CVC Anti Corruption Strategy


Published on

This is my award winning submission for the Economic Times-Gujarat NRE\'s National Level Presentation Contest 2011.

1 Like
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • I edited this thing pl check
  • I have edited here the effectiveness plz note
  • CVC Anti Corruption Strategy

    1. 1. “The accomplice to the crime of corruption is frequently our own indifference….” -BESS MYERSON
    2. 2. CORRUPTION IN INDIA  Several Growth Indicators => Stellar Performance  Integrity, Enhanced Transparency and Probity in public and corporate life => Failure  FORMS OF CORRUPTION IN INDIA  PETTY CORRUPTION: Collusive or coercive action of a public official vis-a-vis a member of the public to subvert the system over relatively small transactions.  GRAND CORRUPTION: Subversion of the system by senior government officials and formations of the political executive, usually in collusion with private sector players.
    3. 3. IMPACT  MULTIFOLD encompassing  political costs  economic costs  social costs  environmental costs  issues of national security.
    4. 4. NEED FOR A NATIONAL ANTI CORRUPTION STRATEGY… Existing Punitive Approach Holistic, Preventive and Participatory Approach Towards Anti-Corruption •First ever comprehensive strategy on corruption in India. Important for India’s overall development strategy •Provides a framework for developing ways and means of preventing and combating corruption in a comprehensive, co-ordinated, inclusive, and sustainablemanner
    5. 5. “A vigilant nation is a progressive nation”
    6. 6. STRUCTURE OF CVC…  Apex & Autonomous Indian governmental body created in 1962 to address governmental corruption.  The annual report of the CVC not only gives the details of the work done by it but also brings out  System failures which lead to corruption in various departments/organisations  Improvements in which commisssion’s advice was ignored  Preventive measures  It is NOT an investigating agency  Three wings:  Secretariat, which consist of Chief Secretary and other secretarial members.  Chief Technical Examiners’ wing, for investigation in civil works doneby government.  Commissioners, for departmental inquiries.
    7. 7. VISION… Good Governance Transparency Integrity Responsible Righteousness Corruption Free
    8. 8. MISSION… Build synergy into efforts of all stakeholders Channelize & Integrate Resources Prevent Detect Punish CORRUPTION FREE INDIA PROMOTION OF INTEGRITY
    9. 9. Tools and Recommendations by NACS (National Anti Corruption Strategy) •EFFECTIVENESS AND SUGGESTIONS
    10. 10. BROAD TOPICS…  Legal & Regulatory Framework  Political & Administrative Corruption  Strengthening Institutions  Enforcement Agencies  E-Governance  International Corruption  Role of Private Sector  Social Infrastructure & Citizens’ Role
    13. 13. PC Act, 1988  PRIOR SANCTION :  PRESENT STATE: Long delays in sanctioning due to shielding & challenging the sanction during the trial stage.  NASC VIEW:  No prior sanction be required where the officer is caught red handed  Prescribe clear time limits to sanction
    14. 14.  SUGGESTION: Special Judiciary and Courts for Corruption Cases (as recommended by the NACS ahead; in the judiciary framework reforms) Sanctioning Committee/Authority More Efficiency Time reduction
    15. 15.  PROTECTION OF WHISTLE-BLOWERS and WITNESSES:  PRESENT STATE: U/S 5 and 24(PC Act, 1988) - very limited extent  US and UK have separate legislations (Whistleblower Protection Act of 1989 in the USA and the Public Interest Disclosure Act of 1998 in the UK  NACS VIEW: Separate legislation or amendments to the PC Act  Whistle blowing against private corporations and business & protection to the whistle blowers till completion of investigations.
    16. 16.  EFFECTIVENESS:  More effective if whistle blowing is outsourced to agent groups. These groups themselves will remain unknown to each other and also anonymous to everybody except for the officials who will constitute these teams. These officials may be from the CBI or CVC. Also these officials should not have an idea about ALL the whistle blowing committees formed so that the ones anonymous to that particular official can keep a check on him as well.  For the information sharing amongst these groups, the CBI/CVC officials can act as the intermediaries so that identities remain undisclosed. Efforts should be taken to maintain the highest level of secrecy in this case.
    17. 17. Official A Official B Team 1 Team 2 Team 3 Team 4 ILLUSTRATION Official A appoints teams 1 and 2 for whistle blowing and doesn’t know teams 3 and 4 which are appointed by B. None of the teams know each other. They only report to their resp. heads-A or B. Information sharing through intermediaries A and B.
    18. 18.  CORRUPTION BY PRIVATE AGENCIES:  PRESENT STATE: A strict legislation against the corruption by private agencies is not there.  NACS VIEW: A proper provision. However, it may also be useful to create a distinction between the penalties for commercial bribery for a benefit and a mere facilitation payment to get the benefit of an existing right.  EFFECTIVENESS: The effectiveness can be enhanced if private entities also appoint whistle blowing groups intra-organization.
    19. 19.  ACTION AGAINST BRIBING FOREIGN OFFICIALS:  PRESENT STATE: The PC Act doesn’t have any provision for this type of corruption  NACS VIEW: Legislation should be made regarding this so as to be in line with the UNCAC’s (United Nations Convention Against Corruption) mandatory requirements.  EFFECTIVENESS: The effectiveness depends on the extent of the measures provided in the legislation. A legislation should be drafted in consultation with similar legislations of other nations. However, the cases wherein foreign officials have been bribed shouldn’t be publicized a lot as it will tarnish India’s image and will make negotiations with foreign diplomats difficult.
    20. 20.  CONFISCATION OF PROPERTY:  PRESENT STATE: The provisions of the PC Act in this behalf are inadequate since confiscation is only permitted after prosecution for the relevant offence.  NACS VIEW: The properties disproportionate to legal sources of income of a public servant should be confiscated by state even if the prosecution is pending. Adequate provisions in this regard need to be introduced through amendments to the PC Act or through a separate legislation that allows for civil forfeiture.  EFFECTIVENESS: The confiscated property should be in proper custody or else some third party may get involved or the confiscating authorities themselves might get involved into corrupt practices.
    21. 21. Tax Agreements  PRESENT STATE: Lot of black money parked in foreign banks  Amendment of the Income Tax Act, 1961 to enable the Central Government to enter into agreements even with non-sovereign jurisdictions for exchange of information and other purposes.  Steps have already been initiated for negotiations for entering into agreements for the exchange of information with other nations and renegotiation of the double tax avoidance treaty with Switzerland is in process. India is an active participant in the global efforts to facilitate exchange of tax information and to take action against tax evasion.  NACS VIEW: These efforts need to be strengthened to eliminate opportunities for investment of wealth earned through corrupt activities.
    22. 22.  EFFECTIVENESS:  Currently, by the bilateral negotiations, Swiss banks will share the information of the Indians’ accounts in Switzerland. But this will be possible only in SPECIFIC cases, where we have a strong evidence of wrongdoing. Thus, this clause is effective only upto a limited extent. For example, if on the basis of WikiLeaks documents, we have a doubt on an official and want to check his account information in Swiss banks, it might turn out that the WikiLeaks might not be accepted as prima facie evidence.
    23. 23. Right To Information Act, 2005  PRESENT STATE: U/S 8(1)(e) and 8(1)(j) of the RTI Act, there are a lot of exemptions from disclosure of information.  NACS VIEW:  These need to be revised once again and the scope of exemptions should be reduced.  Privileged information need not be required to be mandatorily disclosed under the RTI Act.  EFFECTIVENESS: This is a strong point and will be quite effective if amendments are made. The qualified exemptions in the RTI, 2005 are subject to Public Interest Test. This means that the “public authority” possessing the information has the right to decide whether to disclose the information or not owing to the larger public interest. But here, there is a hurdle as “public authority” is not defined in the RTI Act, which may bring in subjectivity and also increase the scope of corruption on the part of this authority.
    24. 24. Benami Transactions  PRESENT STATE: A substantial amount of illegal money is stored in the form of benami immovable property, jewellery, etc.  NACS: It suggests that the Unique Identification Project should be carried out so that it is possible to trace the details of each particular transaction involving immovable property and the transactions involving significant amount of money. Thus, the possibility of buying property on fictitious names would be curbed.
    25. 25.  EFFECTIVENESS: The UID project is an ambitious project which again needs to be implemented properly. The database of transactions will have to maintained carefully and on a timely basis. Additionally, the persons handling the information of individuals and working at the ground level of this project need to be watched upon strictly to avoid administrative corruption. Also, the properties which have been previously acquired through benami transactions and false identities i.e. before the implementation of this project, will have to be scrutinized properly so as to avoid confusion and problems later on. For the success on UID in this regard, we need to start afresh with a sound and a clean base so that links with the past illegalities do not affect the present.
    26. 26. Regulators in India  Recommendations by NASC for Regulators…  REVIEW OF EXISTING FRAMEWORK Separation of the regulatory and the operating functions like foreign countries. Govt. may think of having two tier structure for regulators to avoid concentration of powers in few hands. Creation of a separate or unified regulator distinct from The Reserve Bank of India is suggested by the NACS, so that costs and supervisory burden are reduced.  TRANSPARENCY IN RECRUITMENT Transparency in selection of heads should be enhanced by formation of appropriate standing committees for search, selection and appointment. Independent appointment and authority of board of directors or trustees will lead to better internal control and check on those with discretionary powers and also on those who handle public funds.
    27. 27.  DEVELOPING ETHICAL CODE OF CONDUCT For officers/employees so that there is clarity and consistency in purpose and approach across all regulators.  WHISTLE BLOWING / GRIEVANCE REPORTING MECHANISMS  COORDINATION WITH OTHER REGULATORS AND AGENCIES AS A PART OF NACS Collating information including information on employees’ assets on a continuous basis and share the same on a periodic basis with other regulators / agencies. There are certain organisations which come under multiple regulators like listed insurance or banking company, etc. So in such cases, mechanisms for information sharing especially for the sharing of evidence should be suitably developed.  SPECIFIC ADMINISTRATIVE POLICIES  To make the internal functioning of the regulator transparent
    28. 28.  COMMUNICATION, EDUCATION and TRAINING ON ANTI- CORRUPTION  PRESCRIBING SELF REGULATORY MEASURES FOR STAKEHOLDERS BY REGULATORS For example, practicing public accountants and brokers in capital market are well regulated by their respective regulatory bodies . These measures serve to promote lesser interventions by the regulator and hence reduce the potential for corruption through abuse of power. The process of revising the SROs (Self Regulatory Organisations) contractual agreement can be a less cumbersome process than having to change statutory laws.  AUTOMATED PAYMENT AND REFUND PROCESSES
    29. 29.  EFFECTIVENESS OF THE RECOMMENDED TOOLS SUGGESTED FOR REGULATORS BY THE NASC  Effective only if properly executed.  If a separate unified regulator is created, its functioning should be synchronous with the central bank and other policy making bodies.  The transparency in recruitment should be visible to the public as well. The RTI should facilitate information citing the reasons for selection or termination of the heads equipped with adequate proof.  The internal codes of conduct formed by all the organisations should be similar by and large. The codes developed by different organisations should not be in disagreement with the each other.  The grievance reporting and witness protection can be improved by anonymous submissions through electronic media as the WikiLeaks organization does.  The automated payment and refund processes need to be watched upon for cyber crimes for efficiency.
    31. 31. “It is said that power corrupts, but actually it’s more true that power attracts the corruptible. The sane are usually attracted by other things than power.” -DAVID BRIN
    32. 32.  NACS RECOMMENDATIONS  Strengthening political will - Need for Top Down & Bottom up Approach.  Young parliamentarians/ legislators should put up a clean image and a strong anti-corruption stance.  Anti-Corruption policies should be mandatory clauses by the election commission to be included in party manifestoes of all political parties.  Ethics and integrity should be included in the performance review of public officials.  Introduction of IT and automated processes for various transactions reduces the chances of administrative corruption.  Merit based professional non-partisan civil service.  Involving regulators, oversight agencies and organisations like CVC, CBI etc while drafting new policies.  Involving the private sector on good corporate governance measures.  Strengthening of LokPal institution.
    33. 33.  Creation of a State Fund for funding elections with contributions to the fund being tax exempt.  Refraining large private donors by giving tax incentives and other such incentives to small private donors only.  Current expenditure ceiling on candidates be abolished. Meaningless to cap candidate spending while allowing huge loopholes for party and supporter spending. An overall cap encompassing all such sources of funds - more appropriate.  State funding in kind as much as possible  Disclosure of donor identities and amounts should be mandatory and companies which are significant government contractors should be barred.  A system to debar or suspend corrupt politicians  Every day disclosure of receipt and expenditure by political parties through websites. All political payments through plastic cards/bank accounts including last mile payments to volunteers & party workers.
    34. 34.  EFFECTIVENESS:  Charges of corruption in our legal system not necessarily covered only under the PC Act, 1988 but also under many other Acts. DRAWBACK: Lokpal restricts its ambit to the cases under this Act.  The Chairman of the Lokpal is constituted by the present or past chief justices of the Supreme Court. But the other two members of the Lokpal may also be from those qualified to be judges of the Supreme Court. The loose end left here makes countless many from India’s entire judiciary eligible for the post including those who are also senior party politicians with legal background.  LokAyuktas are already there in a lot of states but the desired effect is not visible. For example, the Karnataka LokAyukta Santosh Hegde resigned recently as he was fed up by the government indifference to the illegal mining activity in the state and corruption that he had objected to. "I don't want to be useless sitting in a position. It is not enough if I catch people. I need powers to bring cases to logical conclusion," he said.  Thus, these institutions should be independent of political clutches for prime effectiveness.
    36. 36. JUDICIARY… • Speedy disposal of corruption cases  A National Judicial Council can be formed for investigating corrupt activities.Twin goals:increasing judicial responsibility and protecting the independence of the judiciary.  Integrity checks conducted at the time of elevation of judges to the HC or SC may be repeated at regular intervals.  Special courts for corruption cases. Despite provision of special judges in the PC Act, there is considerable backlog of cases in various states as well as the centre. A mandatory outer time limit of one year should be set for disposal of corruption cases.
    37. 37.  In this regard, some of the best practices contained in the special statutes of Orissa and Bihar,7 as mentioned below, are worth emulating:  A Special Court/Judge shall not normally adjourn any trial;  The Special Court/Judge shall endeavour to dispose of the trial of the case within a period of one year from the date of its institutions or transfer;  A judge may act on the evidence recorded or partly recorded by his predecessor.  In addition, the following recommendations of the ARC also may be considered for implementation, in consultation with the superior judiciary:  Normally special judges shall be entrusted only with the anti corruption related cases;  The Supreme Court and the High Courts may lay down guidelines to preclude unwarranted adjournments and avoidable delays.
    38. 38.  EFFECTIVENESS: The tools seem to be quite appropriate in this direction. Special courts for corruption is indeed a good thought. As mentioned earlier, the sanctioning committee can also be set up under this mechanism. These special courts should also cater to the petty corruption cases to address the grievances of the common people. The judges’ jurisdiction should be defined exclusively for corruption related cases.  Actual effectiveness would be visible only if the cases are disposed off in a short time span.
    40. 40.  The Santhanam Committee, which was constituted in 1962, laid foundation of one of the most important institutions for fighting corruption namely the CVC, as well as reorganisation of the Delhi Special Police Establishment into the CBI.  RECOMMENDATIONS BY NACS  CENTRAL VIGILANCE COMMISSION (CVC)  More autonomy  Amendments and more power back up by the parliament to the CVC Act  Adequate budgetary support and creating of more posts for officials and staff is recommended.  CENTRAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION (CBI)  Enactment of a CBI Act  Proper coordination mechanism between the CBI and the state anti-corruption bureaus.  A client satisfaction survey should be conducted for the anti-corruption complainants.
    41. 41.  COMPTROLLER AND AUDITOR GENERAL (CAG)  Any irregularity detected/suspected by the audit should be immediately brought to the notice of the government.  Training of staff in forensic auditing.  NATIONAL CRIME RECORDS BUREAU (NCRB)  Creation of a national database, accessible in the public domain, containing the details of all corruption cases.  STATE ANTI-CORRUPTION AGENCIES  Uniformity in organization structure.  Empowerment to supervise the prosecution of corruption related cases.  COORDINATION AGENCY FOR INTELLIGENCE AND INFORMATION SHARING  The government could formally establish a coordination agency or assign the work to one of the existing agencies as an additional charter of responsibilities.
    42. 42. 5. E-GOVERNANCE
    43. 43.  Increasing Transparency by Information Sharing  Reducing administrative corruption  Putting procedures online so that transactions can be easily monitored  Reducing the gatekeeper role of civil servants eliminating the need for intermediaries. Example : Procuring the encumbrance certificate and duplicate copies of land documents through online facilities will be easier and cheaper. If the officers are approached directly, they try to assert their self-importance, create a lot of hurdles and we have to shell a lot of money to deal with them and get our work done.  Providing communities with limited or no access to government with a new channel to receive government services and information  Improving government finances & accountability  Reducing cost of transactions for government processes  EFFECTIVENESS: E-Governance tools are very effective provided that the cyber crime is examined properly. Increased online security measures will improve the efficiency. Also, technology is not widespread in the remotest parts nor does the majority of Indian population have the training and education to access internet and computers. These issues need to be addressed.
    45. 45.  International cooperation with conventions like UNCAC to avoid cases like Bofors Scam.  EFFECTIVENESS:  The UNCAC is the only legally binding universal anti-corruption instrument. The Convention's far-reaching approach and the mandatory character of many of its provisions make it a unique tool for developing a comprehensive response to a global problem. However, India is amongst the very few nations who haven’t ratified it. Also, in the light of an absence of legislation for bribing foreign officials, this would be useful. Uniform laws or conventions all over the world would definitely be effective. Mutual sharing of best practices among countries is an easy way of promoting technical assistance and learning lessons to control corruption.
    47. 47.  RECOMMENDATIONS BY NACS  Corporate governance measures  Integrity pacts and communication of code of ethics • Creating culture of trust  Small and Mid-Sized Enterprises’ (SMEs) transactions should be transitioned to IT based media.
    48. 48.  EFFECTIVENESS: No appropriate legislation for corporate corruption => involving private sector = effective tool  Voluntary principled behaviour and code of conduct on part of private entities would be very helpful. In India, some of the most successful organisations and those with huge funds and capital comprise the private sector.  The case of Ratan Tata when he denied to pay corruption to a minister for permission to run an airlines operation is a good example.  Few suggestions to make this tool more effective:  Blacklisting and debarring guilty firms.  Giving chance to all stakeholders to debate , review and contest the policy.
    50. 50. “An intellectual’s silence is more dangerous than ten rogues ruling”
    51. 51.  SOCIAL AUDIT  Strengthen civil society organisations and NGOs so that they are able to carry out the social audit effectively. Also, it should be made compulsory for certain sectors such as healthcare and education so as to ensure greater transparency and accountability.  CITIZENS’ CHARTERS  Access to information to the citizens and keeping them aware of the grievance redressal system. This however needs to be promoted and needs to have a legal backup in the form of a legislation.  ROLE OF MEDIA  Code of Conduct  Transparency  Media Ombudsmen: It can be under the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting  Importance and Role of Education: Ethical Education, Culture and Values, Character Education, Media Presentations  EFFECTIVENESS: These would be very effective tools and have a scope for lot of creativity and innovative means. It targets to bring moral changes so that malpractices are checked from the ground level.  ROLE OF CITIZENS IN ANTI-CORRUPTION EFFECTIVENESS: This is one of the most effective tools as NACS seeks to control corruption and unethical practices right from the grass root level. This is especially useful for curbing petty corruption.
    53. 53. “Integrity without knowledge is weak and useless, and knowledge without integrity is dangerous and dreadful”
    54. 54. There’s not a single time phase in India when the news are not tainted with corruption reports. Just see the history: CWG Scams, Adarsh Housing Society Scam, 2G Spectrum Scam, Telgi Scam, Satyam Scam, Bofors Scam, Fodder Scam and the list goes on. It is incredible to know that there are even quiz contests on the various scams. Such is the plethora of scams and dodgy activities in our nation. Every scam must have something unique in it to make money out of it in an unscrupulous manner!!!!
    55. 55. Most Important Tools •Education (Moral and Skill related) •Encouragement To Innovation And Ideas
    56. 56. “By unrighteousness, men may prosper, men may attain what they desire, but they perish at the roots”
    57. 57. Integrity principles should be so firmly imbibed in citizen’s characters that even adverse circumstances in life also shouldn’t budge them from their core values.  Unethical behavior starts proliferating right from a very young age due to wrong notions being grasped from the corrupt ambience all around.  Family, iconic figures, corporate people, teachers, officers, etc. should ideally stand as an exemplar of righteous living.  Children of Today=Citizens of Tomorrow  YOUTH: Strength of this generation as this age group currently constitutes the maximum proportion of the population.  So, our anti-corruption strategy should primarily target the youth.
    58. 58. UNFORTUNATELY, YOUTH IS NOT BEING ETHICALLY EDUCATED WITH THE RIGHT SPIRIT  Though the literacy schemes of the government are somewhat making a difference to education levels, the atmosphere wherein the children are being reared and educated is not really conducive for a morally upright society.
    59. 59. A Look Through…  WORKING OF STUDENTS’ UNIONS IN COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES  Represents a mini murky political field  Often resort to abductions for extracting money from students fraternity itself  Seek to acquire votes in the students’ elections by offering attractions like free movie passes, parties at the hip and happening joints, etc.  When they organize events, a lot of unaccounted money is maneuvered illegally  Regional bias during the students’ elections
    60. 60.  Kids often bribe policemen for breaking traffic rules  At many places, teachers SELL grades. THE WORST PART IS THAT THERE IS A SENSE OF PRIDE WITHIN THE STUDENTS RATHER THAN GUILT AFTER THIS. THEY FEEL THAT THEY HAVE BEEN SUCCESSFUL IN LEARNING THE STREET SMART AND CLEVER WAYS OF BUSINESS FOR GETTING THEIR WORK DONE. THIS IS INDEED A VERY DANGEROUS TREND. Effects of dishonourable behaviour on part of the seniors has percolated down the society…..
    61. 61. Hint of Optimism…  ENTREPRENEURSHIP ENDEAVOUR  By six students (Ravi Yadav, Udit Goyal, Saurabh Singh, Nikhil Bhaskar, Shantanu Sekhar of IIM Ahmedabad and Daniel De Luna, an exchange student from Italy)  With the support of former president Mr.APJ Abdul Kalam and IIM A professor Anil Gupta, they developed a business model for an anti-corruption helpline  Plan has been forwarded by a politician to the state department. Gujarat State Anti Corruption Bureau has shown a keen interest in their model. They have also enlisted a telecom provider to provide the toll – free status for the helpline.
    62. 62.  Lot of such undertakings are being carried out by the bright young minds of India; generally, only the ones from IITs or IIMs are noticed.  So there should be a good platform for such ingenious and prospective ideas to come to the knowledge of the right people who can take the right steps to get the right thing done.
    63. 63. Regarding the tools suggested in the latest NACS, there can be a lot of additional innovations…  UID  A person should have a single bank account number with different bank codes. This UID can be universalized in this era of globalization so that global corruption cases can be checked upon.  POLITICS  As Prime Minister Manmohan Singh also agreed Crony capitalism is a very huge threat to India’s future. The corporate-political nexus is growing up and kin of politicians growing richer. It’s a natural human tendency that when power is entrusted with a person, there is a probability of partial behaviour. So corruption cannot be completely nullified in Indian political scenario. But political interference in appointments to government offices must be removed
    64. 64.  ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES  CVC:  Must be entrusted with proper powers.  Recruitment must be done in a fair manner. Lately, the CVC has been in the news for all wrong reasons regarding the appointment of its chairman.  Political interference must be reduced. It sends a wrong message to people.  CBI:  There is a criticism that the government has used CBI as a political tool to tame its opponents. Thus, more autonomy should be given.  MEDIA  Should be careful enough to air the offending parties to humiliate them but at the same time it should not have a negative impact.  Should not change the focus and dilute the important issues. Eg. The IPL scandal has been reduced to a war between Tharoor and Modi.
    65. 65.  AWARENESS AMONG PEOPLE  Corruption is taken as granted by the people. People themselves pay bribes to get work done faster.  As it is quoted, “change is you”! Before criticising the politicians and public officers, people should work upon their attitudes.  Every person should have the firm conviction that efforts on the individual basis do make a lot of difference. Drops of water only make an ocean!  BUREAUCRATIC REFORMS  Of the many hurdles that officers who fight corruption face, is the fear of transfers. Political influence is used very effectively in these cases. This should not be the case.
    66. 66.  ADMINISTRATIVE REFORMS  Remuneration to government officials compared to their counter parts in private sector is very less. This makes them vulnerable to corruption. So reasonable salaries must be paid.  Political pressure on government officers should be reduced and they should be provided free environment to work.  Promotion of the officers must not be based on seniority and political contacts but on efficiency. The efficient officer must be paid highly and performance must be monitored.
    67. 67.  Railway tickets booking through Tatkal is a model example. Ideas like this can be adopted by all government offices so that revenue will rise and middle men will be eliminated.  There must be proper vigil on government officials who train people regarding various schemes which actually remain only as a documented monotonous procedure only on paper. Eg: Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan wherein a lot money is spent in vain.  The Anganwadis in villages is also a concern in taming corruption. Huge amount of funds has been allotted to these centers but they themselves are not aware and the money there is sidelined.
    68. 68.  DEMOCRATIC REFORMS  Election Commission of India should be strictly vigilant about the election funds during general elections.  Every Registered National/state political party should have transparency about their functioning with funds.  Government should control the entire procedure of elections along with the disbursement of funds to each party only after deciding certain criteria.
    69. 69.  We should also make the most of the huge human resource that India possesses. We can have umpteen suggestions, watch-dogs, regulators, committees and employment in this field of corruption and administrative crime.  If all the money transactions can be traced using the UID, it will be the easiest way to track all the income flows and check tax evasions. Use of plastic money would be beneficial in place of actual money transactions.  Training of citizens in State Institutes of Rural Development (SIRD) and Administrative Training Institute (ATI), which in turn will train school teacher, health workers, village secretaries in rural areas.  Rotation of auditors once in three years in case of statutory auditors for top listed entities on BSE/NSE will prevent malpractices in accounting and auditing and prevent money laundering scams like Satyam.
    70. 70. “If you think you are too small an entity to play any role in the fight against corruption, think of the potential of an atom”
    71. 71. For the people By the people With the people…..
    72. 72. BIBLIOGRAPHY & REFERENCES… o Google Images o students/ o o o o
    73. 73. Presentation prepared by Sayali Saoji  Shri Ram College Of Commerce (SRCC), Delhi University  B.Com HONOURS Course (I Yr) Anand Parlawar  Shri Ram College Of Commerce (SRCC), Delhi University  B.A. Economics HONOURS Course (I Yr)