jimenez encountered what he believed to be an island. He also crossed and inland sea that would later be called the Sea of Cortes of the Gulf of California.
Chapter 2.-Laws of the Indies The Spanish Colonial Era -On Sept 28, 1542 Juan Rodriguez anchored in San Diego Bay initiating European contact with the first of the 3 harbors of California. -Sebastian Rodriguez called the harbor the Bay of San Francisco. -Church and state were to cooperate in a program that would promote the worldly and otherworldly well-being of the colonists. -Fortun Jimenez was one of the first who called this island “California.” -Francisco de Ulloa was sent to explore the sea between Mexico and the island of California. -Hernando de Alarcon and Melchor Diaz were the first Europeans to set foot in Alta California.
Chapter 2.-Laws of the Indies The Spanish Colonial Era -The “Sacred Expedition” was a phantasmagoria of physical hardship, deprivation, suffering and death. -”For more than 25 generations Native Americans had lived with own myths, rituals until they were forced from their homelands, brought into the mission system. --They were treated as children, no yet ‘gente de razon’” -Laws of the Indies 1680 -Evangelization of Native Americans as “Gente de Razon” -Catholic baptism -Important Jesuits: Eusebio Francisco Kino and Juan Maria de Salvatierra. -Galvez’s plan was the expulsion of the Jesuits from Baja California.
Chapter 3.- A Troubled Territory Mexican California -”Rancho life represented Mexican California as its best, but it had its cruel even barbaric side too.” -Treatment of Native Americans was cruel. -After the trade made with New England, Latin America and the Far East began to bring to California a growing number of domestic luxuries. -1821 Mexico’s independence from Spain. -Annexation of territory of the U.S. 1846 -Many religious missions at the time, including: San Diego de Alcala, San Juan Capistrano, San Gabriel Arcangel, Santa Barbara and San Francisco de Asis. -In now-a-days those continue to be active churches.
Chapter 3.- A Troubled Territory Mexican California -”During the 24 years of Mexican rule, trade and commerce promoted secularization as Mexican Californians found their values, prosperity and life style modified by contact with the wider world. -Non-Mexicans took up residence married into local families, and thereby enlarged the definition of what it meant to be a citizen of Mexican California. -The Non-Spanish occupation of Alta California began with the Russians. -The single most talented and influential member of his generation of native-born Californios was Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo. -First American Penetration led by Jedediah Smith.
Chapter 3.- A Troubled Territory Mexican California -William Hartnell, Alfred Robinson, Henry Fitch, Abel Stearns, Faxon Dean Atherton, Thomas Oliver Larking and William Gale were almost universally gentlemen traders. -John Marsh was the first man with a medical degree. -”The resulting design known as Monterey Colonial, in and of itself expressed the fusion of Mexican and Yankee peoples and traits that was occurring up and down the California coast. -Mexico was planning to cede California to England, lest it be seized by the United States. -Comte Eugene Duflot du Mofras was an Englishmen sent to California to scout Mexico and its northern possessions for opportunities for French settlement. -Many people started to come to California in search of a better life.