Data logging


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Data logging

  2. 2. Introduction Nowadays we live in a world that full of technology where it keep on changing thusour scientist need to have the facilities such as sensor and software in order for themproducing new technology. Data logger is one of the technology that been used in conductingthe science experiments in the school. It is used to store the data which includes many dataacquistion devices such as plug in boards or serial communication systems that use acomputer as a real time data recording system. The data that been stored could be pressure,current, temperature, light intensity, soil moisture and resistance. It is compact, batterypowered devices equipped with an internal microprocessor, data storage and sensors. Thereare three different type of data logger which are stand- alone data logger, web- based datalogger and wireless data logger. First, stand-alone data logger is compact, reusable and portable where it will offer lowcost and easy setup and deployment. Internal –sensor models and external sensor models isused for monitoring the logger location and monitoring at the logger location. For this stand-alone logger, it often communicate with a PC or via a USB interface. Then, the web-datalogger. It is used to enable remote, around the clock access to data via GSM cellular or Wi-Fi.These system can be configured with a variety of externalplug-in sensors and transmitcollected data to a secure web server for accessing the data. Lastly is the wireless data loggerwhere wireless data nodes transmit real-time data from dozens of points to a central PC,eliminating the need to manually retrieve and offload data from individual data loggers. The advantages using the data loggers is that they can operate independently of acomputer unlike many other types of data acquisition devices. If we using the data longger,the chance of having an error is less. This is because the measurement of the data is alwaystaken at the right time. We as human usually make a mistakes when taking the reading likeforget to take a reading or take a reading too late or too early. Other than that, when we usedthe data logger, mistakes are not made in reading the results compare to the human that oftenmake an errors in this experiment. Example that we can see is sometimes we are easy tomisread the temperature using the scale on a thermometer. Therefore, if we use data loggerdoing the experiment, we can ignore the error that occur when taking the reading of thetemperature. In addition, we also can produced graphs and tables of the results of theexperiment automatically by the data logging software. This will save the time where weneed to plot for ourself the graph and table that we need in the experiment conducted.
  3. 3. ENGAGE Engage is a method that elicits students’ ideas from their prior knowledge. Teachersmay elicit their ideas through a few questions so that teachers could know the level of thestudents and where should they begin to teach the students. It creates a two wayscommunication between teacher and students where students may share their knowledgebesides the teacher does. This engage is the method that used to attract the students attention.Through the question or picture given, the teacher will elicit students idea on that particulartopic. This enables the teacher to know about the prior knowledge which the studentpossesses on the particular topic. Other than that, engage will help students in the process ofthink and give the idea about the question One of the experiment that used the data logger is investigating whether thetemperature change during the rate of reaction. This experiment is carried out to find outwhether the exothermic nature of the reaction has an effect on the overall temperature of thereaction. Rate of reaction is the speed at which a reaction happens. If a reaction has a low rateit means the molecules combine at a slower speed than a reaction with a high rate. The factorsthat affect the rate of reaction are surface area, temperature, catalyst and concentration of thereactants. In this experiment, the factors that include is temperature. The temperature isdirectly proportional to the kinetic energy of the particles in a substance. When thetemperature of the substance is high, more particle will collide with the greater intensitywhich leads to the increase the rate of reaction of the substances. In this experiments, we willdetermine whether the rate of reaction will give effect to the temperature change.The questions that we need to answer in this experiments are : 1. Did the magnesium reacting effect the temperature of the reaction? 2. Would an increase in temperature matter as long as all the experiments went up by the same amount? 3. How much did the magnesium reacting increase the temperature? 4. How will this affects the design of the fair test for the reaction?
  4. 4. EMPOWER Empower is a method where experiment is conducted in a more systematic way and lesstime concuming to increase students’ knowledge and understanding on particular topic.Practical is important for them to expose themselves in the real situation and they understandbetter about the scientific concepts. In empower, teachers will prepare some questions fromthe easiest to the hardest for the students to answer so that they might empower theirknowledge. For this experiment, we need to find out whether the temperature change during the rateof reaction. DrDAQ is used here with dual external temperature probes to compare thechange in temperature of two test tubes containing bench hydrochloric acid both at 50degrees Celsius. One is used as a control whilst 1cm of magnesium is added to the other. Thisis carried out to investigate whether the reaction has a noticeable relationship on the overalltemperature of the reaction and hence will effects the fair testing of the reaction. Thus weneed to have the equipments to start this experiment such as : Magnesium + Hydrochloric acid → Magnesium Chloride + Hydrogen Mg(s) + 2HCl(aq) →→→ MgCl2(aq) + H2(g)When a metal or metal oxide reacts with an acid an exothermic reaction occurs. Thus weneed to have the equipments to start this experiment such as : 1. DrDAQ data logger connected to a PC 2. Two external temperature probes (DD100) 3. I M Hydrochloric acid 4. 1 cm lengths of magnesium ribbon 5. Two boiling tubes 6. Electric water bath or large beaker filled with water at 50 degrees Celsius 7. 25 cm3 measuring cylinder or 25 cm3 pipette
  5. 5. The method used in this investigating whether temperature change during a rate ofreaction are : Figure 1 : Apparatus set up 1. 20 cm3 hydrochloric acid is measured and placed in two test tubes. 2. The hydrochloric acid is heated to 50 °C in a water bath. 3. The temperature in both test tubes is monitored using the DrDAQ. 4. 1cm of magnesium is added to 1 of the test tubes. 5. The temperature changes are monitor in both test tubes. When carrying out the experiment, both test tubes need to be kept in the sameenvironment to ensure the experiment that been done is fair. The data collection shouldcontinue for as long as the temperature keeps on changing. The result of the experiment isshown in the graph below.
  6. 6. The result of the experiment is shown in the graph below.
  7. 7. Discussion From the graph, we can see that when the reaction happen, the temperature willchange. It is same for the both test tube. In this experiment,we can see that when we addedthe magnesium to the test tube, the temperature is affected by the rate of reaction. The timetaken for the reaction to occur is slower in the test tube without the magnesium ribbon.. Fromthe graph, we could see clearly the time is shorter in the test tube that has high temperaturecompare with the test tube that has low temperature. Magnesium react with hydrochloric acidbecause it is higher in the reactivity than hydrogen. When these two react a displacementreaction will take place and the magnesium will take the place of hydrogen in hydrochloricacid forming magnesium chloride and hydrogen gas. The temperature are effected by the magnesium reacting in this reaction with thehydrochloric acids. A temperature is the measure of the average kinetic energy of theparticles of a substance. Increasing the temperature will directly increasing the averagekinetic energy of the substances. This is because at higher temperature, the fraction ofmolecules with energies greater than the activation energy (Ea) will increases. In a simplewords, the greater proportion of molecules or substances will have enough kinetic energy toparticipate in the reaction. From this experiment, we want to know whether the magnesium give effect to thetemperature of the reaction. Magnesium does affect the temperature of the reaction. If thetemperature is increase as long as all the experiments went up by the same amount, it wouldbe alright. A faster reaction rate could mean that the temperature could increase more if therate of reaction was faster and if you were using surface area as a factor, the temperaturecould also be changing. Based on this experiment we only used 1 cm of magnesium ribbon.Although the magnesium ribbon is only 1 cm, it could affects the temperature in this reaction.If we want to know more about the effects of maagnesium on the temperature, we canconduct other experiment using different length of magnesium ribbon. We can design the fairtest for this reaction by consider all the variables that need to be taken. Other than that, weneed to make sure the test is run in the same environment to prevent error that may occur aswell as continue to take the data while the temperature keep on changing.
  8. 8. ENHANCE Enhance is actually a way to improve the student understanding by asking them tothink in a greater depth in order to answer the enhance section. It is a another method sameas the engage but the difference is that enhance is the application of the knowledge. Studentshave to relate the scientific concept to the daily life so that they really understand the topics.They have to think creatively and critically when answer the questions provided. You pull into the driveway, car loaded up with groceries. You bring the bags into your kitchen and set them on the counter… and the phone rings. You talk, hang up, and – since you’re standing there – you check the answering machine and make a return phone call. Then you run out to the mailbox and find a letter you’d been hoping to receive for some time. You sit down to read it and answer it…. Finally you realize that – oh, yes! – your food is still sitting there waiting for you to put away.That is one of the situations that always happen to anyone of us. In the meantime, any germsthat may have been in the food when we purchased it could be going crazy, enjoying thewarmth and coziness of the kitchen. From the experiment, we know that temperature and rate of reaction are related.Temperature can changed by the influence of reaction rate. And reaction rate also are affectedby the temperature. However, temperature is a key factor affecting the rate of chemicalreactions. In general, as temperature increases, so does the reaction rate. This concept areapplied in our daily life. As we know, food cannot maintain its quality in long time. Foodgoes bad because bacteria, mould and microbes attack it. This happen more quickly in warmtemperature, where as cold interrupts and even stop this process. So food will keep fresh forlonger in a fridge. This is the reason why food is stored in the refrigerator. The coldtemperature slows down the chemical reactions that lead to its spoiling. Keeping foodcorrectly chilled in the fridge slows down the growth of bacteria.
  9. 9. There are some steps we must follow to prevent bacteria from growing with the aid oftemperature.1. At temperature between 5c and 63c c (the danger zone) bacteria on food can grow to apoint where they can make we ill. So, keep the fridge at 5c or below.2. Place a mercury-free fridge thermometer on the bottom shelf above the salad drawer andcheck the temperature once a week, ideally first thing in the morning.3. The numbers on the fridge thermostat dial do not necessarily show the temperaturereading, so check the user handbook and use a thermometer to check the temperature.4. Keep the fridge door closed tightly, as the temperature will rise if the door is left open.5. Do not overpack the fridge, as this can stop cool air from circulating freely and the fridgemay not keep the foods properly chilled6. Do not put hot food in the fridge as this can raise the fridge temperature.The technique of keeping foods refrigerated are also been used in transporting fish from thesea to the markets where they are sold. And it’s also a good idea to keep the dry foods out ofsunlight, they do best in a dry, cool, closed cabinet or pantry. Sunlight can heat up canneditems and cause them to go bad faster than we would expect.
  10. 10. Here are the refrigerator and freezer storage chart. This table shows how long a food canmaintain in good condition.
  11. 11. Conclusion We can conclude that data logger can be used in teaching and learning. It helpstudents to conduct the experiments by using data logger device so that the students clearabout the significant of data logger in order to get more accurate result and help in datacollection. Since the data logger invove three main stages which is engage, empower andenhance, all this will provided the students with the ideas what they want to do if they areexposed with engage question. Other than that, it will also widen the students knowledgewhen they move to the enhance stage. In this stage, they will improve their critical thinkingwhen answering the tough questions and apply the concept that have been learn to answer thequestion. Students will involve actively in class if the teachers introduce the data logginglearning programme. It is clear that the used of data logger in learning process give benefit tothe learners especially the students.
  12. 12. ReferensInvestigating whether temperature change and the rate of reaction. Get at on November 28, 2012.Rate of reaction between hydrochloric acids with magnesium ribbon. Get at on November 28, 2012.Grorge S. Hammond (2006). A correlation of reaction rates. Get at on November 28, 2012.Nizam Uddin (Received 27 March 2012; accepted 17 April 2012. Interpolate the Rate of Enzymatic Reaction: Temperature, Substrate Concentration and Enzyme Concentration based Formulas using Newton’s Method. Get at on November 29, 2012.The effect of temperature on reaction rate. Get at on November 29,2012.