PRACTICAL EXPERIENCE OF SCRUM THROUGHPROJECT-BASED LEARNING MEDIATED BY ICTIN A DISTRIBUTED TEAMMaster ThesisAuthor: Sergi...
CONTENTS● INTRODUCTION● CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK● CASE STUDY● PEDAGOGICAL PATTERN● CONCLUSIONS
INTRODUCTION
INTRODUCTION:MOTIVATION FOR THE RESEARCH● Appreciate the value of project-based learning in ICT  enhanced environments.● R...
INTRODUCTION:RESEARCH OBJECTIVES● Analyse a project-based learning experience, carried  out on-line, with a distributed te...
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK:KEY CONCEPTS                                                     ▪ Characteristics                   ...
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK:PROJECT-BASED LEARNINGCharacteristics ● Active learning strategy central to the curriculum. ● Based o...
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK:PROJECT-BASED LEARNINGBenefits                              Challenges ▪ Improve students motivation....
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK:DISTRIBUTED TEAMSCharacteristics ● Technology-mediated collaboration and   communication. ● Team memb...
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK:DISTRIBUTED TEAMSBenefits                             Challenges ▪ Overcoming physical and           ...
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK:SCRUM: IN 200 WORDS                        8
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK:SCRUM: CHARACTERISTICS ● A framework. Set of principles and practices. ● Iterative product developmen...
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK:    SCRUM: ROLES, ARTIFACTS AND MEETINGS1                                          10
CASE STUDY
CASE STUDY:RESEARCH QUESTIONS 1 How to develop an experiential training in Scrum and    exercise agile principles in a vir...
CASE STUDY:RESEARCH APPROACH                    12
CASE STUDY:RESEARCH OBJECT AND CONTEXT                              ▪ Objectives                              ▪ Tasks     ...
CASE STUDY:WORKSHOP APPROACHGeneral description  ● The simulated project consisted in the development of a     promotional...
CASE STUDY:WORKSHOP APPROACHObjectives  ●   Participate actively in the group experiencing the different stages      in th...
CASE STUDY:WORKSHOP APPROACHContents  ●   The main contents included in the syllabus design cover the      principles and ...
CASE STUDY:WORKSHOP APPROACHPlanning and schedule  ● A detailed work program of 10-days was established, with     dedicati...
CASE STUDY:WORKSHOP APPROACHTechnical and material resources  ● Participants are instructed about the technical requiremen...
CASE STUDY:WORKSHOP APPROACHAssesment  ● The following evaluation criteria and requirements for    accreditation were esta...
CASE STUDY:WORKSHOP DEVELOPMENTParticipants profile   ● Young and/or experienced professionals.   Interested in project ma...
CASE STUDY:WORKSHOP DEVELOPMENTProfile of the analyzed team members ● Composed of five (5) professionals with experience i...
CASE STUDY:WORKSHOP DEVELOPMENTThe first iteration  ● The initial requirement from the customer (product owner) was      s...
CASE STUDY:WORKSHOP DEVELOPMENTThe second and third iteration  ● Subsequent meetings were carried out synchronously using ...
CASE STUDY:WORKSHOP DEVELOPMENTPositive highlights   ● The level of proactivity and commitment of the members facilitated ...
CASE STUDY:WORKSHOP DEVELOPMENTChallenges found  ● Keep in mind the schedule and key delivery dates.  ● Control the time s...
CASE STUDY: ROLE OF ICT  ▪ Training platform Open Knowledge                                       ▪ Asynchronous communica...
CASE STUDY:WORKSHOP CONCLUSIONS  ● The simulated experience allowed to properly experiment in small scale the  different a...
PEDAGOGICAL PATTERNS
PEDAGOGICAL PATTERN:CONTEXT, PROBLEM AND SOLUTIONContext                                        Solution ▪ Selected studen...
PEDAGOGICAL PATTERN:WORKSHOP DIAGRAM                       29
PEDAGOGICAL PATTERN:PATTERN IN ACTION                       30
CONCLUSIONS
CONCLUSIONS:RESULTS FROM THE EXPERIENCE ● Practical training in project management in a virtual environment with a distrib...
CONCLUSIONS:RESEARCH PERSPECTIVES ● Relationship between tutoring and scrum master roles. Potential for teachers training ...
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION!An special acknowledgement to Scrum Managercommunity in particular to Claudia Ruata and Juan ...
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Practical experience of Scrum through project-based learning mediated by ICT in a distributed team

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Scrum is a framework for agile project management of growing interest in different application fields, to assimilate its principles and practices conceptual training is not enough, a hands-on approach is needed to allow excercising it through “learning by doing”. In this work we analyze a workshop experience which simulates the application of Scrum in a project of limited scope mediated by ICT with a distributed team. The conceptual foundations of the different elements that converge in this case are presented: the project-based learning methodology, the distributed teamwork and the Scrum framework. Following by a case study of the experience developed extracting a pedagogical pattern that allows to identify the key elements to its success in order to facilitate its replication. The result of this analysis will assess the potential for transfering this type of learning to other situations with different objectives but with the same need for team interaction and distributed context, at the same time to perceive Scrum potential to be incorporated into a project-based learning teaching strategy, for its simplicity and its important effects on team learning and development of key competencies.

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Practical experience of Scrum through project-based learning mediated by ICT in a distributed team

  1. 1. PRACTICAL EXPERIENCE OF SCRUM THROUGHPROJECT-BASED LEARNING MEDIATED BY ICTIN A DISTRIBUTED TEAMMaster ThesisAuthor: Sergio YazyiTutor: Prof. Dr. Francisco García PeñalvoMASTER ICT IN EDUCATIONAcademic Course 2010/2011
  2. 2. CONTENTS● INTRODUCTION● CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK● CASE STUDY● PEDAGOGICAL PATTERN● CONCLUSIONS
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION:MOTIVATION FOR THE RESEARCH● Appreciate the value of project-based learning in ICT enhanced environments.● Reveal the educational benefits of agile methods.● Improve the efficency, efficacy and effectiveness in teams.● Focus collaborative work from a distributed team perspective. 1
  5. 5. INTRODUCTION:RESEARCH OBJECTIVES● Analyse a project-based learning experience, carried out on-line, with a distributed team, using Scrum framework.● Conceptually describe the elements that converge around the experience.● Extract a pedagogical pattern that serves as a model of practice suitable for being replicated.● Establish further research perspectives derived from 1 this work. 2
  6. 6. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
  7. 7. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK:KEY CONCEPTS ▪ Characteristics Project-based ▪ ICT role ▪ Challenges learning ▪ Benefits▪ Characteristics Distributed ▪ Principles▪ ICT role Scrum ▪ Roles▪ Challenges Teams ▪ Artifacts▪ Benefits ▪ Meetings 3
  8. 8. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK:PROJECT-BASED LEARNINGCharacteristics ● Active learning strategy central to the curriculum. ● Based on addressing key issues, authentic and from the real world. ● Involve students and gives them a wide degree of autonomy in their development. ● Oriented to the development of concrete and meaningful products. ● Promoting the acquisition of knowledge, skills and attitudes. 4
  9. 9. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK:PROJECT-BASED LEARNINGBenefits Challenges ▪ Improve students motivation. ▪ New teacher role: facilitator and advisor. ▪ Preparation for professional work and life. ▪ Demand management and design skills. ▪ Development of key skills and socio-emotional competencies. ▪ Preparation and implementation effort. ▪ Foster collaborative work. ▪ Difficulties in the assessment ▪ Appreciate the importance of process. different disciplines and subjects. ▪ Demand new skills and attitudes both from teachers and from ▪ Practical/functional integration students. of technology. 5
  10. 10. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK:DISTRIBUTED TEAMSCharacteristics ● Technology-mediated collaboration and communication. ● Team members distributed across one or several dimensions: temporal, physical and relational. ● Work is conditioned by the degree of task interdependence. ● Synchronous or asynchronous communication. ● Specific processes in selection, socialization and leadership. 6
  11. 11. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK:DISTRIBUTED TEAMSBenefits Challenges ▪ Overcoming physical and ▪ Mediated communication. temporal limitations. ▪ Lack of team "visibility", fuzzy ▪ Remote talents mix. identity. ▪ Cost reductions. ▪ Obstacles to building trust (both for action and for relationship). ▪ More options to reach work and personal life balance. ▪ Demand "subtle control" : more influence than control. ▪ Providing greater autonomy to members. ▪ Requires autonomous individual skills like self-discipline and time ▪ Contributes to innovation and management. synergy through complementarity and diversity of skills. ▪ Need of adequate attitudes: commitment, respect, perseverance and sincerity. 7
  12. 12. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK:SCRUM: IN 200 WORDS 8
  13. 13. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK:SCRUM: CHARACTERISTICS ● A framework. Set of principles and practices. ● Iterative product development. ● Short work cycles. ● Self-managed team with high level of interaction. ● Continuous contact with the customer/end-user. ● Close follow-up (daily). Advance visibility. ● Complete deliverable/product (Increment). ● Continuous improvement of teamwork process. ● Sustainable: rhythm, continuity and focus on value. ● Receptiveness to change. Flexibility and adaptability. 9
  14. 14. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK: SCRUM: ROLES, ARTIFACTS AND MEETINGS1 10
  15. 15. CASE STUDY
  16. 16. CASE STUDY:RESEARCH QUESTIONS 1 How to develop an experiential training in Scrum and exercise agile principles in a virtual environment with a distributed team? 2 How to implement collaborative learning online based on agile methods allowing to obtain the benefits from project- based learning combined with this types of methodologies? 3 How Scrum can benefit project-based learning as a framework within the pedagogical strategy? 4 What are the key elements that can be obtained from the experience that allow to reproduce it successfully? 11
  17. 17. CASE STUDY:RESEARCH APPROACH 12
  18. 18. CASE STUDY:RESEARCH OBJECT AND CONTEXT ▪ Objectives ▪ Tasks ▪ Planning ▪ Resources ▪ Scrum ▪ PBL ▪ Coordination ▪ Virtual team ▪ Follow-up ▪ Facilitation ▪ Support ▪ Feedback ▪ Skype ▪ Google Docs ▪ Professionals ▪ Google Wave ▪ Experienced ▪ Gmail ▪ Committed ▪ Moodle ▪ Homogeneity ▪ Continuous learning ▪ Practice experience ▪ Principles / practices ▪ Virtual environment 13
  19. 19. CASE STUDY:WORKSHOP APPROACHGeneral description ● The simulated project consisted in the development of a promotional brochure for a training course of a hipothetical company. Based on the requirements presented by the workshop tutor acting like a fictional customer, the team should represent the part of a group of professionals of a company specialized in advertising design, to take care of the proposal, draft and production of the promotional brochure according to the customer specifications. Managing the development process using the Scrum framework. 14
  20. 20. CASE STUDY:WORKSHOP APPROACHObjectives ● Participate actively in the group experiencing the different stages in the development of the product, following the practices of the Scrum framework, including: ● Negotiate and analyze customer requirements, defining the priority and business value in each case. ● Estimate collaboratively the efforts required for each task. ● Breakdown the requirements ("user stories") in the different tasks needed to accomplish a satisfactory product. ● Contribute in the prioritization and allocation of the tasks according to the skills and workload of each team member. ● Communicate effectively among team members to complete the tasks properly and on time. ● Conduct retrospectives, meetings where each work cycle is analyzed critically to propose improvements to the processes. ● Participate in short and daily follow-up meetings, focused on sharing advances, and early detect and resolve impediments. ● Acquire fluency in the use of technologies (ICT) for synchronous and asynchronous communication and collaborative work. 15
  21. 21. CASE STUDY:WORKSHOP APPROACHContents ● The main contents included in the syllabus design cover the principles and practices of Scrum framework applied to the context of the work proposed: ● Roles and responsibilities in a project: differentiation of the product owner, the scrum master and the development team. ● User stories estimation, prioritization and breakdown in tasks, allocation an coordination of execution. ● Follow-up, review and retrospective meetings. ● Appropiate attitudes for teamwork in a distributed context, codes of conduct (netiquette) and active participation in meetings in a constructive and cordial way. Transversal contents emerge, like exercising skills in the use of technologies (ICT) involved like: ● effective collaborative work (Google Spreadsheet, Presentation, Moodle, etc.), ● synchronous communication (chat, conferencia, etc), y ● asynchronous communication (email, foros, etc.) 16
  22. 22. CASE STUDY:WORKSHOP APPROACHPlanning and schedule ● A detailed work program of 10-days was established, with dedication of one hour per day, indicating the key days for joint meetings, and for reviewing project deliverables 1. A familiarization period with the activities and requiered times. 2. Three events, in each one the different phases of a work cycle (sprint) are simulated: ○ meeting with the customer (product owner), ○ cost and effort estimation, ○ planification and allocation of tasks, ○ execution and recording of progress, ○ delivery of intermediate products (increments) and final release, ○ retrospective analysis of each sprint. 3. Meeting for assesment and evaluation of the complete workshop. 4. Participation in the discussion forums to share experiences, suggestions and conclusions. 17
  23. 23. CASE STUDY:WORKSHOP APPROACHTechnical and material resources ● Participants are instructed about the technical requirements to perform the activities properly. ● Share an e-mail address to be able to communicate with the rest of the participants. ● Having access to broadband Internet to participate in meetings as teleconferences (audio only). ● Being familiarized, having the needed software installed and active accounts in Skype y Google Docs services. ● Having available an hour a day during the 10 days of the workshop. 18
  24. 24. CASE STUDY:WORKSHOP APPROACHAssesment ● The following evaluation criteria and requirements for accreditation were established: ● active participation in all activities of the project, ● having no complaints from the group for lack of participation or non-compliance with committed tasks, ● respect for the defined time slots for each activity, ● participation, at least collectively through a representative, in the forums for conclusions and assesment of the experience. 19
  25. 25. CASE STUDY:WORKSHOP DEVELOPMENTParticipants profile ● Young and/or experienced professionals. Interested in project management training, particularly in agile methods for its potential transfer to their professional field. ● High level of commitment and responsibility. The risk of concurrence with working / life demands is balanced through a low planned workload of the workshop to be compatible with other activities. Except for three defined events, key to the development of the simulation, the rest of the activities can be performed asynchronously. 20
  26. 26. CASE STUDY:WORKSHOP DEVELOPMENTProfile of the analyzed team members ● Composed of five (5) professionals with experience in project management. ● Geographically distributed within Spain territory. ● Some of them had previous experience with Scrum in co-located teams. ● High level of commitment to the activity. 21
  27. 27. CASE STUDY:WORKSHOP DEVELOPMENTThe first iteration ● The initial requirement from the customer (product owner) was specified in the OpenKnowledge training platform (Moodle based) and the team was notified through its forums. ● Because the team realized late of the close deadline and did not manage to meet synchronously, the team decided to start working asynchronously using e-mail. ● To achieve a better work dynamic the team proposed to use the functionalities of Google Wave. Thanks to this technology the first deliverable was ready on time and satisfying the requirements. For some of the team members it was the first time using that tool. ● The obstacles that were overcome in this first stage were the subject of the first retrospective. 22
  28. 28. CASE STUDY:WORKSHOP DEVELOPMENTThe second and third iteration ● Subsequent meetings were carried out synchronously using Skype and Google Docs for collaborative work in a very effective way, allowing the members to know each other better, clarify doubts and make decisions quicker. ● The scrum master role was assigned by the team, and some specialized work roles were also identified (layout, graphic design, printing, mailing and activity record) to facilitate the allocation of tasks and work organization. ● Analysis of the user stories was carried out with the product owner (customer) and the team, determining value, estimating cost/effort, and then planning and allocation of tasks was decided by the team independently. ● Then the execution phase was held jointly and collaboratively, where the interaction was more intense and action-oriented within the time constraints. ● Finally, the retrospective was held at each stage, recording progress visually using a shared spreadsheet. 23
  29. 29. CASE STUDY:WORKSHOP DEVELOPMENTPositive highlights ● The level of proactivity and commitment of the members facilitated the spontaneously coordinated action, focused on the outcome and sticking to the time limits. ● Task allocation was done in very natural way, well balanced and without conflict. ● From one sprint to another different issues were addressed and improved raised in the retrospectives (team learning). ● More tools than the ones proposed were incorporated, learned and applied according the better fit in each situation. ● Working together with the product owner allowed to focus on the aspects of the highest value. ● Low level of "bureaucracy", most of the time was devoted to development activities. ● The focus on "how" things are done and the continuous self-analysis of the team to improve it. ● The experience of self-organization in a new group with members at the same level. 24
  30. 30. CASE STUDY:WORKSHOP DEVELOPMENTChallenges found ● Keep in mind the schedule and key delivery dates. ● Control the time spent in planning/estimation avoiding dispersion. ● Last-minute changes on the deliverable. ● Achieve an appropriate balance between quality and effort, avoiding perfectionism. ● Control the time spent in meetings to avoid delays. ● Adapting to new tools requires additional effort. ● The lack of face-to-face contact leads to lose some nuances of communication that must be compensated with a higher virtual interaction, particularly among those who did not know each other previously. 25
  31. 31. CASE STUDY: ROLE OF ICT ▪ Training platform Open Knowledge ▪ Asynchronous communication (syllabus design and forums) http://www.scrummanager.net/ok ▪ Synchronous communication (multi-conference)▪ Sprint backlog ▪ Product (increment) ▪ "Burndown" chart 26
  32. 32. CASE STUDY:WORKSHOP CONCLUSIONS ● The simulated experience allowed to properly experiment in small scale the different aspects of the Scrum framework. ● Additionally skills related to collaboration and communication online were exercised. ● The tutoring feedback allowed to appreciate the importance of commitment and proactivity in achieveing coordination and self-managed teamwork. ● The lack of previous relationship among members needed a greater initial communication to compensate the absence of face-to-face interaction. ● ICT have an esential role in efectivity of communication and collaboration in a distributed team, but are not enough. ● With commitment all obstacles can be overcome but theres no tool that generates commitment. 27
  33. 33. PEDAGOGICAL PATTERNS
  34. 34. PEDAGOGICAL PATTERN:CONTEXT, PROBLEM AND SOLUTIONContext Solution ▪ Selected students. ▪ Planification and schedule: detailed, accurate and ▪ Geographically distributed. accesible. ▪ Homogeneous team. ▪ Synchronous meeting with all team members. ▪ Time availability. ▪ Clear and well defined allocation of time. ▪ Basic knowledge on the framework. ▪ Limited participation of the tutor adjusted to the ▪ ICT access and skills. role assumed, facilitating self-management. ▪ Simulation of several complete work cycles ("sprints"). ▪ Recording activities: achievements, constraints,Problem impediments and solutions. ▪ Exercise an agile method (Scrum) in a Consequences: distributed team. ▪ Encouraged initiative, autonomy, shared responsibility and ▪ Facilitate assimilation and experience of collaboration. ▪ Obstacles arise early, accelerate cycle conflict-agreement- the agile principles. commitment. ▪ Reflection and continuous improvement promotes self- Forces: esteem and increases cohesion. ▪ ICT mediated communication ▪ limited time available Limitations: ▪ lack of previous relationship ▪ Tutoring time demand, ICT skills, and low level of ▪ level of commitment commitment can hinder coordination. ▪ expectations regarding results 28
  35. 35. PEDAGOGICAL PATTERN:WORKSHOP DIAGRAM 29
  36. 36. PEDAGOGICAL PATTERN:PATTERN IN ACTION 30
  37. 37. CONCLUSIONS
  38. 38. CONCLUSIONS:RESULTS FROM THE EXPERIENCE ● Practical training in project management in a virtual environment with a distributed team is feasible, and the pedagogical pattern exposed captures the central elements emerged in this experience. - Potencial to develop key skills/transversal competencies. - ICT enhanced context allows to overcome different limitations. - Simulations and learning that can be transfered to everyday work and life situations. ● Scrum framework within a project-based learning strategy can benefit both the organization of the activity and the monitoring and value of the experience. - Principles and practices for teamwork: iterative, autonomous and adaptative. - Critical reflection and continuous improvement. Scrum master as a facilitator/catalyst. - Scrum can be used itself as a pedagogical pattern. ● Role of ICT as platform for social interaction and collaboration. - Development of a social and personal learning environment. - Learning tools motivated by the concrete need, natural and functional introduction. - Technology "sharing": selection criteria and proper application of tools. 31
  39. 39. CONCLUSIONS:RESEARCH PERSPECTIVES ● Relationship between tutoring and scrum master roles. Potential for teachers training on PBL. - The scrum master role as management skills training. - Potential to exercise PBL skills though workshops like the one presented. ● Opportunity to foster multi-cultural and inter-disciplinary teams development. - Distributed teamwork allows to design experiences of this type. - Explore the possibilities of more dispersed teams and with more heterogeneity. - Study implications of different communication alternatives. ● Best practices documentation through pedagogical patterns and pattern languages. - Potential to share practices and compare results and strategies. - Documentation and comparison of experiences based in the same approach. - Scrum as a pedagogical pattern within PBL, both for on-line and off-line learning. 32
  40. 40. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
  41. 41. THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION!An special acknowledgement to Scrum Managercommunity in particular to Claudia Ruata and Juan Palaciofor giving me the opportunity to participate in theirexperience and to conduct the case study presented here.http://www.scrummanager.netAnd also special thanks to the rest of theScrum simulation team:Leo Antoli, Javi Sanchez,Eduardo Ferro Aldamaand Iago Fernández Bugallo The complete work summarized in this presentation can be found in GREDOS, the Documental Open Repository under the identifier: http://hdl.handle.net/10366/100082 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported. Decorative image based on "Fractal moose" by Martin Szyszlican generated with Chaoscope 0.3.1

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