Introduction Job analysis identifies the duties and human requirements for each of the company’s job. Next is to decide which of these jobs you need to fill, to recruit and select employees for the jobs.
The 5 steps in the recruitment and selection process (see Figure 1): 1. Decide what positions to fill, through workforce/personnel planning and forecasting. 2. Build a pool of candidates for these jobs, by recruiting internal or external candidates. 3. Have candidates complete application forms and perhaps undergo initial screening interviews. 4. Use selection tools like tests, background investigations, and physical exams to identify viable candidates. 5. Decide who to make an offer to, by having the supervisor and perhaps others interview the candidates.
Figure 1: 5 steps in the recruitment and selection process Use Supervisors Recruiting selectionEmployment Applicants and others tools like planning Build a complete interview final and tests to pool of application candidates toforecasting screen out candidates form make final most choice applicants
Workforce/Personnel Planning and Forecasting It is the process of deciding what positions the firm will have to fill, and how to fill them. Personnel plans require some forecasts and estimates on 3 things: a) Personnel needs (labor demand) b) Supply of inside candidates c) Supply of outside candidates
a) Forecasting personnel needs (labor demand) Basic workforce planning process is to forecast employer’s demand for labor and supply of labor. Then, identify supply-demand gaps and develop action plans to fill the projected gaps. Start with estimating what demand will be for your products or services: daily, weekly, seasonal forecasts. Forecast revenue, turnover, financial resources.
Several tools for forecasting personnel needs: Trend analysis Ratio analysis The scatter plot Markov analysis
b) Forecasting the supply of inside candidates Most firm start with inside candidate to fill the positions. Have to determine which current employees might be competent with skills and qualification for the projected openings – refer to qualifications (or skills) inventories Then managers determine which employees are suitable for promotion or transfer.
Methods use: Manual systems and replacement charts – personnel inventory and development record form Computerized skills inventories Privacy
c) Forecasting the supply of outside candidates Talent management and predictive workforce monitoring Action planning for labor supply and demand The recruiting yield pyramid
The Need for Effective Recruiting Recruiting – finding applicants for the employer’s open position Why recruiting is important? – best candidates What makes recruiting a challenge? – recruiting methods, nonrecruitment issues and policies, laws Organizing how you recruit – centralize, decentralize, online The supervisor’s role – knowledge of job analysis, job description and job specification.
Internal Source of Candidates current employees or ―hiring from within‖—is often the best source of candidates. Some advantages of internal recruiting: Current employees may be more committed Morale may go up since other employees will know about your policy Current employees may require less orientation and training than new hires. The disadvantages: employees may become discontented if they apply for jobs and do not get them. There also is a potential for inbreeding – maintaining the status quo – to occur.
Human resource database The database may reveal persons who have potential for further training or who have the right background for the open job.
Job Posting and Job Bidding Job posting: Procedure to inform employees of existing job openings Job bidding: Procedure that permits individuals in organization to apply for posted job – suit to job’s attributes, qualification, skills
Rehiring Should you rehire someone who left the your employ? – depends Advantages – former employees are known quantities, already familiar with the tasks Risk – employees may return with negative attitudes.
Succession Planning It is the ongoing process of systematically identifying, assessing, and developing organizational leadership to enhance performance. To profile the competencies purposely to formulate an integrated development / appraisal / selection package for potential candidates. 3 steps: identify key needs, develop inside candidates, and assess and choose those candidates.
Outside Source of Candidates Why external recruitment is needed? Fill entry-level jobs Acquire skills not possessed by current employees Obtain employees with different backgrounds to provide diversity of idea
External Recruitment Methods Internet Advertising Employment agencies Outsourcing – having outside vendors supply services e.g., market research, manufacturing Offshoring – having outside vendors supply services that the company’s own employees previously did in- house. Executive recruiters – special employment agencies seek top management talent for their clients. College recruiting Referrals and walk-in
Selection of Potential Candidates methods Previously, we have discussed on the managers use to build an applicant pool for job opening. Candidates fill up the application forms – provides information on education, prior work record, and skills. Next step is to select the best candidates for the job by using various tools. Why careful selection is important? – performance, cost for hiring and training, legal obligations, and person-job fit to match knowledge, skills, abilities and competencies to perform the job Tools for selection – testing and interview
Test Test must both reliable and valid. Reliability – the consistency of scores obtained by the same person when retested / measuring something consistently Validity – tells you whether the test is measuring what you think it’s suppose to be measuring.
Types of test: Test of cognitive abilities – IQ, mental abilities Test of motor and physical abilities Personality and interest Achievement tests – job knowledge Polygraph and honesty testing
Interview More than a discussion Is a procedure designed to obtain information and predict future job performance based on applicants’ oral responses to oral inquiries. Classification of interviews based on: How structured they are Their content – types of questions How the firm administers the interview
Types of interview: Structured – manager lists the questions ahead of time, list and score possible answer. Interviewers ask all applicants the same questions, tend to be more reliable and valid. Unstructured – manager follow no set format, spontaneous questions Semi structured
How to conduct an effective interview? 1. Make sure you know the job – study the job descriptions 2. Structure the interview – job knowledge, experience, situational, behavioral questions & provide descriptive rating scales e.g., excellent, fair, poor 3. Get organized – place, minimized interruptions 4. Establish rapport – greet the candidates, start with noncontroversial questions 5. Ask questions 6. Take brief / notes during the interview 7. Close the interview