ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံ ဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတိုးတက္ေရး အျခားနည္းလမ္းမ်ား

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ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံ ဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတိုးတက္ေရး အျခားနည္းလမ္းမ်ား

  1. 1. jrefrmEdiiz+@HG zKd ;wd;k wufa&;tjcm;enf;vrf; k f H ANOTHER DEVELOPMENT FOR BURMA toGiu;l ajymif;a&;twGuvufiif;wm0efrsm; f f Priorities in Transition trsdK;om;'Drdkua&pDwyfaygif;pk/ jynfaxmifpkwdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;'Drdkua&pDtzJGŒcsKyf (vGwfajrmufe,fajr) ESifh trsdK;om;jyefvnfoifhjrwfa&;tpDtpOfESifh 'uf[rfrm;&d+;azgifa';&Sif;tzJGŒwdkŒrS OD;aqmifusif;ycJhaom ESD;aESmzvS,fyJG. tpD&ifcHpm Report on a seminar organised by NDF and UNLD–LA in collaboration with the National Reconciliation Programme, and the Dag Hammarskjold Foundation, Chiang Mai, 2004
  2. 2. Available from: UNLD-LA P. O. Box - 49 Chiang Mai University Chiang Mai, 50202 Thailand and Dag Hammarskjold Foundation Ovre Slottsgatan 2 SE-753 10 UPPSALA, Sweden Fax: +46-18-12 20 72 Email: secretariat@dhf.uu.se Web site: www.dhf.uu.se Layout & design: Sai Mawn Cover: Mattias Lasson Published by: NDF, UNLD-LA and the Dag Hammarskjold Foundation ISBN: 91-85214-41-8 Printed by: UNLD Press, Chiang Mai, 2004
  3. 3. rmwdum contents trSmpum; .............................................................................................. 5 ed'ge;f ....................................................................................................... 9 “'uf[rfrm;&_d;azmifa';&Sif;ESifh zGH@+zdK;wdk;wufa&;twGuf tjcm;enf;vrf; a[majymwifjycsursm;.tusO;f csKyf” ......................... 13 f “toGiful;ajymif;a&;wGif OD;pm;ay;aqmif&Guf&rnfhtcsufrsm;ESifh toGiful;ajymif;jyD;aemuf awG@}uHK&rnfh jyempdrfac:csufrsm;” ......... 17 “EdkifiHwumtzGJ@tpnf;rsm;/ EdkifiHabmifausmfaumfydka&;&Sif;}uD;rsm;ESifh *vdkb,fvdkufaZ;&Sif;/ tem*wfjyempdefac:csufrsm;ESifh tjcm;tjrif&a'girsm;” ......................................................................... 33 _ hf “'Drdkua&pDwdkufyGJwGif; rD'D,m.tcef;u¾/ toGiful;ajymif;a&;umvtwGif; rD'D,m. tcef;u¾ESifh jynfovx. owif;rsm;&&Syici” ...................................................... 55 l l k d kd f G hf “zG@H +zdK;wd;k wufa&; r[mAsL[mrsm;/ ta&S@warmtawG@t}uHK”................ 75 D “EdiiwumrS zdw=f um;a[majymapaomynm&Sirsm;” ............................ 05 kfH f Preface ............................................................................................... 95 Introduction ..................................................................................... 97 The Dag Hammarskjold Foundation and Another Development" ................................................................................ 99 Kjell-Ake Nordquist: "Priorities in Transition and Post-Transitional Challenges" ..................................................... 130 Walden Bello: "International Institutions, Transnational Corporations and Globalisation: Future Challenges and Alternative Perspectives" ............................................................. 130 Sheila Coronel: "The Role of Media in the Struggle for Democracy, the Role of Media during Transition and the Right to Know" ..................................................................... 130 Emilia Pires: "Strategies for DevelopmentExperiences from East Timor" ............................................... 137 International Resource Persons ................................................ 149
  4. 4. trSmpum; “'Drua&pDjrefrmEdiiay:xGe;f a&;” T&nfre;f csujf zifyif usaemfw@kd vy&m; kd kfH S h _fS awmfveae=uygonf? usaemfw@kd taejzifh 'Drua&pDvcsiygonf? +idr;f S f kd kd f csrf;a&;vdkcsifygonf? usaemfwdk@EdkifiHtwGif;wGif vl@tcGifhta&;udk av;pm;vduem apmifxe;f aomtajctaeudk vdcsiygonf? od@k aomf ar#mf k f h d k f rSe;f awmifwcsursm;tm;vH;k udk ydwq@kd [ef@wm;aeonfum;/ jrefrmEdii&dS h f f kfH ppftm%m&Siftpdk;& jzpfygonf? jrefrmEdkifiHudk ppftm%m&Sifpepfjzifh tkycsKyaecJonfrm ESpaygi;f (40) ausm=f umjrifvm+yD jzpfygonf? TtESpf f f h S f h (40) rSm &ufpuf =urf;=uKwfaom/ vltrsm;qif;&JEcsm&aom 'kuwi;f &Sd kH Q G tESpf (40) jzpfygonf? jrefrmEdiiH 'Drua&pD&&Sa&;twGuf v_y&m;ae=uaom awmfvea&; k f kd d fS Sf v_y&m;r_rm tiftm;t&}uD;rm;rsm;jym;+yD;/ trsK;d tpm;t&vnf; rwl f S S uGjJ ym;jcm;em;r_ rsm;pGm&Saeygonf? od@k aomfvnf; 'Drua&pDtajymif;tvJ d kd rsm;jzpfay:vmapa&;[laomtjrifay: Y wnDw!Gwwnf;&S=d uygonf? f ppftm%m&Sipepfonf rvGraoGwae@wif rkcsusq;kH &rnfjzpfonf? jynf f J G olw@kd .tm%monf jynfow@kd .vufwi;f od@k rvGraoGoufqif;ap& l G J rnfjzpfonf? TtdyrufrsK;d jzpf&efvnf; ESptawmfwef=umEdiao;onf? f f kf od@k aomf rsm;r=umrD umvwGivnf; jzpfvmEdip&mta=umif;vnf;&Sd f kf aeygonf? TtajctaersKd;jzpfvmyguay;tyfvmaom tcGifhta&; tay: toH;k csI rdrw@kd ar#mre;f xm;aom rdrw@kd ,=kH unfxm;aom vl@ d f S d abmifopfw&yfwnfaxmif&ef jyifqifrrsm;jyKvyxm;=u&rnf jzpfygonf? _ kf Ttajctaeopfwif rdrw@kd taejzifpeac:r_topfrsm;jzif}h uHKawG@ G d h d f =u&rnfjzpf+y;D / rdrw@kd wdi;f jynfay:od@k usa&mufvmrnfh zdp;D r_topfrsK;d pHukd d k k vnf; }uKH =u&rnfjzpfonf? TtajctaeopftwGuf rjyifqifxm;ygu/ TtajctaewGif jzpfay:wd;k wufvmrnfh zG@H +zKd ;r_topfrsm;twGuf ,ae@ tajctaeupI rjyifqifxm;ygu/ vlxtrsm;pk}uD;taejzifh ajymif;vJ k aeaomacwfopfajymif;rnfh Ediia&;vkyief;pOfrsm;rS wzef aemufcsexm; kfH f f &pfapaom tajctaersK;d xyfr}H uKH awG@=u&vdrO;D rnf jzpfonf? ESpumv hf f aygi;f rsm;pGm tywfwukwtm;xkwc=hJ u&aom awmfvea&;v_y&m;r_}u;D f f Sf fS 5
  5. 5. jrefrmEdiizŒGH _zKd ;wd;k wufa&;tjcm;enf;vrf; kfH taejzifh tv[jzpf&aom tajctaersK;d vnf; }uHKaumif; }uHKEdiyg kf onf? tajctaeopfwif EdiijH cm;&Sur%}D uD;rsm;u rdrw@kd wi;f jynf&dS G kf d k ` d kd obm0t&if;tjrpfrsm;udk vma&mufcs,v,aeaomtaetxm;rsK;d / f S f rdrw@kd . jynfyyd@k uersm;udk xde;f csKyfcae&aom taetxm;rsK;d udvnf; d k f H k tHtm;oifz,}f uHK&aumif; }uHK&Ediygonf? rdrw@kd taejzifh Ediiwum H h G kf d kfH aiGa=u;tzGJ@tpnf;}uD;rsm;. aºuG;yifv,ftwGif;epfae&aom tajc taersK;d vnf; }uHKawG&aumif; }uHK&Ediygonf? TtaºuG;rsm;a=umifh kf olw@kd Oya'vduemae&onfrsK;d / rdrw@kd . tcsKyftjcmtm%mudk olrsm; k f d v$ay;vku&onfrsK;d vnf; jzpfvmEdiygonf? J d f kf Todk@ rjzpfap&ef jyifqifr_rsm;udk ,ckyifp&ygvdrfhrnf? zGH@+zdK;a&; pDrue;f rsm;csrw&mwGif vltrsm;yg0ifaqmif&uEici&rnfh vkyief;pOfukd H d S f G f kd f G hf dS f ysK;d axmif=u&ygvrrnf? rdrw@kd wi;f &if;om;vlrsK;d rsm;. &d;k &mpOfvmawG; d hf d kd ac:r_rsm;udk xif[yfrnfh rdrw@kd qENvvm;csursm;udk azmfaqmifEirnfh d kd f kd f rdrdwdk@ar#mfrSef;csufrsm; vdkvm;awmifhwcsufrsm;udk taumiftxnf azmfay;rnfh zG@H +zdK;r_ pDrue;f rsK;d jzpfap&ygvrrnf? taemufEii}H uD;rsm;u H d d hf kd f oGwoi;f vmonf/h EdiiwumtzG@J tpnf;}uD;rsm;u vduemap&ef csay; f G kfH k f rnfh zG@H +zKd ;r_yprsK;d rjzpfapoifyg? rdrw@kd taejzifh “t=uwaemufvomp+r” kH H h d H l l J qdaom pum;yHtwdi;f aemufusraqmif&uci&aoma=umifh tusK;d k k k S G f G hf tjrwfvnf; rsm;pGm&Sygonf? rdrw@kd taejzifh tjcm;a&S@uoGm;aomEdiiH d d kf rsm;. trSm;rsK;d udk xyfrrjzpfygG ;ap&ef oifcef;pm,ljyKjyifEi=f urnf aumif; H kd aomtwk,Ei=f uvdrrnf jzpfonf? rlvpwifpOfumvuyif rdrw@kd vrf;udk l kd hf d rdrw@kd owfrw&mzGEi=f uvdrrnf jzpfonf? d S f S kd hf Tvkyfief;pOftwGuf rsKd;aphudkysKd;rd=u+yD? }uD;xGm;vmap&ef a& avmif;aygi;f oifz@kd om &Sawmhonf? TtpD&ifcpmonf “jrefrmEdiiz@HG +zKd ; d H kfH wd;k wufrtwGutjcm;a&G;cs,p&menf;vrf;” "Another Development _ f f f G f H f d for Burma" [laom acgi;pOfatmufrS aqmif&uaompDrcsurS rdrw@kd &nf rSe;f csursm;ESihf rdrw@kd EiitwGuta&;}u;D aom tjcm;a&G;vrf;rsm;ponfh f d kd f H f aqG;aEG;csursm;udk pkpnf;wifjyxm;jcif; jzpfygonf? rdrw@kd a&G; cs,ronf f d f_ rdrdwdk@EdkifiH a&&Snftem*gwftwGuf tusKd;oufa&mufapvdrfhrnf jzpfygonf? Tudprsm;onf rdrw@kd vufiif;aqmif&uaeaom 'Drua&pD P d G f kd 6
  6. 6. trSmpum; jyKjyifajymif;vJa&;/ tm%m&Sipepf ed*;kH csKyfapa&; paom vkyief;pOfrsm; f f uJo@kd yif/ vwfwavmuyif }udKpOf;pm;xm;&awmhrnfh ta&;}uD;aom h udprsm; jzpfygonf? P TpDrcsuukd aqmif&u&mwGif jrefrmh'rua&pDvy&m;r_twGi;f rS H f G f D kd _ f S tiftm;pkrsm;tus,tjyef@ yg0ifc=hJ uygonf? trsK;d om;'Drua&pDwyf f kd aygi;f pk (r'w) ESihf jynfaxmifpwi;f &if;om;vlrsK;d rsm; 'Drua&pDtzG@J csKyf k kd kd (,ltet,fv') vGwajrmufe,fajr — wd@k u uruxjyK+y;D / trsK;d om; Jf fD f jyefvifhoifhjrwfa&;tpDtpOf National Reconciliation Program atmufwiaqmif&uc=hJ u jcif;jzpfygonf? Tvkyief;pOfwif yg0ify;l aygi;f Gf G f f G ulnc=hJ uaom 'uf[rfrm;&_;d azmifa';&Si;f udk rsm;pGmaus;Zl;wif&ygonf? D dS xd@k tjyif yg0ify;l aygi;f ulnc=hJ uaom urBmt&yf&yfrS jrefrmwdi;f &if;om; D k rdwfaqGrsm;udk aus;Zl;wif&Sda=umif;azmfjyvdkygonf? TtpD&ifcHpmrS tajccHI tjcm;aomaqG;aEG;yGrsm;jzpfvmapa&;twGuf pdw0ifpm;r_ay; J f vmEdirnf/ v_@H aqmfay;vdrrnf[k ,lqygonf? jynfwi;f jynfy&Sd jrefrm kf hf G jynforsm;t=um; TuJo@kd aqG;aEG;yGrsm; jyef@E@HS vmaprnf[k ar#mvifyg l h J f h onf? rdrdwdk@udk,fwdkifav#mufvSrf;=u&rnfhvrf;udk a&G;cs,f&eftvkyfrSm vG,fulaomwm0efr[kwfyg? toGiful;ajymif;a&;umvaemufydkif; tcuftcJ pdefac:r_rsm;onf vuf&Sdppftm%m&Sifpepfed*Hk;csKyfapa&; twGuf aqmif&uaeaom awmfvea&;v_y&m;r_umvuJo@kd yif yifyef; G f S f f S h cufcJvdrfhOD;rnf jzpfonf? 'Drdkua&pDtppftrSefpepfjzpfapa&;twGuf/ a&&Snwnfwef@ci+f rJapa&;twGuf Tvkyief;pOfwif wwfEioavmuf f kd f G kd f jynfoltrsm;yl;aygif;aqmif&Guf=u&ef vdktyfygonf? vlxkvlwef;pm tv$mtoD;oD;rS jynfolrsm;. yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufr_udk vdktyfygonf? TtcuftcJpdefac:r_rsm;udk jynfoltrsm;tm;jzifh &ifqdkif=u&rnf jzpfygonf? apma';Apfaxm OuUX/ qDremndEi;aqmif&uraumfrwD D ‡ _d f G f _ 7
  7. 7. ed'gef; ed'gef; TtpD&ifcpmwGif jrefrmh'rua&pDa&;v_y&m;r_ acgi;f aqmifrsm;twGuf H D kd f S pDpOfjyKvkyaom tqifjh rifaqG;aEG;ES;D aESmyGwif a[majymonfh wifjycsuf f h J G rsm;udk tusO;f csKyfrwwrf;tjzpf jyefvnfazmfjyxm;jcif; jzpfygonf? ,if; S f aqG;aEG;ES;D aESmyGukd 2003 ckEpf ZEM0g&v (8) &ufae@rS (12) &ufae@txd J S D xdkif;EdkifiH rJaqmuf+rdK@wGif 'uf[rfrm;&_d;azgifa';&Sif;u trsdK;om;jyef vnfoifjh rwfa&;tpDtpOftzG@J Eihf yl;aygi;f aqmif&uv#uf jynfaxmifpk S G f wdi;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;'Drua&pDtzG@J csKyf (vGwajrmufe,fajr) trsKd ;om; k kd f 'Drua&pDwyfaygi;f pk (r'w) wd@k Eitwl pDpOfusi;f ycJjh cif; jzpfygonf? kd S hf Ttpnf;ta0;onf “jrefrmEdiiH zG@H +zdK;wd;wufa&;twGuf tjcm; kf k enf;vrf;” acgif;pOfjzifh qufvufusif;yoGm;rnfh tpnf;ta0;rsm;. yxrqkH;aomtpnf;ta0;vnf;jzpfygonf? Ttpnf;ta0;rsm;. &nf&,csurm zG@H +zdK;wd;k wufa&;qdi&mrlrsm;ESihf ygwoufaom tjcm; G f f S kf f tjrif&_a'gifhrsm; tjcm;enf;vrf;rsm;udkod&SdvmEdkifap&efESifh yg0ifwuf a&muf=uolrsm;taejzifvnf; vwfwavmaqmif&uaeonfh awmfvef h G f S a&;v_y&m;r_. jyifyudp&yfjzpfaomfvnf;/ ta&;}uD;onfh zG@+H zdK;wd;k wufr_ fS P qdi&mjyemrsm;udk pOf;pm;aqGaEG;Edi&ef tcGitvrf;&&d=S uap&ef jzpfyg kf kf hf onf? TaqG;aEGyo@kd 'uf[rf;rm;&d;_ azgia';&Si;f rS OD;aqmifo0efxrf;rsm; GJ f l tygt0if Ediiwum OD;aqmifaqG;aEG;ol ynm&Sirsm;/ trsKd ;om;jyef kfH f vnfoifjh rwfa&;tpDtpOftzG@J rS aqmf=oa&;rSL;rsm;/ pnf;&k;H a&;aumfrwD tzG@J 0ifrsm;tygt0if acgi;f aqmif pkpaygi;f (30) ausmwufa&mufc=hJ u k f ygonf? aqG;aEG;ES;D aESmyGo@kd atmufyg OD;aqmifaqG;aEG;olynm&Sirsm; J f udk zdw=f um;cJygonf? h Dr. Kjell-Ake Nordquist - tkyqmvm wuUov/f +idr;f csr;f a&;ESihf yÉdyuQqi&mokawoeXme? f kd kd f Dr. Walden Bello Focus on the Global South tzGJ@/ befaumuf+rdK@ESifh reDvm+rdK@? Sheila Coronel - zdvpfyiEiiH pkprf;ppfaq;a&; owif;pmynm A[dXme/ reDvm+rdK@? kd f kd f H k 9
  8. 8. jrefrmEdkifiHzHGŒ_zdK;wdk;wufa&;tjcm;enf;vrf; Ms. Emilia Pires - ta&S@warmEdii/H pDrue;f ESihf b¾ma&;0ef}uD;Xme? D kf H d aqG;aEG;yGJudk 'Drdkua&pDtoGiful;ajymif;a&;oabmobm0 'Drdku a&pDEihf jynfovxyg0ifaqmif&urukd cdirmatmifwnfaqmuf&mwGif S l l k G f_ kf owif;rD',mrsm;.tcef;u¾ *vkb,fvuaZ;&Si;f (urBmvk;H qdi&m D d kd f kf ,SuE,r) ESihf pD;yGm;a&;zG@H +zKd ;wd;k wufrw@kd qufpyfaeyHk paom acgi;f pOfrsm; fG f_ _ jzifh pDpOfcygonf? toGiu;l ajymif;a&;umvESihf toGiu;l ajymif;a&;t+y;D hJ f f ta&S@warmEdii. awG@}uKH &aom pdw0ifpm;zG,tjzpftysursm; (txl; D kfH f f f ojzifh EdkifiHwumtzGJ@tpnf;rsm;ESifh qufqH&mwGif}uHKawG@=u&onfh tcuftcJrsm;udk) vnf; aqG;aEG;cJh=u+yD;/ wufa&mufol acgif;aqmif trsm;utxl;pdw0ifwpm; aqG;aEG;cJ=h uygonf? f aqG;aEG;yGukd a'guwm p0fZef@a,mifa[G/ cGe;f 'uf'b;l &D ESihf apm J f D a';Apfawm wd@k uobmywdrsm;tjzpf uruxjyK aqmif&uay;cJ=h u+yD; G f a[majymcsufrsm;udk a'gufwmEdkifatmif/ OD;ndKtkef;jrifhESifh a'gufwm qvdi;f vsere;f qmacgi;f wd@k u jrefrmbmom jyefqay;=uygonf? k f _ kd f tpnf;ta0;wGif a[majymwifjycsursm;rSm — f Kjell-Ake Nordquist: "Priorities in Transition" and "PostTransitional Challenge" toGiu;l ajymif;a&;wGif OD;pm;ay;aqmif&u&rnftcsursm;ESihf toGif f G f h f ul;ajymif;+yD;aemuf awG@}uHK&rnfh jyempdrac:csursm;? f f Walden Bello: "International Institutions, Transnational Corporations and Globalization - Future Challenges and Alternative Perpectives" EdiiwumtzG@J tpnf;rsm;/ Ediipaumfya&;&Si;f }uD;rsm;ESihf *vdb,fvuf kfH k f H Hk kd k kd aZ;&Sif;/ ‚if;wdk@ESifhygwfoufaom tem*wfjyem pdefac:csufrsm;ESifh tjcm;tjrif&_a'gifhrsm;? Sheila Coronel: " The Role of Media in the Struggle for Democracy", The Role of Media During Transition" and "The Right to Know" 'Drua&pDwuywi;f rD',m. tcef;u¾/ toGiu;l ajymif;a&;umv kd kd f JG G D f twGi;f rD',m. tcef;u¾ESihf jynfovx. owif;rsm;&&Syici? D l l k d kd f G hf 10
  9. 9. ed'gef; Emilia Pires: "Strategies for Develpment - Experiences from East Timor" zG@H +zdK;wd;k wufa&; r[mAsL[mrsm;/ ta&S@warmtawG@t}uHK? D aqG;aEG;wifjycsursm;ygtjrifrsm;rSm oufqi&mOD;aqmifaqG;aEG;ol f kd f ynm&Sirsm;.tjrifrsm;omjzpf+yD;/ 'uf [rf;rm;&d;_ azgia';&Si;f . tjrif f f rsm;udk xif[yfazmfjyjcif;r[kway? Twifjycsuf tusO;f csKyfrsm;rSm aqG; f aEG;yGtwGi;f zrf;,lxm;aom toHoi;f wdwacGrsm;rSaeI 'uf[rf;rm;&d;_ J G f azmifa';&Si;f rS qDqv,m AGef tdwm (Cecilia von Otter) u jyefvnf D D k rSwwrf;jyKpkxm;jcif; jzpfygonf? f 11
  10. 10. 'uf[rf;rm;&d+;azgifa';&Sif; 'uf[rf;rm;&d+;azgifa';&Sif;ESifh zGH_zdK;wdk;wufa&;tjcm;enf;vrf; 'uf[rf;rm;&d;_ azgia';&Si;f udk OD;oef@t&ifa&S@uwm0ef,caomukvor*~ f l hJ . 'kw,ajrmuf twGi;f a&rSL;csKyf 'uf[rf;rm;&d;_ uG,ve+f y;D onfh aemuf d f G ol@u*%jf yKonftaejzifh 1961 ckEpwif zG@J pnf;wnfaxmifcygonf? kd k h S f G hJ TtzG@J taejzif/h zG@H +zdK;wd;k wufrqi&me,fy,fY tjcm;a&G;cs,p&menf; _ kd f f vrf;rsm;ESihf ygwoufI tESpf (30) ausm=f um wpdurwfrwfvyuif f k f k f kd aqmif&ucygonf? tzG@J .&nf&,csurm ,ae@acwfw;kd wufz@HG +zdK;r_ypH G f hJ G f f S Hk rsm;. yifra&pD;a=umif;udk tuJjzwfppfaq;ae&efEihf txl;ojzifh awmif S urBmbufjcrf;EdkifiHrsm; (zGH@+zdK;qJESifh qif;&JaomEdkifiHrsm; — jyefqdkol) .tjrifukd tav;ay;wifjy&efjzpfygonf? xd@k tjyif wwd,pepf (vlxk tajcjyKvlxktzGJ@tpnf;) rsm;ESifh cGJjcm;ab;z,fxm;jcif;cHxm;&aom tiftm;pkrsm;xHrS &_axmiftjrifrsm;/ ajz&Si;f &efenf;vrf;rsm;udk t"du h rD;armif;xdk;jy&efvnf; jzpfygonf? aemufa=umif; tajccHtrsdK;rdsK;rS vm=uaom wd;k wufaomtiftm;pkrsm;udk pkpnf;+yD; azgia';&Si;f tzG@J u f us,jf yef@aomjyemrsm;tay: tjcm;aomtjrif&axmifrS a0zefqef; _ h ppfjcif;/ qef;opfonfh pOf;pm;awG;ac:r_rsm;ESihf tajz&Smjcif;paomvkyief; f rsm;udk aphaqmfay;&efvnf; &nf&,ygonf? G f “zG@H +zdK;wd;k wufrtwGuf tjcm;a&G;cs,p&menf;vrf;rsm;” qdonfh _ f k t,ltqudk 'uf[rf;rm;&d;_ azmifa';&Si;f u pkpnf;cJ+h yD;/ ,ae@bmvkyf =urnfenf; — zG@H +zdK;wd;k wufrtwGuf tjcm;a&G;cs,p&menf;vrf;rsm; _ f [kacgi;f pOfay;xm;aom tpD&ifcpmwapmif yHEyxwa0cJ+h yD;jzpfygonf? H k dS f k f Tpmwrf;onf xdywef;ay:vpDcsrworsm;ESihf ynm&Sirsm; (120) ausmf f S f l f yg0ifaqmif&GufcJh=uonfh zGH@+zdK;wdk;wufr_ESifh EdkifiHwumyl;aygif;aqmif &Gurqi&m 1975 'uf[rf;rm;&d;_ pDrcsu. t"duoD;yGivmaom&vm'f f _ kd f H f hf vnf;jzpfygonf? TtpD&ifcpmudk ukvor*~taxGaxGnvmcH owWr H D t}udrtpnf;ta0;wGif oD;jcm;vGwvyfaomtpD&ifcpmw&yf taejzifh f f H wifoi;f cJygonf? Tpmwrf;udk urBmt"dubmom}uD; (6) bmomjzifh G h h vnf; bmomjyef xkwa0xm;+yD; jzpfygonf? f pDrcsuwif t"duyg0ifygwoufc=hJ uaomyk*Kd~ vfrsm;. ok;H oyfcsuf H f G f t& “zGH@+zdK;wdk;wufa&;twGuftjcm;a&G;cs,fp&menf;vrf;rsm;” qdk 13
  11. 11. jrefrmEdkifiHzHGŒ_zdK;wdk;wufa&;tjcm;enf;vrf; onfrm “jynfovxukd t"duA[dcsurtjzpf xm;&rnfjzpf+y;D vlom; S l l k k f wd@k . &kyyi;f / pdwyi;f ESpcv;Hk twGuf tajccHvtyfrrsm;udk auseyfjynf0 f kd f kd fk kd _ h pGmcHpm;&&Sap&rnf jzpfonf? ydIus,jf yef@onft"dyg` ,t& ajym& v#if d k f Ediia&;t& ajyvnfauseyfr_ &&dap&rnfjzpfonf? xd@k tjyif TzG@H +zdK;r_ kfH S pDrHudef;rsm;onf udk,fhtm;udk,fudk;aom tajccH&Sd&rnfhtjyif/ a&ajr a'otajccHEihf udunaom jynfwi;f jzpfvnf; jzpfap&rnf? a*[aA' S k f D G pepf (tyifEiowW0g obm0ygw0ef;usif qufE,rqi&mpepf) t& S hf f G f _ kd f vnf; vdkufavsmnDaxG jzpf&ygrnf? xdk@jyif 'Drdkua&pDenf;usaom Ediia&;/ vlra&;ESihf pD;yGm;a&; jyKjyifajymif;vJrrsm;tay:wGitajcjyKI/ kfH _ _ f tjcm;aom &nfre;f csursm;udk &&SEiatmifzefw;D ay;Ediaom enf;vrf; S f d kd f kf vnf; jzpf&rnf”? Tod@k jzpfay:ap&efrm zG@H +zdK;wd;k wufrtwGuf tjcm; S _ a&G;cs,p&m enf;vrf;jzifom jzpfEib,&m&Sonf[k xdynm&Sirsm;u f h kd f G f d k f cH,=l uygonf? zG@H +zdK;wd;k wufrtwGutjcm;enf;vrf; onf vlra&;t&/ _ f _ vdit&/ vlrsK;d t&/ od@k r[kwf pD;yGm;a&;tajctaet& cGjJ cm;qufqzEyr_ f H d dS f rsm;udk ausmvm;Edirnfh vl@tzG@J tpnf;ud&mazG wnfaqmufjcif;Yvnf;/ f $ kf kS ta&;yg aomudpw&yftjzpf tusK;H 0ifygonf? xd@k tjyif vltrsm;yg0if P yl;aygi;f aqmif&urEihf A[k0g' (vlrsK;d pHt,l0g'aygi;f pHtwl&ioefaexdif G f_S k k Sf k a&;0g') oabmaqmifonfh jzpfpOfvnf;jzpfygonf? Tazgia';&Si;f tzG@J onf “,ae@bmvky=f urnfenf;” [laom tpD f &ifcpmudk 1975 ckEpY azmfxwwifjy+yD;cJonfh tcserpI ,if;tpD&ifcH H Sf k f h dfS pmwGitqdðk yxm;cJaom zG@H +zdK;wd;k wufrtwGuf tjcm;enf;vrf;qdi&m f h _ kf r[mAsL[mrsm;udk u¾tvduf zufpaxmifptjrifrsm;jzpfay:wd;k wuf k kH h kH vmapa&;twGuf wpdurwfrwftm&Hxm; }udK;yrf;vkyaqmifcygonf? k f k f hJ ,if;tjrifrsm;udvnf; vuf&z@HG +zdK;wd;k wufrqi&mrl0g'rsm;ESihf aygi;f pyf k dS _ kd f ay;Edia&;twGuf }udK;yrf;cJygonf? azmifa';&Si;f tzG@J }uD;. T r[mAsL kf h [mtjrifrsm;udk use;f rma&;qdi&m/ ynma&;qdi&m/ odyEihf enf;ynm kf kf H` S qdkif&m/ rsdK;&dk;ADZ&if;jrpfrsm;udpP/ ZD0enf;ynmqdkif&m/ owif;tcsuf tvufEihf qufo,a&;qdi&m/ EdiiwumaiGa=u;ay:vpDEihf vufeuf S G f kf kfH S zsufodrf;a&;rlrsm;ponfh u¾toD;oD;twGuf aqG;aEG;yGJrsm;wGif qufvuf tao;pdwaqG;aEG;azmfjycJ=h u+yD;jzpfygonf? f 14
  12. 12. 'uf[rf;rm;&d+;azgifa';&Sif; azmifa';&Si;. vwfwavmt"duvkyaqmifaeaomvkyief;rsm; f f f vwfwavmtaejzifh atmufygprcsuf e,fy,fo;Hk ckEihf oufqiaom D H S kd f vkyief;rsm;tay: t"duaZmif;ay; vkyaqmifaeygonf? f f • Nanotechnology uJo@kd aom enf;ynmopfrsm;ay:ayguvm h f aoma=umif/h vlra&;e,fyg,Eihf obm0ygw0ef;usiwif rnfo@kd _ fS f f G rnfyHkxdcdkuf tusdK;oufa&mufr_&Sdaprnfudk pl;prf;&SmazGaom aqG;aEG;yGrsm; aqmif&uaeygonf? (2001 ckEpwif yxrt}udrf J G f Sf G EdkifiHwumaqG;aEG;yGJwck usif;ycJh+yD;/ 2001-2003 ckESpftwGif; a'oqdi&maqG;aEG;yGrsm;udk qufvufusi;f y ðyvkycygonf)? kf J f hJ • jynfya&muf jrefrmh'Drdkua&pDv_yf&Sm;olrsm;ESifh “jrefrmEdkifiH zG@H +zdK;wd;k wufa&;twGuf tjcm;a&G;cs,p&menf;vrf;rsm;” acgi;f f pOfjzifh ESD;aESmzvS,fyGJrsm; usif;yaompDrHcsufw&yf aqmif&Guf aeygonf? ,if;aqG;aEG;yGrsm;. &nf&,csurm tem*wf 'Dru J G f f S kd a&pDjrefrmEdiiawmfjzpfay:vmaomtcg aqmif&u=f u&rnfh zG@H +zdK; kfH G wd;k wufa&;pDrcsursm;twGuf tjcm;a&G;cs,p&m enf;vrf;rsm;/ H f f r[mAsL[mrsm;udk a0zefyi;f jcm;aqG;aEG;vm=uap&ef/ v_@H aqmfr_ kd w&yftaejzifh aqmif&ujf cif;jzpfygonf? G • “tem*gwrm rnfo@kd qufvufaqmif&u=f urnfenf;” (What fS G Next) qdonfh pDrcsuuvnf; aqmif&uaeygonf? TpDrcsuf k H f kd G f H opfu “'Dae@bmvky=f urnfenf;” pDrcsupwifccserpI vGechJ H f hJ d f S f aom (25) ESpwmumvtwGi;f jzpfay:cJaom zG@H +zdK;wd;k wufrrsm; f h _ . todowrsm;udk tajccH+yD;/ ydIta&;}uD;onfh tjcm;tajr‡mf k k tjrifopfrsm;/ tem*gwfwGif óuHvm&EdkifzG,f&Sdaom pdefac:r_ topf/ jyemtopfrsm;udk &SmazGp;l prf;&ef &nf&,vyaqmif G f k f aeaom pDrcsujf zpfygonf? tem*wfrm rnfo@kd qufvuf aqmif H S &Gu=f urnfenf; qdonfprcsujf zifh vmrnfEpumvrsm;twGi;f k h D H h S f urBm}uD;tm;trSefwu,f tusKd;oufa&muf/ &dkufcwfr_&Sdvm Edionfh tjcm;awG;ac:ajrmfjrifrrsm;udk az:xkwjf cif;/ pkpnf;rGr;f rH kf _ jcif;ESifh jyefvnfjzef@jzL;jcif;qdkif&mudpPrsm;udk jznfhpGrf;ay;&ef &nf&,ygonf? G f 15
  13. 13. jrefrmEdkifiHzHGŒ_zdK;wdk;wufa&;tjcm;enf;vrf; xd@k tjyif azgi;f a';&Si;f tzG@J }u;D taejzifh rsm;pGmus,jf yef@aomjyem rsm;udk ulnDajz&Sif;Edkifa&;twGuf/ aqmif&Gufaeaom pDrHcsuftrsm; tjym;udvnf; qufvufaqmif&uv#uf &Sygonf? k G f d 16
  14. 14. toGiu;l ajymif;a&;umvwGif OD;pm;ay;aqmif&u&rnftcsursm;ESihf f G f h f toGiuajymif;a&;umv_yD;aemuf}uHKawGŒ&rnfprac:csursm; f l hdf f &Sv=atmfum aemh'upf J f f G tkyqmvm wuUov_f idrcsr;f a&;ESihf yÉdyuQqi&mokawoeXme f kd f kd f
  15. 15. &Sv=atmfum aemh'upf J f f G toGiu;l ajymif;a&;umvwGif OD;pm;ay;aqmif&u&rnftcsursm;ESihf f G f h f toGiuajymif;a&;umv_yD;aemuf}uHKawGŒ&rnfprac:csursm; f l hdf f &Sv=atmfum aemh'upf J f f G tkyqmvmwuUovf _idrcsr;f a&;ESihf yÉdyuQqi&mokawoeXme f kd f kd f wifjycsuf yxrydi;f wGif Ediia&;pepftoGiu;l ajymif;a&;umv twGi;f Y k kfH f OD;pm;ay;aqmif&Guf&rnfhtcsufrsm;ESifh }uHKawG@&Edkifaom jyem pdrfac:csufrsm;udk a,bl,sokH;oyfwifjyxm;ygonf? 'kwd,ydkif;rSmrl toGiful;ajymif;a&;umv+yD;aemufydkif; umvrsm;wGif trsm;tm;jzifh }uHKawG@&avh&Sdaom jyemrsm;udkaqG;aEG;xm;ygonf? txl;ojzifh wm0efca0r_/ wm0ef,r_ ydi;f qdi&mjyemrsm;/ ppfav#ma=u;ESihf jyef JG l k kf f vnfxaxmifa&;qdi&m jyemrsm; jzpfygonf? aemufq;Hk tydi;f wGirl l kf k f tpkvuf aqG;aEG;r_rsm;. &vm'ftESpcsKyfukd azmfjyxm;ygonf? kd f toGiu;l ajymif;a&;umvwGiO;D pm;ay;aqmif&u&rnftcsursm; f f G f h f yÉdyuQrSefor#wdk@wGif a,bl,stm;jzifh tydkif;okH;ydkif;yg0ifygonf? ,if;wd@k rm yÉdyuQjzpfapaomjyemrsm;/ yÉdyuQwi;f aqmif&u=f uyHk S G G vlw@kd .tjyKtrlrsm;ESihf yÉdyuQqi&mvlw@kd .oabmxm; wd@k jzpfygonf? kd f ,if;wdk@onf wcktay:wck tjyeftvSef=oZmoufa&mufr_rsm; &SdEdkif ygonf? Oyrm — usaemfw@kd ppfqifa&;wck (yÉdyuQ tjyKtrl) vkyonfh f tcg ,if;ppfqifa&;u usefonfhtpdwftydkif;rsm;tay: =oZmouf a&muf apygonf? Oyrm — jyif;xefaomoabmxm;rsm;jzifh wke@f jyefjcif;/ xdtwGua=umifyif trke;f oHo&mvnfae&jcif;rsm; qufvufjzpfay:ap k f h ygonf? Ttqd;k oHo&mudk zsuq;D ypf&efqv#if usaemfw@kd onf yÉdyuQ f kd . tpdwftydkif;wckckudk ajymif;vJypf&ef vdktyfygonf? EdkifiHa&;pepf toGiu;l ajymif;a&;udpw&yfukd aqmif&u&eftwGuqv#if usaemfw@kd f P G f f kd taejzifh yÉdyuQ. tpdwtydi;f ok;H ckv;Hk udajymif;vJypfvu&ef vdtyf f k k kd f k ygonf? Tae&mwGif Ediia&;pepftoGiu;l ajymif;a&;umv[kqonfh kfH f kd teuft"dy`g,frSm xdkyÉdyuQwGif yg0ifygwfoufaeaom t"duZmwf aumifrsm;u ajymif;vJawmhrnf[k pdwyi;f jzwfxm;+yD;aemuf/ ajymif; f kd 19
  16. 16. jrefrmEdkifiHzHGŒ_zdK;wdk;wufa&;tjcm;enf;vrf; vJrtpDtpOfrsm; pwif tajcwnfraomumvESihf tkycsKyfa&;tm%m _ d f opfw&yfukd pwifcsrwtaumiftxnfaz:Edionfh tcseuqvjkd cif; S f kf d f kd kd jzpfonf? Oyrm tm;jzifh — zG@J pnf;yktycsKyfytajccHOya'opf w&yfukd H k f kH a&;qGjJ cif;rsKd ; jzpfonf? toGiful;ajymif;a&;wGif OD;pm;ay;aqmif&Gufp&mvkyfief;rsm; ta=umif; usaemfw@kd ajym=uonftcg/ OD;pm;ay;aqmif&up&m vkyief; h G f f rsm;udk tajccHta=umif;&if; (3) ckjzifh cGJjcm;owfrSwfygonf? T ta=umif;t&if; (3) ckrm — S • ‚if;vkyief;rsm;onf vkyaqmif&efvtyfonf[k rdru,lq+yD;/ f f kd d rdrqifajcjzifh usKd ;a=umif;qDavsmonf[,qaom vkyief;rsm;? d f k l f • 'kwd,ta=umif;&if;rSm OD;pm;ay;aqmif&Gufp&mvkyfief;rsm;rSm orkwoabmqef+yD;/ rdrtuJjzwfcsut& (od@k r[kw) rdrc,l d d f f dH xm;aom tawG;tac:t& tajccHvkyfaqmifaomvkyfief;rsKd; jzpfonf? • wwd,tm;jzifh OD;pm;ay;aqmif&Gufp&mvkyfief;rsm;udk rdrdwGif &Saom vltm;aiGtm;tuef@towftay: tajccHI (Oyrm — d vlOD;a&rvkHavmufjcif;/ u|rf;usifr_t&tuef@towf&Sdjcif;/ odk@r[kwf pD;yGm;a&;&kyfb0t&tuef@towf&Sdjcif;) OD;pm;ay; aqmif&Gufjcif;jzpfonf? toGiful;ajymif;a&;umvudk zGJ@pnf;ykHoabmt&&_jrifjcif; vl@tzG@J tpnf;trsm;pkukd zG@J pnf;r_qi&mt& tv$mok;H cktjzpfcjJG cm; &_jrif kd f Edionf? txufyi;f acgi;f aqmifrsm;/ tv,ftvwfyi;f ESihf atmufajc kf kd kd vlxrsm;tydi;f wd@k jzpfonf? Ttv$mtoD;oD;wd@k wif olw@kd . oufqi&m k k G kd f acgif;aqmifrsm; &Sdygonf? tv,ftvwfydkif;acgif;aqmifrsm;onf r[mAsL[mt& ta&;}uD;ygonf? ta=umif;rSm olw@kd onf xdyyi;f acgi;f f kd aqmifrsm;jzpfzdk@tcGifhtvrf;&Sd+yD;/ atmufajcvlxktydkif;ESifh xdyfydkif; acgif;aqmifrsm;udk qufpyfay;Edkifaoma=umifhvnf;jzpfonf? tv,f tvwfyi;f acgi;f aqmifrsm;onf obm0t&uduyif xdyyi;f ESihf atmuf kd k f kd ajcudkqufoG,fay;olrsm;jzpfonf? atmufajcacgif;aqmifrsm;onf 20
  17. 17. &Sv=atmfum aemh'upf J f f G jynfolvlxktrsm;pkudk xdawG@qufqHI rdrdrl0g'rsm;udkcsjy&ef tpGrf; aqmifEiq;kH aom tcGitvrf;&Sonfh ta&;}uD;onfh tiftm;pkrsm;jzpf kd f hf d =uonf? 'Drdkua&pDvl@tzGJ@tpnf;w&yf vnfywfa&;twGuf ta&; tygqHk;aom tiftm;pkrsm;vnf;jzpf=uonf? Ttv$mokH;ckvkH;onf EdkifiHa&;pepf toGiful;ajymif;r_jzpfvmaomtcg tusdK;oufa&muf r_c=H u&+yD;/ ,if; jzpfpOf. tpdytydi;f rsm;tjzpfyg0ifvy&m;=u&ygonf? f k _ f S od@k a=umifyif jrefrmh'rua&pDvy&m;r_ uJo@kd aom awmfvea&;v_y&m;r_ h D kd _fS h Sf fS rsm;onf tv$m (3) v$mvk;H udk tajymif;tvJEiygwoufI owif;ay; S hf f &ef/ od&aeap&ef vdtyfygonf? xd@k tjyif tv$m (3) ckpvH;k wGif jynfwi;f dS k G jynfy qufpyfraumif;aumif;&Sae&efvnf; ta&;}uD;ygonf? od@k rom _ d S Ediia&;pepf toGiu;l ajymif;r_jzpfvmaomtcg jrefrmEdiivrtodi;f kfH f kfH l _ k t0di;f wckv;kH t&Set[kejf zifh ajymif;vJrEitnD vduygaqmif&uEirnf k df _ S hf k f G f kd f jzpfonf? tjcm;jyemwckrm tv$m (3) ckv;kH =um;wGif &Saeaom yl;aygi;f S d aqmif&uruprsm; jzpfonf? atmufajctv$mrsm;ESihf tv,ftvwf G f _ d P tv$mrsm;taejzifh txufydkif;acgif;aqmifrsm;t=um; oabmwlnDr_ &&Sdcsufrsm;/ EdkifiHa&;tajctae jzpfay:wdk;wufr_rsm;ESifhygwfouf+yD; owif;tcsutvufrsm; tqufrjywf&&Sae&ef vdtyfygonf? od@k rom f d k S EdkifiHa&;tajctae taxGaxGjzpfay:wdk;wufr_rsm;ESifh ygwfoufI pdwtm;xufoefpm/ taumif;jrifxm;um v_y&m;aqmif&uEi=f urnf f G fS G f kd jzpfonf? rdrw@kd awmfvea&;v_y&m;r_twGuf ta&;ygaom r[mAsL[m d S f f S t& qk;H jzwfa&G;cs,ronf “atmufajcrS txufo@kd ” oGm;onfyprsK;d jzifh f_ h kH H tajymif;tvJukd o,faqmifom;rvm; (od@k r[kw) txufyi;f acgi;f G f kd aqmifrsm;twGi;f oabmwlncsuukd t&if&atmif,rvm;qdonfukd D f l k a&G;cs,&ef jzpfygonf? (od@k r[kw) csO;f uyfrypH ESpcv;Hk jzifvnf; aygi;f pyf f f _ kH f k h vkyuiaom enf;vrf;udvnf;a&G;cs,Eiygonf? f kd f k f kd f 21
  18. 18. jrefrmEdkifiHzHGŒ_zdK;wdk;wufa&;tjcm;enf;vrf; rdrd.qef@usifzuftiftm;pkrsm; (aqG;aEG;bufrsm;) rnfonfhtcsdefwGif tav#mhay;rnfenf; yÉdyuQtajctaewGif &efzufjzpfae=uaom tiftm;pkrsm; aphpyfaqG; aEG;yGJpm;yGJ0dkif;odk@ wufvmEdkifaom tajctaeudk &Sif;vif;jy&ef t,l tqw&yf &Sygonf? Ttajctaeudk “ESpzuftxdemaeaom r#ajc d f k taetxm;” (Hurting stalemate) [kac:ygonf? oabmrSm ydae+rJ usm;ae+rJtaetxm;udk qufvufxe;f odr;f xm;Edi&eftwGuf ay;qyf d kf &rnfh wefb;kd rsm; rsm;onfxufrsm;vmaom tajctaejzpfonf? wcsef d wnf;wGiyif rdrtompD;&atmif tajctaeudk rvkyEi/f wd;k wufajymif; f d f kd vJr,lEiawmhaom tajctaejzpfonf? xdtaetxm;wGif taumif; kd f k qHk;tajzrSm tajctaeudk vufawG@usus&_jrifwwfaom tiftm;pk vufxYwnf&onf? rdraqG;aEG;buf (,cif&efzuf tiftm;pkrsm;xJr) J dS d S aqG;aEG;ajyvnfEiaom tiftm;pkucsO;f uyfI ol.t=urf;zufajz&Si;f kd f kd vdaomtjyKtrlukd ajymif;apI aqG;aEG;yGpum;0di;f qDo@kd wufvmap k J k a&;yif jzpfonf? a&&Snfjzpfaeaom jynfwGif;ppfyGJudk tqkH;owfjcif; (ausmif;oifcef;pm Oyrm) EdkifiHa&;pepf toGiful;ajymif;a&;umvwckwGif ta&;;t}uD;qkH; aom tydi;f rSm xdvrtodi;f t0di;f u vk+H cKH a&;ESihf Ediia&; tajctaersm; k k l_ k k kfH udk &_jrifyyifjzpfonf? T&_jrifyrsm;ESi,Ov#uf tjcm;aomtoGiu;l kH kH hf S f f ajymif;a&;umvjzpfpOfrsm;onf oabmw&m;t&ajym&v#if tpDtpOf wusjzpfay:wwfonfh oabm&Sdonf? EdkifiHa&;pepf toGiful;ajymif; a&;wGif yxrOD;qHk; jzpfay:vmonfh tydkif;u¾rSm tajccHqdkif&m oabmwlnDcsufrsm; &&Sdjcif;jzpfonf? EdkifiHa&;tjrifzuftydkif;t& ajym&v#if yÉdyuQwif t"duyg0ifygwoufaeaom Ediia&;Zmwfaumif G f kfH rsm;u tajymif;tvJ}uD;}uD;rm;rm;vky&ef oabmwlvujf cif; jzpfonf? f kd tajccHusonfh oabmwlncsursm; jzpfay:vmaponfh ueOD;aqG;aEG;yGJ D f pum;0di;f rsm;pwifEijf cif;onfyif tvGeta&;ygvonfh atmifjrifrrsm; k kd f S _ jzpfonf? TaqG;aEG;yGrsm; jzpfxe;f atmifjrifz@kd qygu t"dupOf;pm;=u& J G kd 22
  19. 19. &Sv=atmfum aemh'upf J f f G rnftcsurm oabmwlncsursm;&&ef rnfoawGu t"duaqG;aEG;zuf h fS D f l Zmwfaumifrsm;jzpfonfukd &SmazGowfrw&efjzpfonf? a,bl,s udipJG S f kf oifaomenf;vrf;wckrm oabmwlncsu&+yD;ygu jyefvnfazguzsuf h S D f f Edioqygu Toabmwlncsucsrw&m aqG;aEG;0di;f Y ab;z,fxm;&ef k f l kd D f S f k yifjzpfonf? vk+H cHKa&;buftydi;f tjrifzufuajym&v#if tajccHoabm k wlncsu&&ef qdonfrm ae&ma'otm;vk;H Y typftcwfrsm;&yfpxm; D f k S J a&;yifjzpfonf? vk+H cHKa&;r&Sv#if vltrsm;u qufvufp;kd &dra=umif=h u d f ae=urnf jzpf+yD; xdoo,rsm;a=umifyif aqG;aEG;yGrS xGucgG om;=uonf k H h J f G vnf; &SEiygonf? d kd f Ediia&;pepf toGiu;l ajymif;a&;vkyief;wGif 'kw,ta&;t}uD;qH;k kfH f f d u¾rSm tpd;k &opfw&yfz@JG pnf;Edi&eftwGuf jyifqif=ujcif; jzpfonf? kf Ediia&;t&qdv#if toGiuajymif;a&;umv =um;jzwftpd;k & trsKd ;tpm; kfH k f l wckcukd zG@J pnf;avh&=dS uygonf? vk+H cHKa&;tydi;f t&qkygu wyfrawmfopf k k d ESihf &Jwyfz@JG opftwGuf wyfom;opfrsm;pkaqmif;jcif;ESihf avhusiay;jcif; hf wd@k yg0ifavh&dS ygonf? Ediia&;pepf toGiu;l ajymif;a&;vkyief;wGif wwd,ta&;t}u;D qH;k kfH f f tydi;f u¾rSm Ediia&;taqmufttkw&yfukd zG@J pnf;qif,ifjcif; jzpfyg k kfH H onf? EdkifiHa&;tydkif;t&qdkv#if a&G;aumufyGJrsm;usif;yjcif; zGJ@pnf; tkycsKyfyHk tajccHOya'opfw&yfukd twnfjyKjcif; ponfw@kd yg0ifonf? f vk+H cHKa&;tydi;f t&qdv#if wyfrawmfopfEihf &Jwyfz@JG rsm;jyefvnfz@JG pnf; k k S ay;jcif;udprsm;udk awG@&rnfjzpfonf? P Ediia&;pepf toGiu;l ajymif;a&;vkyief;wGif pwkw?ta&;}uD;aom kfH f f tydi;f u¾rSm Ediia&;qdi&m taqmufttkopfrsm;udk owfowfrwf k kfH kf H S rSwf zGJ@pnf;ae&mcsjcif;ESifh oufqdfkifygonf? EdkifiHa&;tydkif;t&qdkv#if tpd;k &Xmersm;/ at*siprsm;udk vdtyfovdk xyfrz@JG pnf;ae&mcsxm;jcif; f D k H rsm;yg0if+yD; vk+H cHKa&;tydi;f t&qdv#if vk+H cHKa&;wyfz@JG opfrsm;udk avhusihf k k oifwef;ay;jcif;/ ynmay;jcif;jzifh t&nftaoG;jynf0onf/h rdrvyief; h d k f udom u|r;f usivyaqmifonftiftm;pkrsm; jzpfvmap&ef aqmif&uf k f kf h G jcif; wd@k yg0ifonf? 23
  20. 20. jrefrmEdkifiHzHGŒ_zdK;wdk;wufa&;tjcm;enf;vrf; Ediia&;pepf toGiu;l ajymif;a&;vkyief;. ta&;}u;D aomyÌrtydi;f kfH f f k u¾rSm vlra&;t&/ Ediia&;t& ,k=H unfr&&Svmap&ef wnfaqmuf _ kfH _ d jcif; jzpfonf? Ediia&;tydi;f t&ajymv#if tpd;k &opfonf t*wdvupm; kfH k dk f jcif;rsm;&Sd - r&Sd ? Ediiom;rsm;tay: w&m;r#r#wwESihf wef;wl&nfwl kfH qufqjH cif;&Sd - r&Sd qdonftcsursm;ESioufqiygonf? vk+H cHKa&;tydi;f k hf f hf kd f k t&qdkv#if vkH+cHKa&;wyfzGJ@rsm;u vl@tcGifhta&;udk av;pm;vdkufemr_ &S&efEihf w&m;pD&ifa&;pepfonf vGwvyfpm/ Ediia&;=oZmESihf oD;jcm; d S f G kfH uif;vGwpm aqmif&uci&&ef jzpfonf? vl@tzG@J tpnf;w&yfwif ,kH f G G f G hf dS G =unfr_wnfaqmuf=u&eftwGuf aemufqkH;jyemrSm twdwfudk rnfodk@em;vnfoabmaygufEdkif =urnfenf; [laomudpPjzpfonf? tm;vkH;aumif;arGqdk;arGcHjzwfoef;cJh=uaom twdwfordkif;udk rnfodk@ rnfyt"dyg` ,jf zifh jyefvnfazmfjyrnfenf;[laom jyemyifjzpfonf? kH toGiful;ajymif;a&;udk a&S;&_onfhjzpfpOftwGif;}uHKawG@&rnfh jyem (3) ck — • 'Drdkua&pDtoGiful;ajymif;a&;ESifh EdkifiHa&;pepftajymif;tvJ twGuf v_y&m;cJ=h uaom tzG@J tpnf;tm;vk;H taejzifh 'Drua&pD fS kd toGiu;l ajymif;a&;umvjzpfaomtcg/ trSewu,fajymif;vJr_ f f rsm; pwifaomtcg twlwuGvuygEif - rvduygEiqaom kd f kd k f kd f kd jyemjzpfonf? olw@kd twGuf tusKd ;tjrwfwpkw&m=unfI H h useaeEdionf? od@k r[kwf a&omcdk avS}uHKvduorsm;&SaeEdif f kf k f l d k onf? xdorsm;udk rnfuo@kd uiw,qufqH =urnfenf;? k l hJ kd f G f • awmfvSefa&;v_yf&Sm;aepOfumvu awmfvSefa&;twGif;twl &yfwnf &ke;f uefaejcif;uyif tcsi;f csi;f nD!wrEihf cGetm;udk G f _ S f jzpfapygonf? TawmfvSefa&;v_yf&Sm;r_taejzifh (txl;ojzifh wyfaygi;f pkjzifh pkz@JG vy&m;r_rsK;d tajctaewGi) &nfre;f csuyef;wdif _fS f S f k udka&muf&Sd&ef eD;uyfvmonfhtcsdefY oabmxm;uGJvGJr_rsm; }uHK&Ediygonf? tcsi;f csi;f wyfaygi;f pk pkz@JG vy&m;&mrS vrf;cG=J u kf _ f S &rnfh tajctaersK;d vnf; &SEiygonf? xdo@kd vrf;rcGrtajctae d kd f k JD rsK;d Y rnfo@kd aom atmifjrifr&onftxd twlwuG aqmif&uf _ G 24
  21. 21. &Sv=atmfum aemh'upf J f f G oifonf paomtcsuukd wif}uKd I oabmwlxm;&ef vdygonf? h f k Ttcsutay: pG+J rJpm&yfwnfI wduy. aemufq;Hk tcsetxd f G k f JG d f v_y&m;r_ukd tpGr;f uketm;jznfom;=u&ef vdtyfygonf? f S f h G k • Ediiwckwif rdrjd zwfoef;cJ&aomtwdwujkd yefvnf ok;oyfEif kfH G h f H kd &eftwGuf Ediia&;ESiwu&uroufqiaom ae&mwck &S&ef kfH hf kd f kd f kd f d vdktyfygonf? EdkifiHa&;pepf toGiful;ajymif;a&;jzpfpOfwGif rdrd qkyfudkif&yfwnfxm;csufrsm;udk vG,fvG,fpGef@ypfwwf/ wefzdk; rxm;cH&aom tajctae}uHK&onfvnf;&Sd+yD; tjcm;aom tiftm;pkrsm;. tjrifrsm;udvnf; tav;xm;azmfjy&ef arhavsmh k aewwf=uygonf? od@k aomf tcsK@d aomjyemrsm;onf tkypk f wck. tusKd ;pD;yGm;/ vlrsK;d wrsK;d .tusKd ;pD;yGm;xufyI trsKd ;om; kd w&yfvHk;tusdK;pD;yGm;ESifh oufqdkifaeaomudpPrsm; jzpfwwfyg onf? ,if;jyemrsKd;udk qufvufaqG;aEG; oifh=uygonf? aemufaemifwif rD;yGg;rSr;D avmifonfE,f }uD;rm;onfh Ediia&; G h S kfH jyemrsm; jzpfrvmrD xdjk yemrsm;.tajzud&mEdi&eftwGuf kS kf aqG;aEG; ES;D aESmtjrifzvS,Eiaom “awG@qkaqG;aEG;a&;pifjrif” f kd f H h wck zefw;D xm;ay;oifh ygonf? toGiful;ajymif;a&;umv+yD;aemuf }uHKawG@&rnfh jyem pdrfac:csufrsm; jrefrmjynfwGif tajymif;tvJudkjrifawG@vdkaom rdrdwdk@tiftm;pkrsm; taejzifh jrefrmEdiiwif Ediia&;pepftoGiu;l ajymif;a&; jzpfay:vmygu kfH G kfH f rnfonftajctaersm;}uHK&Edirnfukd ar#mre;f xm;oifonfh jyem h kf f S h wck jzpfygonf? Tod@k awG;qxm;csuonf jyemtwGi;f ud,wif f k f kd ud,us yg0ifae&aom olrsm;.twGi;f ydi;f tjrif&a'gihf jzpfygvronf? k f k _ d hf odk@aomf jyifyu avhvmapmifh=unfhae=uaomolrsm;. tjrifwGifrl Ediia&;pepf toGiu;l ajymif;a&;umvqdonfrm raocsm ra&&maom kfH f k S tvGeowd xm;+y;D apmif=h unfae=u&rnfh umvwcktjzpf jrif=urnfjzpf f h ygonf? toGiu;l ajymif;a&;umvonf Edi;f ,SOcsut& odwr=umoifh f _ f f f yg? ,if;umvonf “ykre” tajctaersKd ;uJo@kd vnf; rjzpfapoifay? H S f h h 25
  22. 22. jrefrmEdkifiHzHGŒ_zdK;wdk;wufa&;tjcm;enf;vrf; ,ckqufvuf aqG;aEG;r_wif toGiu;l ajymif;a&;umvaemufyi;f wGif G f kd rnfodk@ qufvufjzpfysufEdkifonf/ wufvmaom tpdk;&opftaejzifh rnfonfjh yemrsm; t"du&ifqi=f u&rnfukd qufvufaqG;aEG; wifjy kd rnfjzpfonf? - ykHrSeftajctaejyefvnf jzpfay:apjcif; EdkifiHa&;pepftoGiful;ajymif;a&;umvjzwfoef;+yD;onfESifh EdkifiHwum todkif;t0dkif;taejzifh rdrdwdk@.ta&;udpPudkwajz;ajz; aemufwef;odk@ ydk@vdkuf=urnfjzpfonf? OD;pm;ay;tjzpf qufvufpOf;pm;=uawmhrnf r[kway? Tod@k jzifh rdrw@kd uaxmufcH yHy;kd aeaom t&if;tjrpfrsm; avsmh f d kd h enf;usqif;vmEdiaomtajctaewGif a&enf;enf;udk olaomufrnf kf igaomufrnf qdonfh yÉdyuQrsK;d udk a&Smif&m;&eftwGuf wwfEioI k S kd f apmpGm OD;pm;ay;aqmif&Guf&rnfhvkyfief;udpPrsm;udk }udKwifoabmwl owfrwxm;Ediygu taumif;qH;k jzpfygonf? tvm;wlaumif;rGeonfh S f kf f enf;vrf;wckrSm rdrd.zGH@+zdK;wdk;wufa&;twGuf udk,fydkifr[mAsL[m csrSwfxm;jcif;ESifh EdkifiHwumtodkif;t0dkif;rsm; tvSL&SifEdkifiHrsm;/ tzGJ@ tpnf;rsm;ESihf qufqa&;aumif;rGeatmif xde;f xm;&efjzpfonf? od@k rS H f om ykreaxmufyunrrsm;qufvuf&&Saeatmif jyifqifxm; Edirnf H S f hH l D _ d kf jzpfonf? jrefrmEdkifiHtpdk;&opftzdk@ rdrd.b¾ma&;tajccHay:wGifyif &yfwnf&Sifoef&rnfjzpfonf? xdktwGufa=umifh ,cktcsdefrSpI rdrd. b¾ma&;tajccHukd pl;prf;avhvmxm;oifonfh tcsejf zpfonf? toGif h d ul;ajymif;a&;+y;D cseumvonf jrefrmEdiitzd@k Ediiwumrdom;pk tv,f df kfH kfH wGif EdiiwumtzG@J tpnf;rsm;t=um;wGif wifwifw,fw,f &yfwnf kfH h h oifaomtcsetcgvnf; jzpfoifygonf? EdiiwumtzG@J tpnf;rsm;ESihf h d f h kfH quf qH&mwGif rdrd&yfwnfcsufudk rdrdzmomjyXmef;Edkifaom rdrd. tqifae&mudk owfrwjf yXmef;Ediaom Ediiwcktjzpf zefw;D ,l=u&rnf h S kf kfH jzpfonf? 26
  23. 23. &Sv=atmfum aemh'upf J f f G - ppfavsma=u;ESihf ppfa=umifysup;D &r_rsm;udk jyefvnfjyifqifa&;udprsm; f h f P acwfopfjrefrmjynfordi;f opfEihf ygwoufIvnf;aumif;/ ordi;f qd;k arG k S f k aumif;arGrsm;u vl@tzGJ@tpnf;tay: &dkufcwfcsufrsm;ESifh ygwfouf Ivnf;aumif; rjzpfraeajz&Si;f =u&rnf jzpfygonf? Tudprm toGiu;l PS f ajymif;a&;jzpfpOftwGi;f Yom oufqiaom udpwckr[kway? ESpaygi;f kd f P f f rsm;pGm csI=umjrifatmifajz&Si;f =u&rnfh pdrac:csujf zpfygonf? xdtwGuf D h f k a=umifhyif toGiful;ajymif;a&;umv aemufydkif;pdrfac:csuf jyem wcktjzpfxnfoi;f azmfjyxm;jcif; jzpfygonf? ,cktcseuwnf; upI h G d f Tpdrfac:csufrsm;udkajz&Sif;Edkif&eftwGuf }udKwifjyifqifxm;=u&rnf jzpfygonf? Tjyemrsm;rSm — • 'kuonfrsm;ESihf Ediiwi;t"rRajymif;a&$@ae&mcsxm;jcif; cH=u& Q kfH Gf aom olrsm;udk jyefvnfae&mcsxm;ay;jcif;? • tajccHtaqmuftODrsm;udk jyefvnfwnfaqmufjcif;? • t=urf;zufrEihf vufeufuiyÉdyuQrsm;a=umifh jzpfay:cJ&aom _ S kd f h pdwaomuESihf vlr'ursm;udk udiw,ajz&Si;f ay;jcif;? f _ k Q kf G f • &efzufjzpfcaom ppfom;rsm;udk jyefvnfaygi;f pnf;apjcif; ponf hJ wd@k jzpfonf? awmfvea&;wyfrawmfrsm;xJwif ESp&nvrsm; aexdic=hJ u&aom S f G f S f kf &Jabmfa[mif;rsm;taejzifh ESpaygi;f rsm;pGm td;k tdrrS cGcmcJ=h u&olrsm; f f JG jzpfovd/k b0twGuuprsm;pGmudk pGe@f vwc=hJ u&olrsm;jzpfonf? yk*Kd~ vf f d P $ f wOD;csi;f taejzifh TwduytwGuf rsm;pGmqif;&J'ua&mufcorsm;/ b0 k f JG k Q hJ l tcGita&;rsm;pGmudk qH;k &_;H cJ=h uolrsm;jzpfonf? ynma&;&yfqi;f cJ=h u& hf kd onf? vkyief;cGioifwef;rsm;/ vkyief;cGiu|r;f usirrsm; vpf[if;cJ=h u f f f f f _ onf? T&Jabmfrsm;wGif pdwf"mwf}uHhcdkifr_jrifhrm;aomfvnf; yHkrSefb0 twGi;f jyef0ifa&;twGuf jyifqifrenf;olrsm;jzpfae=uonf? usivnf _ f aomvkyom;rsm; r[kw=f u? yHreb0ESihf rpyfr[yf jzpfaeEdionf? T f k S f kf tiftm;pkrsm;onf ulnaxmufyr_ r&&dygu jyemjzpfvmEdionf? D hH S kf olw@kd tzd@k aemufxyfwzef jyefvnfvufeufpui&ef 0efav;rnf r[kwf JG kd f =uay? 27
  24. 24. jrefrmEdkifiHzHGŒ_zdK;wdk;wufa&;tjcm;enf;vrf; - wm0ef,r/_ wm0efcrqi&mjyem l H _ kd f txufuazmfjycsursm;Y yÉdyuQ. a,bl,stpdytydi;f (3) ck jzpfaom f f k yÉdyuQjzpfapaomjyemrsm;/ yÉdyuQqi&m vlrsm;.tjyKtrlrsm;ESihf kd f yÉdyuQqi&mvlw@kd . oabmxm;rsm;ta=umif;udk azmfjycJ+h yD;jzpf onf? kd f Tt&mud p P r sm;ud k ajz&S i f ; &mY yÉd y uQ a jz&S i f ; enf ; trsd K ;rd s K;jzif h vnf;aumif;/ vl@tzG@J tpnf;.tpdytydi;f rsm;tm;vk;H twGi;f Y wnf+idrf f k vk+H cKH r_&apatmif pDruiw,jf cif;jzifvnf;aumif;/ vlra&;t& ,k=H unfr_ H kd f G h _ &&Sdap&ef wnfaqmufay;jcif;jzifhvnf;aumif;/ ajz&Sif;oGm;=u&rnf jzpfygonf? Ediia&;pepf toGiu;l ajymif;a&;umvtwGi;f ESihf toGiu;l kfH f f ajymif;a&;umv+yD;onfh aemufyi;f wGif vlra&;t&,k=H unfr_ &ap&ef kd _ twGuf rdrdwdk@ rjzpfraeajzqdk=u&rnfh ar;cGef;rSm “rnfonfhudpPrsm; jzpfcoenf;” qdaomudpP jzpfonf? “jrefrmEdii.ordi;opfukd rnfol hJ k kfH kf awGua&;om;rnfenf;/ jrefrmEdkifiH&Sd jynfolrsm;tm;vHk;twGuf (od@k r[kw) tjcm; jynfe,frsm;rS jynfotoD;oD;twGuf tm;vk;u f l H vufcHEdkifaom ordkif;pmtkyfwtkyf jzpfay:vmEdkifrnfvm;” qdkonfh ar;cGe;f rsm;yif jzpfonf? ay:ayguvmEdiaom tcufcq;Hk jyemrSm wm0efcr/_ wm0ef,r_ f kf J H l ydkif;qdkif&mjyemyifjzpfawmhonf? jzpfysufcJh&onfh udpPjyemrsm; twGuf wpkwOD;ay:rSmom wm0ef&ygovm; [laomar;cGe;f rsK;d jzpfonf? H dS wm0ef&rEiywfoufI Ediiwum tjyifzufu jrifaomtjrifrsm; &SEif dS _ S hf kfH d kd ovd/k jynfwi;f vlxrsm;u jrifaomtjrifrsm;vnf;&SEiygonf? Tod@k G k d kd f aom wm0efcr/_ wm0ef,rEiygwoufaomudp/P vlra&;t& ,k=H unfr_ H l _ S hf f _ wnfaqmufjcif;aomudpPESifh trsKd;om;tcsif;csif; jyefvnfoifhjrwf a&;udprsm;ESiygwoufI ajz&Si;f ykH ajz&Si;f enf; trsm;tjym;&Sygonf? P hf f d vl@usi0wftajcjyKr_p/H tedrhf - tjrifh tay:rlwnfIvnf;aumif;/ w&m; hf Oya'tajcjyKr_pt& tedrhf - tjrifh tay:rlwnfIvnf;aumif;/ rwl H uGjJ ym;aomudprsm;udk csO;f uyfykH csO;f uyfenf; (4) rsK;d jzifh oH;k oyfq;kH jzwf P Edkifygonf? 28
  25. 25. &Sv=atmfum aemh'upf J f f G vl@usifh0wf tajcjyK edrhf jrihf w&m;Oya'tajcjyKyHkpH edrhf jrifh vGwf+idrf;csrf;omcGifh (Oyrm- vlr_a&;t&n‡mwmcsrf;om vufwiftar&duEdkifiHrsm;) cGifhay;jcif; (Oyrm-rdkZrfbpf) ppf&mZ0wfc&;kH rsm; kH (Oyrm-,l*dkqvm;AD;,m; EdkifiHa[mif;) trSew&m;ay:aygua&; f f aumfr&Sif (Oyrmawmiftmz&du) - vGwf+idrf;csrf;omcGifh vufwiftar&duEdkifiHrsm;wGif vGwf+idrf;csrf;omcGifhrsm; azmazm oDoay;cJ=h uonf? tpd;k &a[mif;u tm%mrv$tyfrtcseY wm0ef&dS D J D d f cJorsm; rnfo@l ur# w&m;pGqta&;,ljcif;rjyK&ef qk;H jzwfcsucsxm;um h l kd J kd f aqmif&uc=hJ uonf? G f - vlr_a&;t& n‡mwmcsrf;omcGifhay;jcif; tmz&duwdu&dS EdiitcsK@d wif (Oyrmtm;jzifh - rdZefbpfEiiwi) k f kfH G k kd f H G f Tenf;vrf;udk a&G;cs,fcJh=uonf? ta=umif;rSm ppfom;tjzpft"rR pkaqmif;odr;f oGi;f jcif;cHc&aom uav;oli,frsm;udk tjypf,Ir&/ olw@kd hJ l . aus;&Gmrsm;wGiomrmeft&yfom;rsm;tjzpf jyefvnfaygi;f pnf; aexdif f k Edkifap&ef TuJhodk@aqmif&GufcJhjcif;jzpfonf? Tuav;ppfom;rsm;udk vlra&;t&n‡mwm vGw+f ir;f csr;f omcGiay;vduonf? olw@kd . vlrtodi;f _ d hf k f _ k t0di;f tajctaet& w&m;Oya'pHrsm;twdi;f aqmif&u&ef rjzpfEiay? k k G f kd f - ppf&mZ0wfr_ckH&kH; ,l*pvm;AD;,m;Ediia[mif;. ppfyrsm;twGi;f jzpfym;cJaom tr_rsm; kd kfH JG G h twGuf ppf&mZ0wfc&;Hk rsm;udk Oa&mywGif ,cktcgusio;Hk ppfaq;aqmif Hk hf &GuaeqJjzpfonf? TcH&;kH rsm;onf w&m;Oya'pHt& aqmif&ujf cif;om f k G 29
  26. 26. jrefrmEdkifiHzHGŒ_zdK;wdk;wufa&;tjcm;enf;vrf; jzpf+yD;/ vlrusi0wfyi;f qdi&mpHt& aqmif&ujf cif;rsK;d r[kway? vlra&; _ hf kd k f G f _ t& vGw+f idr;f csr;f omcGirsKd ;/ cGivwjf cif;rsKd ; vnf;r&Say? hf hf $ d - trSefw&m;ay:aygufa&;aumfr&Sif awmiftmz&duEdiiwif zG@J pnf;cJonfh ykpwrsKd ;jzpfonf? vlrusihf kfH G h H H _ 0wfpt& ajz&Si;f vdrEihf w&m;Oya'a=umif;t& ajz&Si;f vdrypukd aygi;f pyf H k_S k _ kH H xm;jcif;jzpfonf? “trSeuzi[ 0efcygu/ tjypfrS vGw+f ir;f csr;f omcGijhf yK f kd G hf H d rnfjzpf+yD;/ jzpfygG ;cJaom jyemrsm;tay:wm0efcygu w&m;pGtjypf h H J ay;jcif;rS oufomuif;vGwcijhf yKrnfypjH zpfonf”? fG h kH txufazmfjyygyHkpHrsm;teuf twdwfumvujzpfysufcJhaom aumif;usK;d qd;k jypfrsm;twGuf rnfonfenf;vrf;jzifh ajz&Si;f rnfqonf h kd rSm xdEiiH .a&G;cs,r_ Ediiom;wd@k . oabmqENEihf "avhx;kH wrf;pOfvm k kd f f kfH S tay: Yom rlwnfayonf? Ediiwum Oya'rsm;taejzifrl urBmw0Sr;f kfH h vHk;wrl wnf; jzpfap&ef tm;xkwf}udK;pm;tm;xkwfaeaomfvnf;/ wm0ef&rEihf ygwoufI &Si;f vif;aom oabmxm;rsK;d csrway;Edi&ef dS _ S f S f kf aqmif&uae aomfjim;vnf; a&G;cs,&rnfenf;vrf;onf um,uH&if G f f h S Ediiom;rsm;ESiom ydIoufqiygonf? wm0ef&rj_ yemudk rnfonfh kfH hf k kd f dS enf;jzifh&Sif;&Sif;/ EdkifiHa&;pepftoGiful;ajymif;a&;jzpfpOf wpHkvkH;udk rxdcdkufap&ef udkifwG,f ajz&Sif;oGm;&efrSm ydkIta&;}uD;aomudpPjzpf ygonf? rnfonfuprqdk ajz&Si;f =u&mY tay;t,l&&dS aphpyfaqG;aEG; h d P dS =u&efvnf; vdktyfygonf? TudpPrsm;twGuf rdrdwdk@oHk;pGJae=uaom pum;w&yf&ygonf? ‚if;rSm toGiu;l ajymif;a&;qdi&m w&m;r#wr_ dS f kf (Transitional justice) yifjzpfygonf? 'Drdkua&pDonf yifrtajccH jyem jzpfygonf? xktwGua=umifh rnfo@kd aom tjcm;jyemrsm; d f urS 'Drua&pDtaumiftxnfaz:aqmifa&; vkyief;pOfukd rxdcuap kd f kd f oifhay? 30
  27. 27. &Sv=atmfum aemh'upf J f f G tkyfpkaqG;aEG;yGJ&vm'frsm;. tESpfcsKyf twdkuftcHtiftm;pkrsm;tm;vkH;u vufcHEdkifaom ppftm%m&Sif qef@usia&; bkr[mAsL[mwckukd a&;qG&efvtyfa=umif;/ tpkwpku f H J kd aqG;aEG;cJygonf? xdr[mAsL[mt& vkyief;pOfwif Ediiwumzdtm; h k f G kfH wd;k jr‡iap&ef aqmif&ua&;vnf; vdtyfygonf? xd@k tjyif jrefrmjynf hf G f k wGi;f &Sd Ediia&;ygwrsm;taejzifh ydIvGwvyfpm v_y&m;aqmif&uf Edicihf kfH D k f G fS G kfG &ap&ef/ ydIae&m&vmap&ef tm&kpuzefw;D oifa=umif;vnf; yg0ifyg k H kd f h onf? Ediiwumtodi;f t0ki;f od@k wduwe;f ajymqd&mY vuf&ppftpd;k & kfH k d k f G k dS onf EdiiutycsKyfEipr;f &Saom tpd;k &wckr[kwa=umif; oabmayguf k f H kd k f kd f G d f vmap&ef wduwe;f pnf;&H;k oGm;&ef vdygonf? ppftpd;k & udk pD;yGm;a&;t&/ k f G k oHwrmefa&;t& ydwq@kd ta&;,lrrsm;jzifh tiftm;enf;cse@J ap+yD;/ w+ydKif f _ d eufwif vufeufuitiftm;pkrsm;rS ppfa&;v_y&m;r_rsm; t&Set[kef G dk f f S d f wd;k wufaqmifjcif;&Guom;&ef vdtyfygonf? ukvor*~wif csO;f uyf f G k G pnf;&k;H &mY jrefrmEdiita&;udk vk+H cKH a&;aumifptqiftxd a&mufatmif kfH D h &nfre;f csuxm;I wd;k jr‡iaqmif&uom;oifygonf? S f hf G f G h tjcm;aqG;aEG;csufwckwGif jrefrmEdkifiHtwGif; ydkrdkus,fjyef@onfh vkyyiciae&mrsm; &&Svmapa&;twGuf zefw;D =u&mY/ twdutcHacgi;f f kd f G hf d k f aqmif (a':atmifqef;pk=unf — bmomjyefo) taejzifh awG@qaqG;aEG; l Hk a&;twGuf wdusaom rluprsm; jyXmef;I aqG;aEG;yGpm;yGay:od@k pwif d P J J wifjya&;jzpfygonf? xdtcg e0w (etz) ppftpd;k &taejzifh rjzpfrae k olr. tqdjk yKcsursm;udk wke@f jyefvm&awmhrnfjzpfonf? f jrefrmEdiiqi&m ukvor*~txl;oHu,pm;vS,rS tqdjk yKaom k f H kd f kd f f “trsdK;om;nDvmcH” wckusif;y&efqdkonfh tqdkjyKcsufrSmvnf; pdw0ifpm;zG,f jzpfygonf? Tudpukd Ediia&;xd;k ppfwckqifEi&ef tcGihf f P kfH kd f tvrf;w&yftjzpf jrifoifhygonf? ratmifjrifonfh ,cif trsdKom; nDvmcHuom jrifIpOf;pm;ae=urnftpm;/ rdrw@kd twdutcHtiftm;pk kd h d k f rsm;taejzifh tjcm;nDvmcHwcktwGuf }udKwifjyifqifrrsm;/ tpDtpOf _ rsm;udk jyifqifoifayonf? rnfonfta=umif;a=umifh rdrw@kd we@f qi;f h h d k kd ae=u&rnfenf;? Todk@ rdrdwdk@upwifjcif;tm;jzifhvnf; abmvHk;u rdrw@kd ajcxJ uefci&onfh tajctaeuday;vmrnfjzpfonf? d G hf k 31
  28. 28. jrefrmEdkifiHzHGŒ_zdK;wdk;wufa&;tjcm;enf;vrf; 'Dru&ufwpfjrefrmEdiiawmfopfwif pD;yGm;a&;b0tajctae ykref kd kfH G HS jyefjzpfvma&;twGuf tajz&SmpOfpm;=uaomtcg trsm;pku jrefrmEdiiH kf . pD;yGm;a&;tajccHonf v,f,mpduysKd ;a&;udom tajccHI a&S@quf k f k oGm;&efvdktyfonf[k jrif=uygonf? obm0ygwf0ef;usif rysufpD;ap aom c&D;oGm;vkyief;udvnf; zGiay;oif+h yD;/ EdiijH cm;&if;ES;D jrKwfErrsm;udk f k hf kf HS _ vnf; zdwac:&ef vdtyfrnf[k oH;k oyfaqG;aEG;=uygonf? jrefrmjynfonf f k obm0t&if;tjrpfrsm;ºuG,f0qJjzpf+yD;/ EdkifiHawmfESifh jynfe,frsm;. 0ifaiGonfvnf; TtajccHay:u &&SdEdkifao;onf[k jrif=uygonf? jrefrmEdiitzd@k Ediitcsi;f csi;f tjyeftvSeacs;aiGEihf axmufyaiGrsm;udk kfH kfH f S hH &&Sap&ef qGaqmifEiz,&m&Sygonf? vuf&dS taumufceqi&mOya' d J kd f G f d G f kd f rsm;udk jyefvnfokH;oyf+yD;/ jyifqifcsJ@xGif&efvnf; vdktyfygvdrfhrnff? jrefrmEdkifiHtaumufcGefpepf/ Oya'rsm;udk jyefvnfjyifqifa&;qGJEdkif&ef twGuf EdiijH cm;rS u|r;f usioy*Kd~ vfrsm;/ EdiijH cm;tpd;k &t&m&Srsm;udk kf f l k kf d vnf; zdw=f um;tultnDawmif;oifonf[k jrif=uygonf? h 32
  29. 29. EdiiwumtzGŒJ tpnf;rsm;/ kfH Ediiabmifausmaumfya&;&Si;f }uD;rsm;ESihf *vdb,fvuaZ;&Si;f ? kfH f kd k kd f tem*gwfprac:r+rsm;ESitjcm;tjrif&a'gifrsm; df hf + h a'gufwm a0:vf'ef bJvvkd f Focus on Global South
  30. 30. a0:vf'efb,fvkd EdiiwumtzGŒJ tpnf;rsm;/ kfH Ediiabmifausmaumfya&;&Si;f }uD;rsm;ESihf *vdb,fvuaZ;&Si;f ? kfH f kd k kd f tem*gwfprac:r+rsm;ESitjcm;tjrif&a'gifrsm; df hf + h a'gufwm a0:vf'ef bJvvkd f Focus on Global South wifjycsuyxrydi;f wGif urBmvk;H qdi&mpD;yGm;a&;pepfEifh urBmw0Sr;f quf f k kf S pyfaeaompD;yGm;a&;ta=umif;wd@k ukd wifjyxm;ygonf? 'kw,ydi;f wGif d k t"duEdkifiHwumaiGa=u;b¾ma&;tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;jzpf=uaom EdkifiH wumaiGa=u;&HyaiGtzG@J / urBm@b%f ESihf urBm@ueo,a&;tzG@J / ta&S@ Hk k f G f awmiftm&SEiirsm;toif; (tmqD,) wd@k . jzpfay:vmyHordi;f tusO;f kd f H H k k ESihf zG@J pnf;yHw@kd ukd wifjycJygonf? wwd,tydi;f rSm jrefrmEdiiw;kd wuf k h k kfH zGH@+zdK;a&;twGuf jzpfEdkifzG,f&m&Sdaom tjcm;a&G;cs,fp&menf;vrf;udk t=urf;zsO;f wifjyxm;ygonf? aemufq;Hk tydi;f wGirl tkypvuaqGaEG;r_ k f f k kd f &vm'frsm; tESpcsKyfukd az: jyxm;ygonf? f urBmvk;H qdi&mpD;yGm;a&;pepf - t"du xl;jcm;csuvuQ%mrsm;ESihf kf f tm;enf;csufrsm;? EdiiwumEdiia&;tcif;tusi;f . vGecaomtESpig;q,fukd a,bl,s kfH kfH f hJ f tm;jzifh ppfat;acwfEihf 1989 ckEpaemufyi;f rSpI ppfat;vGeacwf S S f kd f [lIcGjJ cm;owfrw=f uygonf? rnfo@kd qapumrl urBmvk;H qdi&m pD;yGm;a&; S kd kf tjrift&qdv#if ,if;umvudyif vGecaom 1940 ckEprsm; rS 1980 k k f hJ S f 0ef;usitxd “*vkb,fvuaZ;&Si; t}udKacwf” ESihf 1980 rS ,ae@ f d kd f f umvtxdukd “*vdb,fvuaZ;&Si;f acwf” [lI t=urf;zsO;f tm;jzifh k kd f cGjJ cm;owfrwEiygonf? *vkyb,fvuaZ;&Si;f t}udKacwf. a,bl,s S f kd f f kd f az: jycsufrSm tar&duefjynfaxmifpk. v$rf;rdk;cs,fvS,fr_atmuf&Sd trsdK;om;t&if;&Sifpepfacwf jzpfygonf? urBmhajrmufjcrf;&Sd EdkifiHrsm; (odk@r[kwf) zGH@+zdK;+yD;EdkifiHrsm;. *vkdb,fvdkufaZ;&Sif;t}udKacwf pD;yGm;a&;tajctaeudk jyefavhvm=unfhygu atmufygxljcm;csuf vuQ%mrsm;udk awG@&rnfjzpfonf? 35
  31. 31. jrefrmEdkifiHzHGŒ_zdK;wdk;wufa&;tjcm;enf;vrf; • vuf0g;}uD;tkyt&if;. v$r;f rd;k r_/ f • A[dktpdk;&. cdkifrmaomaps;uGuftay: xdef;csKyfxm;onfh pnf;rsO;f rsm;ESihf aps;uGutay:tpd;k &rS 0ifa&mufpuzufvyuif f G f k f kd aer_/ • vkytm;ESihf t&if;t=um;&Sd vlra&;t&tjyeftvSef tay;t,l f _ jyKr_ ponftcsursm;jzpfonf? h f zG@H +zdK;qJEiirsm;ud=k unfygu xdEiirsm;udk wDxixm;aom a0g[m& kd f H h k kd f H Gf t& “EdkifiHawmfu taxmuftyH@jyKxm;aom t&if;&Siftpdk;&rsm;” owfrwaz: jyavh&=dS uygonf? TEdiirsm;. t"duxljcm;csuvuQ%m S f kfH f rsm;rSm • vltzG@J tpnf;wGif t"duv$r;rd;xm;aom vlwef;pm;rSm ajrydif f k k &Sif}uD;rsm;/ urBmhajrmufjcrf; (zGH@+zdK;+yD;) EdkifiHrsm;. t&if;ESifh r[mrdwf zG@J xm;=uaom b¾mt&if;&Si/f ul;oef;a&mif;0,fa&; vkyief;&Sif vlwef;pm;rsm;omjzpfonf? f • ,if;pD;yGm;a&;rsm;onf EdkifiHjcm;rSoGif;ukefudktpm;xdk;Edkif&ef twGuf pufrxaxmifa&;udvyaqmif=uonf? jynfwi;f 0,fvkd _ l k kf G tm; (aps;uGu) udk jznfqnf;ay;&ef&nf&,onfh xkwvya&; f h G f f k f pepfrsK;d jzpfonf? oGi;f uketay: tcGetaumufukd tqrwef f f jr‡ifhxm;um oGif;ukefyrm% (udkwm) uef@owfaompepfudk toHk;jyKavh&Sd=uonf? • Ediia&; ta&miftaoG;rnfo@kd yif&onfjzpfap/ Ediiawmf (tpd;k &) kfH dS kfH . tcef;u¾onf pD;yGg;a&;vkyfief;rsm;wGif tvGefta&;ygcJh onf? ukexwvyjf cif;rSonf ukepnfzvS,jf cif;/ ukepnfjzef@jzL; f k f k f f jcif;txd pD;yGm;a&;b0. e,fy,freor#wif tpd;k &u0ifa&muf S f G pGufzufonf? 1980 0ef;usirpI aemufyi;f *vdb,fvuaZ;&Si;f acwfukd ajymif; fS kd k kd f vmaomtcg t"duusaom xl;jcm;csuvuQ%mrsm;ajymif;vmonf f udk awG@=u&onf? ‚if;wd@k rm — S 36
  32. 32. a0:vf'efb,fvkd • Ediiwumukeo,rtwGuf t}uD;tus,csKyfuirrsm; avsmh kfH f G f _ f kd f _ _ k f csay;jcif; (wHcg;zGiay;jcif;) 1 ESihf trdsK;om;pufrvyief;rsm;udk hf umuG,ay;onfh ud,usKd ;pD;yGm;umuG,a&;eH&rsm; +ydKusom; f k f f H G jcif;/ • b¾ma&;pD;qif;r_ t}u;D tus,csKyfuirrsm;avsmcsI vGwvyf f kd f _ h f vmjcif;2/ b¾ma&;pD;qif;r_ukd tuef@towfjzpfapaom twm; tqD;rsm;udk z,f&m;ypfvmjcif;f / S • Ediiwum wdu&u&ifE;jrKwfErrsm; vGwvyfpm pD;qif;cGi& kfH k f kd f DS HS _ f G fh vmjcif;/ • odk@aomfvnf; vkyftm;rsm;a&G@ajymif;r_tay: wif;=uyfonfh uef@owfcsursm; qufvufwnf&aejcif; wd@k jzpfygonf? f dS txl;ojzifh zGH@+zdK;qJEdkifiHrsm;wGif “tajccHtaqmuftODqdkif&m (EdkifiHa&;/ pD;yGg;a&;/ Oya'a&;&m) jyefvnfzGJ@pnf;wnfaqmufa&;tpD tpOf” (Structural Adjustment Program) [kac:onfh tpDtpOf rsm;atmufwif ,if;ok@d aom ukeo,a&;vGwvyfr/_ b¾ma&;pD;qif;r_ G f G f f vGwvyfvmjcif;ESihf &if;ES;D jrKwfEr_ vGwvyfvmjcif;rsm; jzpfay:vm=u f HS f jcif;jzpfonf? “tajccHtaqmuftODqi&mjyefvnf zG@J pnf;wnfaqmuf kd f a&;tpDtpOf” udk ajrmufurBmjcrf;Ediirsm;rSma&m/ awmifurBmjcrf;EdiiH kfH kf rsm;rSmyg aqmif&uc=hJ uonf? ajrmufurBmjcrf;Ediirsm;wGif Tjyefvnf G f kfH zGJ@pnf;wnfaqmufr_ tpDtpOfudk (a&*if0g'§oufcsm0g') [kac:=u onf? Tt,ltqt& tpd;k &uvlrzva&; udprsm;wGif aqmif&uay; _ l kH P G f aer_ &yfqdkif;ap&efjzpf+yD;/ aps;uGuftwGif; tpdk;&u0ifa&mufpGufzuf aer_ukd z,f&m;&efjzpfonf? xd@k tjyif vkytm;ESihf t&if;t=um; tjyef S f tvSef ndEi;f r_utqk;H owfap&efEihf t&if;&Sozufu tompD;&ap&ef ‡ _d kd S d l jzpfonf? awmifurBmjcrf;EdkifiHrsm;wGifrl EdkifiHawmfuaxmufyHhxm;aom pDrue;f vkyief;rsm; 1980 ckEprsm;tapmydi;f umvwGif aºuG;+rDtusyf H d f S f k wnf; ESihf &ifqivm&aomtcg acs;aiGEihf taxmuftyHrsm;&&eftwGuf kd f S h “tajccHtaqmuftODqi&mjyefvnfz@JG pnf;wnfaqmufa&;tpDtpOf” kd f (Structural Adjustment Program) udk vduemvkyaqmifc=hJ ujcif; k f f 37
  33. 33. jrefrmEdkifiHzHGŒ_zdK;wdk;wufa&;tjcm;enf;vrf; jzpfEiz,&ygonf? ,if;Ediitawmfrsm;rsm;onf 1980 ckEpf apmapm kd f G f dS kfH S ydi;f rwdicifu tqrwefacs;,lxm;cJ=h uaom olw@kd . aºuG;+rDrsm;udk jyef k kf ray;qyfEdkif=uawmhay? xdktcg +rD&Sifb¾ma&;tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;udk jyefvnfay;qyfEdkif&eftwGuf wckwnf;aomenf;vrf;rSm EdkifiHwum b¾ma&;tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;rS &vrf;omjzpfawmhonf? acs;aiGopfrsm; &&SEiz@kd qv#if ,if;Ediirsm;wGif xda&mufonfh pD;yGm;a&;jyKjyifajymif;vJr_ d kd f kd kfH rsm;vkyf=u&ef EdkifiHwumaiGa=u;&HykHaiGtzGJ@/ urBmhb%frsm;rSaeI awmif;qdkcJhonf? jyKjyifajymif;vJa&;rvkyfygu aiGacs;&efrjzpfEdkif? T urBmhb%fESifh EdkifiHwumaiGa=u;&HyHkaiGtzGJ@wdk@.wGef;tm;aemufwGif tar&duefjynfaxmifp. oabmxm;ygonf? Tod@k awmif;qdcaom k k hJ “tajccHtaqmuftODqif &mjyefvnfz@JG pnf;wnfaqmufa&;tpDtpOf” kd (Structural Adjustment Program) wGif tydi; (3) ydi; yg&onf? kf k f dS • ukeo,a&;pepfukd xda&mufpmxde;csKyfrrsm; avsmcsay;jcif;ESihf f G f G f _ h wHcg;zGifhvGwfvyfr_ay;jcif;/ • ukexwvyr/_ ukepnfzvS,rEihf ukepnfjzef@jzL;r_w@kd wif EdiiH f k f k f f f _ S f G kf awmf. yg0ifpuzufaer_tcef;u¾udk odoomom av#mcsEif G f d h kd apjcif;/ xdef;csKyfxm;aom pnf;rsOf;pnf;urf;rsm;udk y,fzsuf ay;jcif;/ • Ediiawmfyif pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;rsm;udk zsuor;+yD;/ ,cifu EdiiH kfH kd f f d f kf awmfyiu¾rsm;udk yk*vuyditjzpfvajymif;ay;tyfjcif;/ Ediiyif kd f ~ d kf J$ k f H kd pDyGm;a&;vkyfief;}uD;rsm;udk zsufodrf;apjcif; paomudpPrsm; yg0ifonf? xdktcsdefu tm;tenf;qkH;a'orsm;rSm awmifurBmzufjcrf;EdkifiH rsm;jzpfonf? tmz&duwdu&Eiirsm;ESihf vufwiftar&duEdiirsm;wGif k f dS kd f H kfH “tajccHtaqmuftODqi&mjyefvnfz@JG pnf; wnfaqmufa&;tpDtpOf” kd f (Structural Adjustment Program) udk vduemaqmif&uc=hJ u&+yD;/ k f G f T'%fukd tqd;k qk;H cHc=hJ u&onf? tmz&duwduEihf vufwiftar&duwd@k k fS wGif ,cktcsdeftxd pD;yGm;a&;xdkif;rd_if;aejcif;/ pD;yGm;a&; (vlwef;pm;) rnDr#r_ tvsitjref}uD;xGm;vmjcif;/ qif;&JcsKd @wrowfrwrsO;f atmuf f hJ _ S f usa&mufonfh vlOD;a&tcsdK;tpm;}uD;rm;vmaejcif;wdk@u xdkjyKjyif ajymif;vJa&; tpDtpOfrsm;. qd;kf arGa=umif[k owfrwazmfjycJ=h uonf? h S f 38
  34. 34. a0:vf'efb,fvkd TjzpfpOfY urBmay:wGif c|i;f csuxm;&rnfh a'owckawmh&conf? f dS hJ ‚if;rSm ta&S@tm&SEihf ta&S@awmiftm&SEiirsm; jzpf=u+yD;/ “pD;yGm;a&; S kd f H usm;Ediirsm;” [kwifpm; ac:qdc=hJ uonf? ,if;a'oEdiirsm;. pD;yGg;a&; kfH k kfH pepf zG@J pnf;wnfaqmufxm;ykrm vufwiftar&duESihf cyfqifqifw+l yD;/ HS tpd;k &. yg0ifpuzufra&m/ ud,usKd ;pD;yGm;twGuf umuG,ay;xm;r_ G f _ k f f oabmvuQ%mrsm;yg qifw=l uonf? od@k aomfvnf; usm;Ediirsm;u kfH yd@k uewify@kd a&;udk wGe;f tm;ay;vkyaqmif=u+yD;/ tpd;k &rsm;u Tyd@k uef k f f k wify@kd a&;twGuf pufrvyief;rsm;udk axmufyusm;uefyy;kd ay;=uonf? _ kf hH hH usm;Ediirsm;onf vkytm;aps;aygayg& aoma=umifh vkytm;tajcjyK kfH f f xkwfvkyf&aom xkwfukefrsm;udkxkwfum wifydk@a&;udk xufxufoef oefvyaqmif=uonf? aemufyi;f wGif vkytm;tajcjyKpepfrS tqifjh rifh kf kd f onfh t&if;tESD;tajcjyKxkwfvkyfaom ukefpnfrsm;udkxkwfvkyfvm Edionf? xdxuuersm;udk ajrmufurBmzufjcrf;aps;uGursm;od@k wify@kd kf k G f k f f =uonf? ajrmufurBmjcrf;EdkifiHrsm;u ta&S@ESifh ta&S@awmiftm&SEdkifiH rsm;rS wifoi;f ukersm;tay:uef@owfrrsm; wke@f jyefc=hJ uaomtcg usm; G f _ Ediirsm;tcuf}uHK&awmhonf? usm;Ediirsm;u (1980) ckEpumvrsm; kfH kfH S f twGi;f u vGwvyfaomaps;uGujf yKjyifajymif;vJrrsm;vky&ef Ediiwum f _ f kfH tzG@J tpnf;rsm;rS ay;vm onfh zdtm;rsm;udk tmcHEiconfta=umif;rSm kd f hJ h *syefEiirS t&if;tES;D rsm;pD;0ifvmaejcif;a=umifh jzpfonf? kd f H tar&duefESifh Oa&myukefoG,fzufrsm;u (*syefEdkifiHrSukefoG,fr_ &Si;f wrf; tqrwefyaiGjyaeonftay: zdtm;ay;&eftwGu) ,ef;aiG kd h f wefb;dk jyefvnfowfrw&ef zdtm;ay;cJ=h uonf? Tod@k jzifh 1985 ckEpf S f S wGif wd;k jrifvmaom *syef,ef;aiG.wefb;kd u *syefur%rsm;twGuf h k ` D jynfwGif;Yukefxkwfvkyf&ef tukeftusrsm;apcJhonf? *syefukr`%Drsm; taejzifh Edi;f ,SOcsut&qdv#if vkytm;coufomaom w&kwjf ynf/ _ f f k f wdi0rfEihf awmifu&;D ,m;Ediirsm;od@k xkwuevyief;rsm; oGm;a&muf kf S kd kfH f k f k f xkwvy&ef ta=umif;jzpfapcJonf? f k f h 1990 ckESpfwGif *syefwdk@.&if;ESD;jrKwfESHr_twdkif;twm wajz;ajz; avsmenf;usqif;vmcJonf? od@k aomfvnf; xdtcsewif a&*if§oufcsm h h k df G acwftwGif;jzpfay:ajymif;vJr_rsm;a=umifh ajrmufurBmzufjcrf;EdkifiH rsm;wGif tjcm;ae&mrsm;od@k p;D qif;&ef aiGa=u;t&if;tES;D rsm; apmifqi;f h kd 39
  35. 35. jrefrmEdkifiHzHGŒ_zdK;wdk;wufa&;tjcm;enf;vrf; aecJ=h uonf? xdaiGa=u;t&if;tES;D rsm;u tcsejf refjrefEihf a&wdtwGi;f k d S k tjrwfrsm;rsm; &&Sa&;twGuf &if;ES;D jrKwfEEirnfh ae&mud&mvm=uonf? d HS kd f kS avmif;upm;qefaom aiGa=u;udaps;upm;onfh pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;rsm; k f (Speculative Funds) &Sdvm=uonf? tqdkyg pDyGm;a&;vkyfief;rsm;. zdtm;a=umifh tar&duefb¾ma&;0ef}uD;XmeESifh EdkifiHwumaiGa=u; &HyaiGtzG@J / ta&S@awmiftm&SEiirsm;&Sd tpd;k &rsm;taejzifh jyKjyifajymif;vJ Hk kd f H r_rsm;vkyfaqmifvm=u&onf? pD;yGg;a&;vkyfief;rsm;wGif EdkifiHawmfu yg0ifpGufzufxdef;csKyfr_udkavsmhcsvm=u&+yD;/ aiGa=u;t&if;pD;qif;r_ESifh ygwoufI xde;f csKyfxm;aompnf;rsO;f rsm;udk z,f&m;ay;cJ=h u&onf? f S 1994 ckEpEihf 199& ckEpumvt=um;rSmyif aiGa=u;aps;upm;onfh SfS Sf t&if;aiG (tar&duefa':vm bDv,H 100) cef@ ta&S@tm&SEihf ta&S@ D S awmiftm&S a'orsm;ok@d p;D 0ifc+hJ yD; tdr,majrvkyief;/ pawmhaps;uGuEihf f f fS ajra&mif;0,fa&;aps;uGuf wdk@uJhodk@aom aiGjzpfvG,faomvkyfief; u¾rsm;wGif &if;ES;D jrKwfEc=hJ uonf? vkyief;u¾tenf;i,fwif pk+yHKI HS f G aiGv;kH aiG&if;jzifh &if;ES;D jrKwfEaeaomtcg a&mif;vdtm;enf;I 0,fvtm; HS k kd rsm;+yD; aps;uGuysuawmhonf? ,if;vkyief;u¾rsm;udyg +ydKvJysup;D f f f k f apcJygonf? pD;yGm;a&;tajcysuom;jcif;ESitwl &if;ES;D jrKwfEorsm;u h f G hf HS l txdwwvef@jzpfc=hJ uonf? 1997 ckEpf aEG&moDwif aiGa=u;upm;onfh f S G pD;yGm;a&;orm;rsm;u TtajctaeudtcGitaumif;,lI tjrwfxwf k hf k Edi&efqufvuf vkyaqmifc=hJ uygonf? (tar&duefa':vm bDv,H 100) kf f D udk ,if;a'orS &kwfw&ufjyefvnfxkwf,lum tjcm;ae&mrsm;odk@ a&$@ajymif;xm; vdkufonf? xdktcg xdkEdkifiHrsm;. pD;yGm;a&;bHk;bHk; vJ awmhonf? +rDpm;aºuG;,lxm;olur%rsm;u xdaºuG;aiGrsm;udk jyefrqyf k` D k Ediawmhojzifh aemufq;kH enf;vrf;rSm tpd;k &rsm;u xdp;D yGm;a&;vkyief; kf k f rsm;udk EdkifiHydkifodrf;cJh=u&+yD;/ olwdk@.taºuG;rsm;udk vufv$Jajymif;,l vdu=f u&awmhonf? tpd;k &rsm;taejzifvnf; xdo@aqmuf&uEi&ef k h k kd G f kd f twGuf "etiftm;vnf;rvHkavmufaoma=umifh EdkifiHwumaiGa=u; kH k &HyaiGtzG@J (IMF) u ay;vmrnfh “u,fq,fa&;&HyaiG” rsm;udapmifh Hk qdkif; =u&awmhonf? T “u,fq,fa&;&HyHkaiG” rsm;ESifhtwl ,cif apmapmydkif;u tmz&duESifhvufwiftar&duwdkuf&Sd EdkifiHrsm;wGif aqmif&uc=hJ u&aom “tajccHtaqmuftODqi&m jyefvnfz@JG pnf;wnf G f kd f 40
  36. 36. a0:vf'efb,fvkd aqmufa&;tpDtpOf” (Structural Adjustment Program) udvuem k kd f aqmif&Guf =u&awmhonf? “tajccHtaqmuftODqdkif&m jyefvnf zG@J pnf;wnfaqmufa&;tpDtpOf” (Structural Adjustment Program) rsm;rS vGwfajrmufaecJhonf urBm.wckwnf;aoma'ojzpfaom T a'oonfvnf; trsm;enf;wl Tvrf;a=umif;ay: vdu=f u&jyefawmh k onf? *vdb,fvuaZ;&Si;f ESihf vpfb&,fvuaZ;&Si;f ac: wcg;zGionfh k kd f kd f hf pD;yGm;a&;pepfw@kd u pD;yGg;a&;bmom&yfjzifygwouf+yD; ‚if;wd@k . aumif; h f uGuuaxmufjyjiif;ckef avh&=dS uygonf? aps;uGuukd vGwvwvyfvyf f kd f f G f cGijhf yKxm;jcif;tm;jzifh aps;uGuu OpPm"eudk trsm;od@k jzef@ca&muf&ap f JG dS Edi+f yD;/ ydIcsr;f omºuG,0aom b0jzpfapatmif zefw;D ay;Edivrrnf[k k k f k f d hf qd=k uygonf? rnfo@kd yifjzpfap Tonfrm oabmw&m;a&;&mt& jiif;ckH S r_w&yfomjzpf+yD;/ Toabmw&m;onfvnf; rnfonfh vlwef;pm;. tusKd;pD;yGg;twGuftusKd;aqmifay;aeaom oabmw&m;jzpfa=umif; oabmayguem;vnfxm;&ef rsm;pGmta&;}uD;ygonf? f 41
  37. 37. jrefrmEdkifiHzHGŒ_zdK;wdk;wufa&;tjcm;enf;vrf; EdiiwumaiGa=u;b¾ma&;/ pD;yGm;a&;tzG@J tpnf;}uD;rsm; — kfH ‚if;wdk@. vkyfief;wm0efrsm;ESifh awmifurBmbufjcrf;EdkifiHrsm; tay:tusKd;oufa&mufapr_? EdiiwumaiGa=u;&HyaiGtzG@J (tdi-trf-tufz)/ kfH kH kf f urBmb%f/ urBmueo,a&;tzG@J ('AvsL-wD-td) ESihf h h k f G f k ta&S@awmiftm&SEdkifiHrsm;toif; (tmqD,H) EdkifiHwum aiGa=u;&HykHaiGtzGJ@ (tdkif-trf-tufzf) 'kw,urBmppf+yD;umvwGif tdi-trf-tufzf tzG@J ukd zG@J cpOfumvu d kf hJ &nf&,csurm aiGa=u;pepftrsK;d rsK;d t=um; wnf&aeaom zvS,rEe;f G f f S dS f _ _ xm;udk wnf+idrr&ap&ef aqmif&uay;&efjzpfonf? Tpepfonf a&$ f _ dS G f wefb;kd tay:tajcjyKxm;+yD;/ a':vmwefb;kd ESihf cswqufxm;ygonf? d f (odk@jzifhtar&duefa':vmonf urBmht&HaiGa=u;jzpfoGm;apcJhygonf?) 1972 ckEpwif tar&dueforRw &pfcswepfqifvufxufY a':vmESihf S f G f a&$wefzdk;csdwfqufxm;jcif;udk jzwfawmufvdkuf+yD;/ aiGa=u;wefzdk;udk vGwvwvyfvyfar#mxm;aom aiGa=u;avmuudk pwifcygonf? tdif G f hJ kf trf-tufzf onf ‚if;. rlvwm0efr&Sd awmhaomfvnf;/ wm0eftopf tcef;u¾opfwckukd &cJygonf? rdrw@kd . xkwuewefb;kd xuf ydrI h d f k f k kd EdiijH cm;rSwifoi;f ae=u&aom Ediirsm;taejzifh aiGpm&if;&Si;f wrf;wGif kf G kfH vkaiGpm&if;jy vmcJ=h uygonf? TvdaiGuay;qyf&eftwGuf jyifyb%f d k kd rsm; od@k r[kwf EdiiwumpD;yGm;a&;tzG@J tpnf;rsm;rS aiGacs;,lIay;cJ=h u& kfH ygonf ? td k i f - trf - tuf z f tzG @ J t aejzif h xd k z G H @ +zd K ;qJ E d k i f i H r sm;. ukefoG,fa&;wGif rwefwqukefoG,fwifoGif;jcif;rjyKap&ef/ wenf; aiGa=u;pm&if; &Si;f wrf;rsm;ESiygwoufI vdaiGjyr_ rrsm;ap&ef/ paom hf f k csrSwfxm;aom pnf;rsOf;pnf;urf;rsm;udk vdkufem-rvdkufemonfudk apmif h = unf h & aom wm0ef u d k , l & ygawmh o nf ? td k i f - trf - tuf z f tzG@J taejzifh Twm0efu,chJ &jcif;rSm pD;yGm;tajcrysuapa&;twGuf kd l f ta&;ay:acs;aiGrsm; xkway; Edipr;f &Saoma=umifvnf; jzpfonf? f kf G d h 42
  38. 38. a0:vf'efb,fvkd 1980 ckEprsm;twGi;f u tdi-trf-tufzf tzG@J . vkyief;aqmifwm Sf kf f rsm;udk wdk;csJ@cJhonf? pD;yGm;a&;t&vGwfvyfr_&Sda&;/ xdef;csKyfuef@owf r_rsm;udk avsmhcsay;a&;ESifh zufpHkvkyfief;rsm;yk*~vduydkifjyKvkyfa&;wdk@udk wGef;aqmfaom wpHkvHk;t&qdkv#if “tajccHtaqmuftODqdkif&mjyef vnfzGJ@pnf;wnfaqmufa&;tpDtpOf” (Structural Adjustment Program) udk t"dutaumiftxnfaz:aqmif&Guf&ef armif;ESifae onfh ud,pm;vS,Xme jzpfvmonf? T “tajccHtaqmuftODqi&m k f f kd f jyefvnfz@JG pnf;wnfaqmufa&;tpDtpOf” taejzifh rdrw@kd .vlaer_pepf d vnfygwaqmif&uaeyHk yHp.twGi;f usustxd 0ifa&mufI ajymif;vJr_ f G f kH rsm; jzpfaponf? tajccHusaom rduu&dp;D yGm;a&;ESihf rufu&dp;D yGm;a&; k f k k ay:vpDrsm;ajymif;vJa&;udk awmif;qdv#uf vlrtzG@J tpnf;twGi;f rsm;pGm k _ ajymif;vJ&ucwfrrsm; jzpfapcJonf? kd f _ h 1990 ckESpfrsm;wGif tar&duefjynfaxmifpktpdk;&. zdtm;ay; awmif;qdkcsufa=umifh/ tdkif-trf-tufzftzGJ@wGif aemufxyft"du aqmif&Guf&rnfh vkyfief;wm0ef&vmcJhonf? ,if;vkyfief;rSm aiGa=u; t&if;tESD;rsm;udk uef@owfxdef;csKyfxm;r_rS uif;vGwfapa&;twGuf wGe;f tm;ay; a&;jzpfonf? Oyrm — aiGa=u;t&if;tES;D rsm;tm; vk;H 0 OkH vGwvyfpm pD;qif;cGiay;a&;/ t&if;tES;D aiGa=u;rsm;.b%fpm&if; f G hf (Account) ESifh oufqdkifaomudpPrsm;wGif vkH;0vGwfvyfapa&;ESifh t&if;pD;qif;r_ukd uef@owfxm;r_rsm;z,f&m;ypfa&;wd@k jzpfonf? S 43
  39. 39. jrefrmEdkifiHzHGŒ_zdK;wdk;wufa&;tjcm;enf;vrf; urBmb%f (World Bank) h 1950 ckESpfrsm;wGif ppf'%fcHcJh&aom Oa&myjyefvnfxlaxmifa&; &nf&,csujf zifh zG@J pnf;cJaom tzG@J r&nf&,csuajymif;vJum urBmb%f G f h S G f f h jzpfay:vmcJonf? ‚if;.&nf&,csurm ajrmufurBmjcrf;rS t&if;tjrpf h G f f S rsm; awmifurBmjcrf;Ediirsm;od@k pD;qif;apa&;ESifh zG@H +zdK;a&;tultnDrsm; kfH ay;onfh tzG@J tpnf;wcktjzpf aqmif&ua&;jzpfonf? urBm@b%fwif G f G ajrmufurBmzufjcrf;EdkifiHrsm;onf t"duusaomEdkifiHrsm;jzpf+yD;/ ta=umif;rSm t&if;xnfh0ifa=u;pepft& trsm;pkxnfh0ifxm;aom a=umifh jzpfonf? urBmb%fwif tqH;k tjzwfjyKvkyonftcg rJay;Edif h G f h k onfh tiftm;onf xnf0ifonft&if;tay:tajccHxm;I qH;k jzwfcsuf h h ay;ydici&onf? k f G hf dS 1960 ckESpfrsm;aESmif;ydkif;ESifh 1970 ckESpfrsm;a&mufaomtcg urBmb%f. axmufya&;bwf*suaiGyrm% tqrwef }uD;rm;vmcJh h hH f onf? zufpz@HG +zdK;a&;pDrue;f rsm;udk wm0ef,aqmif&u&aom yifrtzG@J kH H d l G f tpnf;}uD;jzpfvmcJhonf? urBmhb%f. taxmuftyHhtrsm;pkonf tpdk;&rsm;rSwqifh jzwfoef;oGm;=u&onf? 1980 ckESpfrsm;twGif; a&mufvmaomtcg tar&duefjynfaxmifpkwGif tm%m&vmonfh vufsm*dk%f;/ vGwfvyfaomaps;uGufpD;yGg;a&;pepfudk axmufcHtm;ay; olrsm;u urBmhb%ftay: a0zefar;cGef;xkwfvmcJh=uonf? wcsKd@u qdv#if urBmb%fuzsuor;f ypf&efyif aqG;aEG;cJ=h uonf? ta=umif;rSm k h kd f d urBmhb%ftaejzifh tpdk;&rsm;rSwqifh tultnDay;aoma=umifh cdkifrmaom A[dktpdk;&rsm;jzpfvmap&ef zefwD;ay;ae+yD; qdk&S,fvpf0g' usio;kH &eftwGuf tajctaeESitcGitvrf;rsm;udk zefw;D ay;aeonf[k hf hf hf jrifvm=uaom a=umifhjzpfonf? aemufqkH;Y urBmhb%ftaejzifh “tajccHtaqmuftOD qdi&mjyefvnfz@JG pnf;wnfaqmufa&;tpDtpOf” kf rsm;udk ‚if;.vkyfief;pOfwGif xnfhoGif;jyXmef;apjcif;jzifh/ ‚if;.vkyfief; wm0efrsm;udk ajymif;vJapv#uf urBmb%fukd zsuor;f rcH&apa&;twGuf h f d u,fwifEivuf =uonf? rlvwm0efjzpfaom zG@H +zdK;r_tultnDay;a&; kd f kd vkyief;rsm;tpm;/ urBmb%fonf pD;yGm;a&;wHcg;zGiay;apa&;twGuf f h hf armif;ESiwuwe;f aeaom tiftm;pkw&yf jzpfvmcJonf? f kd f G h 44
  40. 40. a0:vf'efb,fvkd urBmhukefoG,fa&;tzGJ@ (WTO) urBmueo,a&;tzG@J onf 1948 ckEpuxJu ay:ayguvmcJ&ef&aomf h k f G f S f f h dS vnf;/ aemuftESpf (50) t=um 1995 ckEpusrom wu,ftaumif S f S txnfay:vmcJonf? TumvtawmtwGi;f *wf (GATT)3 ac: h oGi;f ukeqi&m taumufceEihf ukeo,a&;qdi&mtaxGaxG oabm f kd f G f S f G f kf wlnDcsuftzGJ@ taejzifh&SdcJhaomfvnf;/ vufawG@taumiftxnfaz: aqmif&uEir_ rsm;pGmtm;enf; cJonf? 1980 ckEprsm; tapmydi;f wGif G f kd f h S f k tar&duefjynfaxmifp. pD;yGm;a&;onf ukeo,rtay:ydrkd rSwnfvm k f G f _ k D +yD; yd@k uersm;twGuf aps;uGursm;vdtyfvmcJonf? TtajctaewGif k f f k h ukefoG,fr_udk }uD;=uyfxdef;csKyf&eftwGuf ydkrdkcdkifrmawmifhwif;aom urBmhtzGJ@tpnf;w&yf&Sd&rnfqdkonfh t,ltqjyefvnftouf0if vmcJonf? &SpEp=f um ndEi;f aqG;aEG;cJ=h u+y;D aemuf O&ka*G;pm;yG0i;f tpnf; h fS ‡ _d J kd ta0;t+yD;wGi/f urBmueo,a&;tzG@J }uD; ('AvsL-wD-td) udk zG@J pnf;cJh h k f G f k =uonf ? urB m h u k e f o G , f a &;tzG J @ }uD ; . oabmwl n D c suf r sm;t& ukefoG,fr_wGif ta&twGuft&uef@owfr_rsm;udk w&m;r0ifa=umif; owfrwjf yXmef;cJ+h y;D jzpfovd/k ,if;wd@k tpm; oGi;f uketay:pnf;=uyfonfh S f tcGepepftjzpfom ajymif;vJowfrwEi=f uawmhonf? f S f kd urBmueo,a&;tzG@J }uD;taejzifh oabmwlncsursm;wGif e,f h k f G f D f y,fus,fus,fjyef@jyef@udk v$rf;+cHKxm;+yD;/ pdkufysdK;a&;xGufukefqdkif&m ukeo,rvyief;rsm;ESihf 0efaqmifrvyief;qdi&mukeo,r_ (a&&&Sa&; f G f_ kf _ kf kf f G f d rSonf ynma&;0efaqmifrvyief;rsm;txd) rsm;txdyg0ifonf? 'AvsL_ kf wD-tdk tzG@J onf ukeo,a&;vkyief;rsm;tjyif ukeo,rEiqufE,f f G f f f G f _ S hf G aom jyemrsm;udyg v$r;f +cHKaqmif&uvmcJonf? Oyrmtm;jzifh — k G f h • ukefoG,fa&;ESifhoufqdkifaom &if;ESD;jrKwfESHr_y%mrqdkif&m oabmwlncsursm; (TRIMs)4 D f • ukefoG,fa&;ESifhoufqdkifaom enf;ynmqdkif&m rlydkifcGifhqdkif&m oabmwlncsursm; (TRIPs)5 ponfw@kd jzpfonf? D f ukeo,a&;ESioufqiaom &if;ES;D jrKwfEry%mrqdi&m oabm f G f hf kd f HS _ kf wlncsursm; (TRIMs) t&qdv#if a'oqdi&mzlva&;twGuf owf D f k kf kH rSwaomcGwrf;pepfrsK;d udk xlaxmif&efrjzpfEiawmhay? pufrvyief;rsm; f J kd f _ kf 45
  41. 41. jrefrmEdkifiHzHGŒ_zdK;wdk;wufa&;tjcm;enf;vrf; xlaxmifa&;twGuf (rdrvyief;tusK;d pD;yGg;udumuG,ay;aom) udpP d k f k f rsm;udkvnf; aqmif&Gufjcif;jyKEdkifawmhrnfr[kwfay? ukefoG,fa&;ESifh oufqdkifaom enf;ynmqdkif&m rlydkifcGifhqdkif&m oabmwlnDcsufrsm; (TRIPs) onf enf;ynmjyef@ygG ;r_ukd umuG,&ef&nf&,onfh vky&yfrsK; f G f f d jzpfonf? (txl;ojzifh tm&SEdkifiHrsm;twGuf xdef;csKyf&ef&nf&G,fjcif; jzpfonf) wif;usyfonfh enf;ynmrlydkifcGifhqdkif&m rSwfykHwifpnf;rsOf; rsm;jyXmef;jcif;jzifh enf;ynmrsm;jyef@ESHaer_udkwm;qD;onf? (TRIPs) onf pufrenf;ynmrsm;wkyI pufrvyief;xlaxmifjcif;rsK;d udk Oya' _ _ k f t& wm;jrpfxm;jcif;jzpfonf? ,if;onf obm0t& todynmrsm; jyef@E@HS ruuef@owfvuojzifh topfzefw;D xm;aom Oya'rsm; jzpfonf? _ kd kd f zG@H +zdK;qJEiirsm;.tjrift&qdv#if pduysd K;a&;qdi&m oabmwlnD kd f H k k f kf csursm;onf ta&;t}uD;qk;H jzpfygonf? ta=umif;rSm tar&duefEihf f S Oa&myEdkifiHrsm;&Sd pkdufysKd;a&;xGufukefqdkif&maps;uGufrsm;udk vGefpGmrS umuG,wm;qD;ay;r_rsm; aqmif&uxm;+yD;/ zG@H +zdK;qJEiirsm;wGirl ‚if;wd@k f G f kd f H f ydkv#HaomxGufukefrsm;udk pk+yHKwifydk@Edkif&ef aps;uGufrsm;udk twif;zGifh ay;cdi;f aeaoma=umifh jzpfonf? k urBmueo,a&;tzG@J }uD;taejzifh “wEdii/H rJwrJ” pepft& xde;f h k f G f kf csKyfxm;onfqaomfvnf; vufawG@q;Hk jzwfcsucs&mwGirl tiftm;}uD; kd f f EdiiH (4) EdiiEihf tjcm;EdiiH (17) Edii/H (18) Ediiw@kd u cs,v,q;kH jzwf kf kfH S kf kf kfH f S f aeaoma=umifjh zpfonf? trSewu,f ndEi;f aqG;aEG;=uonfh ae&mwGirl f ‡ _d f “tcef;pdr;f vkyief;pOf” (The Green Room Process) [kac:qdae=u f k onfh aqG;aEG;yGJrsm;odk@ vufa&G;pifEdkifiHtcsKd@udkom zdwf=um;aqG;aEG; qH;k jzwfcsursm; csae=uaoma=umifh jzpfonf? f 46
  42. 42. a0:vf'efb,fvkd tmqD,HtzGJ@ (ASEAN) tmqD,HtzGJ@.tjzpfqdk;rSm pD;yGm;a&;pDrHudef;rsm;ut+rJwap EdkifiHa&; udpPrsm;. vufatmufa&mufoGm;wwfjcif; jzpfonf? tmqD,Hudk pwifzGJ@pnf;pOfu uGefjrLepfqef@usifa&;tzGJ@wcktjzpf zGJ@pnf;cJhjcif;jzpf onf? tmqD,tzG@J twGi;f Y tzG@J 0ifEiirsm;onf r[mAsL[mt&udk H kd f H xifxif&m;&Sm;uGjJ ym;r_rsm; &Sae=uonf? EdiitcsK@d (Oyrm- tif'e;D &Sm;/ S d kfH kd rav;&Sm;) u tmqD,ukd tzG@J 0ifEiirsm;t=um; vGwvyfaom ukef H kd f H f oG,a&;pepf xlaxmifjcif;tm;jzifh aqmif&uvonf? tzG@J 0ifEiirsm; f G f kd kd f H t=um; ,cif “usm;Ediirsm;” .atmifjrifrpepfukd jyef@ygG ;ap&efaqmif kfH _ usO;f ay;onfh ykpwcktjzpfjrif=uonf? tjcm;Ediirsm; (puFmyl) url H H kfH tmqD,ukd EdiiwumvGwvyfaomukeo,a&;. a&S@ajy;tzG@J wck[k H kfH f f G f &_jrif=uonf? tmqD,.a'oqdi&m yl;aygi;f aqmif&ua&;pDrcsut& H kf G f H f tm&Svwvyfaom ukeo,a&;a'o6 (Asia Free Trade Area) udk G f f G f xlaxmif&efjzpfaomfvnf;/ wu,fwef; (AFTA) jzpfajrmufvmap&ef avmavmq,ftm;jzifh rnfor# trSewu,ftm;xkwrrsK;d r&Say? l f f _ d tmqD,tzG@J . wlnaomtajccHjyemrSm Ta'otwGi;f ae H D xdi=f uaom jynfovxrsm;u tmqD,prcsuukd olw@kd Eihf roufqif k l l k H D H f S kd ovdk oabmxm;ae=ujcif;yifjzpfonf? tmqD,onf Ediia&;xdyyi;f H kfH f kd acgif;aqmifwpkESifh wwfodynm&Sif xdyfydkif;wpk. pDrHcsuftjzpfom qufvufwnf&Sdae+yD;/ tmqD,HtzGJ@twGif; 'Drdkua&pDenf;us jyKjyif ajymif;vJjcif;rsm;vnf; aqmif&uEijf cif;vnf; r&Sao;ay? tmqD,tzG@J G f kd d H u tcsejf zKef;aecsewif tjcm;a'oqdi&mtzG@J rsm;u rsm;pGmtaumif d d f G kf txnfay: c&D;a&mufcJh=u+yD;/ w&kwfEdkifiHtaejzifh urBmvkH;qdkif&m pD;yGm;a&;.wu,fhtiftm;w&yftjzpf ay:xGef;vmcJhonf? tmqD,H Ediirsm;twGuf ar;p&mar;cGe;f rSm — rdrw@kd Eiirsm;tzd@k w&kwEii. kfH d kd f H f kd f H xkwueypPn;f rsm;twGuf aps;em}uD;wcktjzpf ajymif;ae+yDvm; qdonfh f kf k ar;cGef;yifjzpfawmhonf? tmqD,HuJhodk@aom a'oqdkif&mpD;yGm;a&; tzGJ@tpnf;rsdK;&Sdzdk@awmh vdktyfygonf? odk@aomfvnf; xda&mufonfh jyKjyifajymif;vJrrsm; rvkyaqmifEiygu tmqD,onf bmr#tok;H us _ f kd f H vdrrnf r[kway? hf f 47
  43. 43. jrefrmEdkifiHzHGŒ_zdK;wdk;wufa&;tjcm;enf;vrf; jrefrmEdiitwGuf tjcm;a&G;p&mvrf;a=umif;rSm rnfonfvrf;jzpfEio kfH h kd f enf;? a&G;cs,&mwGif rnfonftcsursm;udk tajccHIa&G;cs,f rnfenf;? f h f jrefrmEdiitaejzifh “t}uHwv#iaemufvomp+rJqonfh tusKd ;tjrwf kfH l f l kd rsKd ;” &&eftcGitvrf;&Sygonf? ta=umif;rSm aemufusrjS yKjyifajymif;vJ hf d cGivy&aoma=umifh a&S@rvrf;xGiom;olrsm;. aumif;usK;d qd;k jypfrsm;udk hf k f S f G oifcef;pm,lEiaom a=umifjh zpfonf? vGeconf (25) ESpf =umumv kd f f hJ rsm;twGif; awmifurBmjcrf;EdkifiHrsm;udkwGef;tm;ay;cJhaom zGH+zdK;r_ykHpH trsK;d rsK;d udk taotcsm qef;ppfoifcef;pm,l&ef ta&;}u;D ygonf? • urBmp;yGg;a&;ESihf qufpyfxm;aomukexwvyryp? rdrw@kd . h D f k f k f _ kH H d pD;yGm;a&;onf urBmhvkH;qdkif&mpD;yGg;a&;pepfESifh csdwfqufaygif; pyfxm;+y;D urBm}u;D . ukexwvyrrsm;wm0efca0vkyuirt& f k f kf_ JG f kd f _ xkwvyaejcif;ESihf aps;uGut&vnf;aygi;f pnf;xm;aom yHprsK;d f k f f k H jzpfygonf? • acwfopfvpfA&,fay:vpDrsm;? ukefoG,fr_rsm;udk vGwfvyfpGm cGifhjyKxm;jcif;/ uef@owfxdef;csKyfr_rsm;rS avsmhayghay;a&;ESifh yk*vuydivufo@kd vkyief;rsm;v$ajymif;ay;a&;? ~ d kf f J • xkwfukefwifydk@r_udktav;ay;jcif;? ydk@ukefrsm;vufcHrnfh aps; uGufrsm;udk rdrdukefxkwfvkyfa&;pepf armif;ESiftm;tif*sifwck tjzpf &_jrifaompepfjzpfygonf? jynfwi;f 0,fvtm;udk tav; G kd xm;rwGufyg? • EdkifiHjcm;t&if;tESD;rsm;tay: rSDcdkr_? EdkifiHjcm;t&if;tESD;rsm;udk EdkifiHzGH@+zdK;wdk;wufr_twGuf ta&;ygaom r[mAsL[mtqHk; tjzwftjzpf &_jrifyrsK;d jzpfygonf? kH • aºuG;+rDwif&Sdr_? ydk@ukefudktav;ay;onfh acwfopfvpfA&,f oabmw&m;t& pD;yGg;a&;zG@H +zdK;wd;k wufr_ yHpwif Edii.pD;yGm;a&; kH G kfH vkyief;rsm;taejzifh tdi-trf-tufz/f urBmb%fEihf ul;oef; f kf h S a&mif;0,fa&;b%frsm;/ yk*vuaiGa=u;ta&mif;t0,fvyief; ~ d k f rsm;. aiGa=u;t&if;tES;D rsm;tay: rsm;pGmrScae&+yD; aºuG;+rDrsm; D kd jzifh weifwyd;k 0efyd aewwfygonf? h 48
  44. 44. a0:vf'efb,fvkd • obm0&if;jrpfukd tav;xm;tok;jyKr_? +ydKifqirwif tompD; H kd f _ G &Edi&eftav;xm;+yD;/ obm0&if;jrpfrsm;udk rwefwqxkw,l kf f oHk;pGJr_ yHkpHrsKd;jzpfygonf? ta=umif;rSm rdrdwdk@tom&EdkifajcrSm obm0&if;jrpfrsm; azmazmoDo&aoma=umif[k ,lqyHrsK;d jzpf D dS h k ygonf? • vkytm;udk tav;xm;tok;jyKr_? Ediiwivytm;aygrsm;aom f H kfH Gf k f a=umifh pufr_vkyfief;xlaxmifjcif;udk vkyftm;rsm;rsm;tokH;jyK &aome,fy,frsm;tay: tav;xm;tm&kHpdkufxkwfvkyfr_rsKd; jzpfygonf? Oyrmtm;jzifh- vloHk;ukefypPnf;xkwfvkyfief;rsm; jzpfygonf? xd@k tjyif rdrw@kd Eiirsm;taejzifh t&if;tjrpf ºuG,0 d kd f H f aomfvnf; vltiftm;&Sm;yg;aom a'orsm;od@k vkytm;wify@kd f aom pD;yGm;a&;yHprsK;d udvnf; aqmif&uc=hJ uygonf? k H k G f • pufr_zGH@+zdK;a&;udktav;xm;I v,f,mpdkufysKd;a&;vkyfief;udk vufatmufcHtjzpf,lqjcif;? +rdK@jya'ozGH@+zdK;a&;udk tm&Hkpdkuf aomfvnf; aus;vufa'oudk vspvsLjyKxm;jcif;/ ta=umif;rSm f “pufr_zGH@+zdK;wdk;wufa&;uyxr” [laom t,ltqrsKd;udk vufuixm;um aqmif&ujf cif;jzifh pduysKd ;a&;vkyief;rsm;. zG@H +zKd ; kd f G k f f r_ukd xdi;f rdi;f apcJjh cif;rsK;d jzpfonf? k _ ar;cGe;f xkwp&mudprsm;rSm — tem*wfjrefrmEdiiwif rdrw@kd tae f P kfH G d jzifh tvm;wlp;D yGg;a&;pepfz@JG pnf;yHrsK;d jzifh jyefvnfwnfaqmufvygovm; k kd qdaom udpjP zpfonf? zG@H +zdK;qJEiiwcktzd@k rdrp;D yg;G a&;zG@H +zdK;wd;k wufa&; k kd f H d twGuf A[dtpd;k &tm%mydirsm;taejzifh pDrcsursm;a&;qGvyaqmif k kf H f J k f &efrm vdtyfukd vdtyfaomtajctae jzpfonf? pD;yGm;a&;rl0g'rsm;. S k k &nfre;f csursm;u rnfo@kd O;D wnfoifonf rnfonft&mudprsm; jzpfoifh S f h h P onfukd qk;H jzwf+yD; tm%mydirsm;u vkyaqmif&OD;rnfjzpfonf? vlt kf f rsm;omwlnr#tusK;d cHpm;cGi&&Sa&;avm/ vl@todi;f t0di;f tm; r+ydKuG& D hf d k k J avatmif xde;f odr;f a&;avm/ tysuoabmraqmifaom zG@H +zdK;wd;k wuf f r_ypukd zefw;D vdoavm/ zufp[efcsunaom zG@H +zdK;wd;k wufr_ avm/ Hk H k kH f D pDrHudef;qdkonfrSm aps;uGufudk vufeufu&d,mwck tjzpftokH;csI wd;k wufr&mjcif;avm/ aps;uGu.vufo@kd tukex;kd tyfum rdrw@kd . _ S f f d 49
  45. 45. jrefrmEdkifiHzHGŒ_zdK;wdk;wufa&;tjcm;enf;vrf; vl@tajccHwefbdk;rsm;ESifh &nfrSef;csufrsm;udk aps;uGuf.vufatmufcH ozG,fxm;&Sdjcif;avm ponfjzifh ar;cGef;rsm;pGm qufvufar;zG,f&Sdyg onf? pD;yGm;a&;pepfqdkonfrSm ajym&v#ifrsm;pGmEdkifiHa&;ESifh ,SufEG,f qufpyfaeaom jzpfpOfwckjzpfygonf? rnfou bmudyiqif &&Soenf;? l k kd f kd d rnfonfhtwGufa=umifh ydkifqdkif&&Sdoenf;? rnfonfhyHk rnfonfhenf; jzifyiqi&&Soenf;? pojzifar;cGe;f rsm;udk ajzqd&ygrnf? pD;yGm;a&;ynm h kd f kd f d h k udk wenf;tm;jzifh Ediia&;qdi&mabm*aA'[kvnf; ac:avh&=dS uygonf? kfH kf ,ae@pD;yGm;a&;ynmonf udef;*%ef;ocsFmoabmqdkif&mzufodk@ tawmfav;a&G@avsmvmygonf? oabmw&m;rsm;udk vufawG@tjzpf taumiftxnfazmfaomyHpo@kd ajymif;vJvmygonf? pD;yGm;a&;ynm&Sif kH rsm;vufodk@ rdrdwdk@EdkifiHrsm;.pD;yGm;a&;udk xdef;ausmif;armif;ESif&ef xdk;tyfvdkuf=uaomtcg pD;yGg;a&;ynma&;/ zGH@+zdK;wdk;wufr_yg ysufpD; &ygawmhonf? ta=umif;rSm xdkynm&Sifqdkolrsm;onf pD;yGg;a&;ynm qdkonfrSm rsm;pGmEdkifiHa&;jyemrsm;ESifh qufpyf,SufEG,faeonfudk rjrif=uaoma=umifh jzpfonf? pD;yGg;a&;qdkif&m rl0g'rsm;csrSwf&mwGif EdkifiHa&;acgif;aqmifrsm;taejzifh rjzpfraeqkH;jzwfcsrSwfay;&rnfh aomhcsuusaom udprsm;&Sygonf? ‚if;wd@k rm — f P d S • aps;uGuEiEiiawmf.u¾t=um; xde;nday;jcif;? f S hf kd f H f ‡ • pdkufysdK;a&;u¾ESifh pufr_vkyfief;u¾t=um; xdef;nd‡ay;jcif;? v,f,mpduysKd ;a&;vkyief;udk t"duvkyief;tjzpf OD;aqmifom; k f f f G &ef rlcsrwrnfavm? S f • ydiqirEihf wdi;jynf.0ifaiGukd jyefvnfca0jcif;qdi&mrlrsm;/ k f kd f _ S k f JG kf • zGH@+zdK;wdk;wufa&;ESifh pufr_vkyfief;xlaxmifa&;wdk@twGuf ukef oG,a&;ay:vpDrsm; csrwjf cif;? rdr.arG;uif;p pufrvyief;wd;k f S d _ k f wuf&ioef}uD;xGm;apa&;twGuf oGi;f ukecepepfEihf oGi;f ukef Sf fG f S udkwm uef@owfaompepfudk toHk;jyKIumuG,fay;rnfvm;? Todk@ aqmif&Gufygu urBmhukefoG,fa&;tzGJ@}uD;. rlrsm;ESifh xdywuf jyemawG@vmawmhrnf jzpfonf? f kd 50
  46. 46. a0:vf'efb,fvkd • EdkifiHawmfrSyHhydk;ay;jcif;? a'otqifhukefxkwfvkyfief;rsm;udk jzpfEioa&G@ qufvuf&ioefaeap&ef A[dtpd;k &rSyy;kd r_rsm;ay;ae kd f Sf k hH &OD;rnfjzpfygonf? ta=umif;rSm ukefxkwfvkyfief;rsm;udk A[dk wae&mwnf;rS csKyfudkifxkwfvkyfjcif;rsKd; rjzpfapoifhyJ/ a'o toD;oD; tqiftoD;oD;Y jzef@cxwvyEiap&ef A[dcsKyfuirukd h JG k f k f kd f k kd f _ avsmhcsay;&rnfjzpfonf? • a*[aA' (obm0ygw0ef;usi) ESihf vltzG@J tpnf;? zG@H +zdK;r_vyf f f k ief;rsm;udk OD;pm;ay;aqmif&uaeaomfvnf; obm0ygw0ef;usif G f f ESihf o[Zmw rjzpfojzif/h ygw0ef;usiukd ysup;D aprnf qdygu f f f k wd;k wufronf a&wdoabmom aqmifvrrnf? umv=umvm _ k d hf onfESifhtr# zGH@+zdK;wdk;wufr_rsm;onfvnf; jyefvnfysufpD;& onfEihf }uHK&vdrrnf? S hf txl;ojzifh jrefrmEdiitwGuf t}uHjyK&aomf — kfH • zuf'&,fjynfaxmifptwGi; ukexwvyief;yHpukd rnfuo@kd k f f k f k f k H hJ aqmif&urnfenf;? pD;yGg;a&;t& rnfuo@kd yl;aygi;f aqmif&uf G f hJ G Edioenf;? enf;ynmt& rnfuo@kd yl;aygi;f aqmif&u=f urnf kf hJ G enf;? ukeo,rj_ yK =u&mwGivnf; jynfaxmifp.tcsK@d ae&mrsm; f G f f k u zG@H +zdK;wd;k wufr&Ediaomfvnf; tcsK@d aom a'orsm;/ jynfe,f _ kf rsm;u xdcuepfemae&aom yHprsK;d udvnf; a&Smif&m;&efvtyf kd f k H k S kd ygonf? • 'Drua&pD jrefrmEdiiawmfopftaejzifh urBmueo,a&;tzG@J / kd kfH h k f G f urBmaiGa=u;&HyaiGtzG@J Eihf urBmb%f paom EdiiptzG@J tpnf; h Hk S h k f H kH rsm;ESifh rnfodk@rnfyHkqufqHa&;rsKd;xlaxmifxm;&Sdrnfqdkonf rSmvnf; pdwf0ifpm;zG,faumif;I }udKwifawG;qxm;oifhaom ar;cGef;rsm;jzpfygonf? 51
  47. 47. jrefrmEdkifiHzHGŒ_zdK;wdk;wufa&;tjcm;enf;vrf; tkypvuaqG;aEG;r_&vm'frsm; tESpcsKyfEihf ar;cGe;rsm; ok;oyfcsursm; f k kd f f S f H f ES;D aESmzvS,ywif yg0ifwufa&muforsm;u v,f,majrESihf yk*vu f JG G l ~ d ydkifypPnf;OpPmrsm;udk trsKd;om;pD;yGm;a&;pepfwGif rnfuJhodk@aygif;pyfEdkif rnfenf;[kar;jref;=uonf? a'guwm a0gv'gebvvu ,if;udponf f f f J f kd P trsK;d om;pD;yGm;a&;pepftwGi;f rnfonfyiqiryo¾mefrsKd ;udk cGijhf yK h kd f kd f _ kH rnfenf; qdonftcsuEihf ygwoufaomjyemjzpfonf[k ajzonf? k h f S f rsm;aomtm;jzifh cGifhjyKxm;avh&Sd=uaom ydkifqdkifr_yHko¾mefrsm;rSm EdkifiHawmfydkifqdkifr_ESifh pDrHcef@cGJr_yHkpH/ yk*~vduydkif aumfydka&;&Sif;}uD;rsm;/ or0g,rtzG@J rsm;/ &yfuuaus;&Gmydiqirrsm; (tkypvuf ydiqicihf G f k f kd f _ f k kd k f kd f G jyKr_yp)ESihf Ediiabmifausmf aumfya&;&Si;f }uD;rsm;udk ydiqiciay;jcif; kH H kfH kd k f kd f G hf wd@k jzpfonf? Tydiqiryptm;vk;H udk trsK;d om;pD;yGm;a&;pepf twGi;f od@k k f kd f _ kH H aygi;f pyfcijhf yKoifonf? od@k aomf jyemrSm Tydiqirrsm;udk rnfonfh G h k f kd f _ tcsKd;tpm;ESifh zGJ@pnf;cGifhjyKrnfenf;qdkonfhtcsufjzpfonf? olwdk@udk cGijhf yKxm;onfh tcef;u¾.twdi;f twm/ w&m;Oya't& todtrSwf k jyKay;r_Eihf Ediia&;t&owfrwq;Hk jzwfcsursm; ponfw@kd ukd rnfo@kd ppOf S kfH S f f D xm;rnfenf;qdaom tcsujf zpfonf? k aqG;aEG;ES;D aESmyGwif yg0ifwufa&muforsm;u v,f,mpduysL;a&; J G l k f d u¾ESihf pufr_u¾t=um; rnfuJhodk@xdef;nd‡oifhoenf;? pdkufysdK;a&; udktajccHaom pufr_zGH@+zdK;wdk;wufa&;vkyfief;rsm;ESifh ygwfoufaom xljcm;aom vuQ%mrsm;u rnfuo@kd &oenf; pojzifh xyfr&i;f vif;ay; hJ dS HS yg&ef awmif;qdk=uonf? a'gufwm a0gvf'gefbJvfvdk u pdkufysdK;a&; vkyfief;zGH@+zdK;wdk;wufa&;/ v,f,majrjyKjyifajymif;vJa&;ESifh 0ifaiGcGJa0 jzef@cGJr_wdk@onf tc&musaomjyemrsm;jzpfonf[k &Sif;jyonf? od@k aomf &ifqi=f u&rnfh jyemwckrm pufrz@GH +zdK;a&;twGuf azmfjyyg kd S _ tcsursm;udk aphaqmfonfwe;f tm;taejzifh rnfuo@kd a&&SnwnfwhH f h G hJ f atmif xde;f odr;f rnfenf;qdonfh udpyifjzpfonf? 0,fvtm;udjk r‡iay; k P kd hf &kHoufoufjzifh tvkyfjzpfrnfr[kwf? wcgw&Hpufr_zGH@+zdK;a&;twGuf &if;ES;D jrKwfEonfaiG&if;tajrmuftrsm; vdtyfwwfonf? aiG&if;aiGE;DS HS h k &zd@k enf;vrf;wckrm EdiijH cm;wdi;f jynfrsm;rSjzpf+y;D acs;iSg;jcif; vky&vdrrnf? S kf k f hf 52
  48. 48. a0:vf'efb,fvkd oiftwGuf aºuG;+rDrsm;wifvmvdrrnf? tjcm;jzpfEiaom enf;vrf;wck h hf kd f rSm tcGeaiGrsm;udk pepfwusaumufc+H yD; 0ifaiGpaqmif;jcif;ESihf &onfh f k 0ifaiGukd &if;ES;D jrKwfErtjzpf jyefajymif;oH;k pGonfenf;jzpfonf? Tenf; HS _ J h onf taumif;qk;H [kxif&aomfvnf; csr;f omolrsm;tygt0if vlwi;f xHrS kd tcGeaiGukd pepfwusaumufc&ef vdtyfrnf? od@k aomf tm&SEiitrsm;pk f H k kd f H tzd@k }uHKawG@ae=u&aomjyemrSm taumufcersm;udk xdxa&muf G f d a&mufEihf pepfwusraumufcEi=f ujcif; jzpfonf? S H kd NOTES: 1. Liberalization of International Trade. 2. Liberalization of Financial flows. 3. General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) 4. Trade Related Investment Measures (TRIMs) 5. Trade Related Property Rights (TRIPs) 6. Asian Free Trade Area (AFTA) 53
  49. 49. 'Drua&pDawmfvea&;twGi;f Y owif;rD',m. tcef;u kd Sf D toGiu;l ajymif;a&;umvY owif;rD',m.tcef;u ESihf f D vlxrsm;.od&yicihf k dS kd f G &Stvm udve,f D D k kd Center for Investigative Journalism zdvpfyiEii? kd f kd f H
  50. 50. &Stvmudve,f D D k kd 'Drua&pDawmfvea&;twGi;f Y kd Sf owif;rD',m.tcef;u / toGiu;l ajymif;a&;umvY D f owif;rD',m.tcef;u ESivxrsm;.od&yicihf D hf l k dS kd f G &Stvm udve,f D D k kd Center for Investigative Journalism zdvpfydkifEdkifiH? yxrydkif; aqG;aEG;csufrsm;wGif jyKjyifajymif;vJr_rsm;jzpfay:vmap&ef v_y&m;wduy0ifaepOfumvtwGi;f Y owif;rD',mrsm; aqmif&uEif f S k f JG D G f kd aom tcef;u¾udaqG;aEG;xm;+yD;/ ta&S@awmiftm&SEiirsm;. tawG@ k kd f H t}uHKrsm;udk Oyrmay;azmfjyxm;ygonf? 'kw,ydi;f aqG;aEG;csursm;wGif d k f EdkifiHa&;pepftoGifajymif;vJr_ jzpfay:+yD;aemufydkif; owif;rD'D,mrsm;rS aqmif&GufEdkifaom tcef;u¾udk azmfjyxm;ygonf? wwd,ydkif;wGif jynfotrsm;. owif;rsm;&&SyicitcGita&; (The Right to Inforl d kd f G hf hf f mation) ESihf ygwoufI aqG;aEG;xm;ygonf? vufawG@usaom t}uHjyK csufrsm;/ owif;ESifhrD'D,mvkyfief;rsm;ESifh ygwfoufaom Oya'rsm;/ owif;rD',morm;rsm;. usi0wfrsm;udk pwkwyi;f wGif aqG;aEG;wifjy D hf ˆ kd xm;ygonf? aemufq;kH ydi;f wGif tkypvuaqG;aEG;r_rsm;rS xGuay:vm k f k kd f f aom &vm'ftESpcsKyfukd wifjyxm;ygonf? f 'Drdkua&pDawmfvSefa&;v_yf&Sm;r_twGif;Y owif;rD'D,mrsm;.tcef;u¾ rnfuo@kd aom tm%m&SitycsKyfa&;pepfrsK;d Yrqdk tm%m&Sitpd;k &rsm; hJ f kf f u tm%mESiowif;udk vuf0g;}uD;tkycsKyfuif xm;avh&=dS uygonf? hf f kd TuJo@kd aom vuf0g;}u;D tkyxe;f csKyfrrsK;d udk tpd;k &tzG@J rjS zpfap/ vly*Kd~ vf h f d _ k wOD;ujzpfap/ xde;f csKyfxm;wwf+yD; vlxrsm;u rnfuo@kd aomowif;rsK;d k hJ od&oifonf [laom qH;k jzwfcsursKd ;udk xdtm%m&Sirsm;u jyKvkyyg dS h f k f f onf? tm%m&Siftpdk;&rsm; usqHk;&onfESifhtr# xdkuJhodk@tm%mESifh owif;rsm; tay:xde;f csKyf csKyfuirrsm;onfvnf; wppD+ydKuGom;avh kd f _ J G &Sygonf? tm%m&Sirsm;. owif;csKyfuirrsm;tay: qef@usiaeaom d f kd f _ f tiftm;pk rsm;onf vlrtodi;f t0di;f twGi;f Y &Saewwf+y;D xdtiftm;pk _ k k d k 57
  51. 51. jrefrmEdkifiHzHGŒ_zdK;wdk;wufa&;tjcm;enf;vrf; rsm;onf ,ae@umvwGiyI tiftm;aumif;vm=uygonf? TuJo@kd f kd h tm;aumif;vmonfh owif;rD'D,mtiftm;pkrsm;/ v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;udk tif'e;D &Sm;EdiiH Ediia&;pepftoGiu;l ajymif;pOfumvYa&m/ zdvpfyiEiiH kd kf kfH f kd f kd f toGiu;l ajymif; pOfumvYyg avhvmawG@&c=hJ u&ygonf? tm%m&Sif f dS pepfrjyKwfusrD umvuyif wdkif;jynftwGif;Y vGwfvyfaomowif; rD',mrsK;d aphrsm; tyiftan‡mufayguaeonfukd jrifc=hJ u&ygonf? zdEyf D f dS aomtpd;k &rsm;/ tm%m&Sitpd;k &rsm;u owif;rsm;udk xde;f csKyfxm;=u f jcif;rSm jynfolvlxkrsm;u owif;rSefrsm;udk od&SdvmonfESifhtr# xdk owif;rsm;udk vlxktcsif;csif; vufqifhurf;jzef@a0vmonfESifhtr# tm%m&Sirsm;tzd@k 'ku}Q uHK=u &awmhrnfukd odaoma=umifyif? owif; f h rsm;od&vmonfEitr# owif; tcsursm;jynhpI ydpOf;pm;vmEdiaom dS S hf f f kH k kf aqG;aEG;yGrsm;/ jiif;ckerrsm; jzpfvmEdiaoma=umifh jzpfonf? vlxtrsm; J f _ kf k u EdiitwGi;f jzpfysuaeaom tajctaeudo&vmEdi+f yD; aqG;aEG;jiif; kfH f k d dS k ckerrsm;jzpfvmum aemufq;kH tpd;k &u olw@kd tvdusaqmif&uapvdk f _ k G f aom udprsm;udk jiif;y,fqef@usivm=urnf jzpfonf? owif;tcsuf P f tvufrsm;a=umifh vlxrsm;u wufwufºuºG urrta&;wGif yg0ifaqmif k Gdd &Gu=f uaom Ediiom;rsm;jzpfvmEdiapouJo@kd vlxtrsm;pkaygi;f v_y&m; kfH kf h k fS =ua&;twGuf pkpnf;rdvm apEdiaoma=umifh jzpfonf? kf tm%m&Siftpdk;&rsm;u atmufygenf;rsm;jzifh owif;tcsuf tvufrsm;udk xde;f csKyfavh&=dS uygonf? • owif;rsm; qifqmpDppfjzwfawmufjcif;/ Oya'rsm;udkoHk;I owif;rD'D,mrsm;. vGwfvyfcGifhrsm;udk uef@owfydwfyifjcif;/ vlxtrsm; owif;rsm;&&S&eftcGita&;udk uef@owfywyifjcif;? k d hf d f • owif;pmrsm;/ &kyjf rifo=H um;Xmersm;ESihf a&'D,xwvirrsm;ESihf kd k f $ hf _ tjcm;aomowif;jzef@a0Ediaom Xmersm;. ydiqirukd xde;f csKyf kf k f kd f _ xm;jcif;? • vlxrsm;. owif;rD',mrsm;ESihf xdawG@qufqciukd xde;csKyf k D H G hf f xm;jcif;? • jyef=um;a&;0ef}uD;Xmeu owif;rD'D,mrsm;.v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;udk rsuv;kH a'guaxmufteD;uyf=unfaeum rnfo@kd aom owif;rsK;d f f h udom today;oifonf[k !$e=f um;r_rsm; jyKvkyaejcif;? k h f 58
  52. 52. &Stvmudve,f D D k kd • acgi;rmonf/ oabmxm;wif;rmonf,q&aom owif;pm f l q&mrsm;/ pma&;q&mrsm;/ tEkynm&Sifrsm;/ vlxkrsm;udk +cdrf; ajcmufjcif;/ axmifoi;f tusO;f csjcif;ESihf vky}f uHowfjzwfrrsm;jyK G _ jcif;/ olw@kd .pmrsm;/ tEkynmvuf&mrsm;/ pmtkyrsm;/ tpDtpOf f rsm;udk azmfjycGihf ydwyifjcif;? f ta&S@awmiftm&SEdkifiHrsm;wGif pme,fZif;rsm;ESifh tjcm;aom owif;rD',mrsm;onf udvepepfqef@usia&; v_y&m;r_umvrsm;wGif D k kd D f f S vnf;aumif;/ 'Drdkua&pDa&;v_yf&Sm;r_umvrsm;wGifyg ta&;ygaom tcef;u¾u yg0ifaqmif&GufcJh=uonf? olwdk@aqmif&GufcJh=uaom v_y&m;r_rsm;rSm — f S • tkycsKyfotm%mydirsm;. tm%mtvGetu|toH;jyK aqmif f l kf f H k &Gurrsm;/ tm%mtvGo;kH pm;r_rsm;udk azmfxwzicsjcif;/ vmbf f _ J k f G hf pm;r_rsm;ESifh vl@tcGifhta&;csKd;azmufr_rsm; ta=umif;udkwifjy ajymqdkjcif;? • tkyfcsKyfoltpdk;&rsm;rStyjzpfaom tjcm;a&G;cs,fp&macgif; aqmifrsm;/ tiftm;pkrsm;udk jr‡iwifay;jcif;? hf • tm%m&Sirsm;. tm%m=oZmudtwdutcHjyKaom vlra&;/ f k k f _ Ediia&;v_y&m;r_rsm;. atmifjrifrrsm;udk vltrsm;odEiatmif kfH f S _ kd f wifjyay;jcif;? vltrsm;yl;aygi;f yg0ifvmap&ef wduwe;f jcif;tm; k f G jzifh twdutcHtiftm;pkrsm; tiftm;aumif;vmap&ef aqmif k f &Gufjcif;? • twdkuftcHtiftm;pkrsm;. tzGJ@0ifrsm;tcsif;csif;t=um;quf pyfr_&Sdapjcif;/ olwdk@. owif;pum;rsm;udk tzGJ@0ifrsm;t=um;/ vlxt=um; trsm;=um;apatmif aqmif&uay;jcif;? k G f • vlxrsm;. a'goudxuaygu&ap&ef aqmif&uay;jcif;? (txl; k k G f f G f ojzifh tjyeftvSequfo,Eiaom tifwmtufwpfzr',m f G f kd f f D D rsm;jzpfonfh 0ufbqupmrsuEmrsm;rSwqifh qENazmfjyr_rsm;/ f kd f f S v_y&m;r_rsm; ac:qdEiap&ef pDpOfxm;jcif;)/ xd@k tjyif vlxrsm;u f S k kd f k olw@kd .a'gorsm;udk owif;rD',mpmrsuEmrsm;/ xkwvirrsm; D f S f $ hf _ rSwqifvnf; jyefvnfwifjyEdiap&ef pDpOfay;Edionf? h kf kf 59
  53. 53. jrefrmEdkifiHzHGŒ_zdK;wdk;wufa&;tjcm;enf;vrf; • tm%m&SipepfrS tjcm;pepfwckukd ajymif;vJvu&r#jzifh toGif f kd f kH ul;ajymif;a&;umvwGif vGwfvyfaom/ 'Drdkua&pDusaom owif;rD',mrsm; ol@zmomtvdtavsmuf ay:ayguvmavhr&S? D k f d • vGwvyfaomowif;rD',mrsm;u ulnyy;ygu/ vlxxifjrif f D D hH kd k csufrsm;=um;od&ap&efulnDaqmif&Gufay;Edkifygu 'Drdkua&pDus aom vlxtoif;tyif;rsm; ay:ayguvmap&efyI vG,uonf? k f kd f l xdo@kd ay:ayguvmapa&;twGuf ydItaxmuftuljyKonf? k f k • vlxkrsm;u owif;Xmersm;. tcef;u¾ESifh olwdk@vkyfief;. wefz;kd udk todtrSwjf yK axmufcyy;kd rSomv#i/f vGwvyftrStcdk H hH f D uif;aom owif;rD'D,mXmersm; ay:aygufvmEdkifonf? xkd vlrtodi;f t0di;f udk tusKd ;jyKaom tiftm;pkw&yf jzpfvmapEdif _ k k k onf? (Oyrm tm;jzifh — urfabm'D;,m;Ediiwif vlxrsm;u kfH G k vGwvyfaom owif;rD',mrsm;udk axmufctm;ay;r_ tenf; f D H i,fom&Sc+hJ yD; trsm;pkrm touf&ioefa&;twGuom touf d S Sf f arG;0rf;ausmif;udprsm;udk tm&HpuaecJ=h u&onf? owif;rD',m P k kd f D rsm; vGwvyfpm aqmif&uEir/_ raqmif&uEir_ udponfow@kd f G G f kd f G f kd f P l ta&;r[kw[k jrifaecJ=h uonf)? f toGiu;ajymif;a&;umvowif;rD',mrsm;.tcef;u¾ f l D pepfwckrS pepfwcko@kd toGiu;l ajymif;a&;umvrsm;qdonfrm vGepmrS f k S fG xdvG,f&SvG,f/ txdtcdkufrcHaomumv jzpfonf? Tumv wGif vlxktwGif;vkyfydkifcGifhtm%mrsm;wdk;wuf&&Sdvm+yD;/ rnfodk@rnfyHk tm%mcsdefcGifv#m xdef;nd‡Edkifrnfudk tqHk;tjzwfay;rnfhumvvnf; jzpfonf? TumvwGif pepfopfo@kd toGiu;l ajymif;a&;umv. vkyief; f f tqifqifukd vltrsm;od&Ei&eftwGuf owif;tcsutvufrsm;ay;&m h h dS kd f f Y owif;rD',mrsm;onfta&;}uD;aom tcef;u¾rS wm0ef&aeonf? D dS rnfonfh tajctaejzpfysuaeonf? vltzG@J tpnf;&Sd u¾toD;oD;&Sd f jynfotrsm;taejzifh rnfo@kd rnfytwlwuGy;l aygi;f aqmif&uEi=f u l kH G f kd onf qdkonfudk owif;rD'D,mrsm;u vltrsm;od&Sdatmifaqmif&Guf ay;Edionf? xd@k tjyif Ediiom;wOD;. wm0ef0wW&m;rsm;udk ynmay;&ef kf kfH 60
  54. 54. &Stvmudve,f D D k kd twGuf ynmay;a&;wGifvnf; owif;rD'D,mrsm;u t"dutcef;u aqmif&Gufay;Edkifonf? 'Drdkua&pDvltzGJ@tpnf;twGif;aexdkifaom EdkifiHom;wOD;taejzifh rnfonfhtcGifhta&;rsm;cHpm;ydkifcGifh&Sdonf? rnfonfhwm0ef0wW&m;rsm;udk xrf;aqmif&rnfudk ynmay;Edkifonf? xd@k tjyif tpd;k &tzG@J opf. zG@J pnf;yHup/P xdtpd;k &.vkyief;aqmifwmrsm; k d k f wGif jynfoltrsm;u rnfuJhodk@0ifa&mufyl;aygif;aqmif&GufEdkifonf/ tpdk;&opftaejzifh jynfolrsm;ESifhqufpyfa&;twGuf rnfodk@rnfyHk aqmif&Gufrnfudk todynmay;a&;twGufwGifvnf; owif;rD'D,m rsm;u ta&;}uD;aomtcef;u¾u aqmif&uay;aeonf? G f xdk@tjyif owif;rD'D,mrsm;onf xdkuJhodk@aom tul;tajymif; umvrSmyif tpd;k &udapmif=h unfaeoltjzpfvnf; aqmif&uao;onf? k h G f tpd;k &opftaejzifh vlrsm;jzpfEior# rsm;rsm;yg0ify;l aygi;f aqmif&uEia&; kd f G f kd f twGuf zGJ@pnf;yHk,E W,m;udk rnfr#zGifhxm;ay;onf/ rnfr#zGJ@pnf;yHk aumif;aumif;zG@J pnf;xm;onfukd apmif=h unfaxmufjyay;Edionf? xd@k h kf tjyif csrwxm;aom rl0g'topfrsm;taejzifh vlxrsm;tusK;d twGuf S f k rSeuefaomrl0g'rsm;jzpfrjzpfukd axmufjyay;Edionf? xd@k tjyifowif; f kf rD'D,mrsm;taejzifh toGiful;ajymif;a&;umvtwGif;rSmyif vl@tzGJ@ tpnf;twGi;f &Sd tiftm;pktoD;oD;. toHrsm;/ tjrifoabmxm;rsm; udk vltrsm;=um;apEdkif&ef/ rl0g'rsm;csrSwfa&;qGJ&mwGif xif[yfap&ef aqmif&Gufay;Edkifonf? Oyrmtm;jzifh wdkif;&if;om;tiftm;pkrsm;/ trsK;d orD;rsm;. toHrsm;=um;&apa&;twGuvnf; owif;rD',mrsm;u f D axmufuay; oifonf? toGiu;l ajymif;a&;umvwGif ta&;t}uD;qH;k l h f tajctaew&yfrm vl@tzG@J tpnf;twGi;f &Sd rwlujJG ym;aomtiftm;pk S rsm;t=um; ,H k = unf r _ y d k r d k & &S d a tmif w nf a qmuf a y;a&;jzpf o nf ? xdtwGua=umifh owif;rD',mrsm;taejzifh rwlujJG ym;aom tiftm;pk k f D rsm;toD;oD;=um;wGif owif;rsm;ul;vl;qufqHa&;jzpfay:vmatmif/ qufo,Eiapatmif/ uGjJ ym;r_rsm;udk &if=um;aphay;Ediatmif/ jyem G f kd f kf rsm; ajyvnfapatmif ulnDaqmif&Gufay;oifhonf? 'Drdkua&pDwnf aqmufaeqJumvwGif owif;rD',mrsm;taejzifh tjyKoabmraqmif D yJ ysup;D &m ysup;D a=umif;vky&yfrsm;udk jzpfapcJaomaqmif&ucrrsm;pGm f f f h G f hJ _ om"u&SdcJhzl;onf? owif;rD'D,mrsm;taejzifh trkef;udkjzpfapaom 61
  55. 55. jrefrmEdkifiHzHGŒ_zdK;wdk;wufa&;tjcm;enf;vrf; a[majymcsursm;udk xkwvijhf zef@jzL;ay;jcif;/ tkypwckEihf wckt=um; f f $ f k S &efwdkufay;jcif;/ ordkif;a&;&mt& uGJvGJaomtcsuftvufrsm;udk t}udr}f udrjf yefvnfazmfjyI tjiif;yGg;rsm;udk wGe;f tm;ay;jcif;/ vltrsm; udk &if=um;aphoifhjrwfap&ef wdkufwGef;&rnfhtpm; &efvdkwdkufcdkuf ap&efajr‡mufay;jcif; paomenf;rsm;tm;jzifh owif;rD'D,mrsm;u vl@tzG@J tpnf;twGi;f aoG;uGap&efvnf; aqmif&uEi=f uonf? Tonf J G f kd udk owdcsyf&ef vdkonf? aemufwenf;tm;jzifh owif;rD'D,mrsm;u tysuvyief;rsm;aqmif&uEionfrm tkyptcsK@d ukd jiif;y,fyvSyxm; f kf G f kd f S fk f jcif;tm;jzifh vltrsm;. aqG;aEG;yGrsm;rS ab;a&mufaeapjcif;jzpfonf? J Oyrmtm;jzifh — tpOftvmt&uduyif ud,pm;jyKwifjycGihf r&cJ=h u k k f aomtiftm;pkrsm;. toHuqufvufI jiif;y,fxm;&if;/ xdorsm;. kd k l toHuvnf; owif;rD',mrsm;wGif =um;cGir&apjcif;jzpfonf? Oyrm kd D hf azmfjy&v#if A[dcsKyfuirrsm;aom EdiirsK;d rS Xmaewdi;f &if;om; tiftm;pk k kd f _ kfH k rsm;jzpfonf? Tod@k jiif;y,fcxm;&aom olw@kd .tjrifukd trsm;od@k wifjy H cGir&ovd/k olw@kd .toHuvnf; r=um;=u&/ olw@kd .ta&;udvnf; rl0g' hf kd k rsm;csrw&mwGif xnfoi;f pOf;pm; rcH=u&aomtcg/ xdorsm;u jyem S f h G k l udt=urf;zufaomenf;jzifh ajz&Si;f &ef usK;d pm;vm=uonf? olw@kd .toH k udk =um;vmapa&;/ olwdk@. b0udktodtrSwfjyKcH&apa&;twGuf tzsuvyief;rsm;jzifh wke@f jyefvmwwf=uonf? wcgw&Howif;rD',m f k f D rsm;u 'Drua&pDukd qef@usiaom tiftm;pkrsm;udk tm;ay;tm;ajr‡muf kd f vk y f a ewwf = uonf v nf ; &S d o nf ? Oyrmwck t jzpf azmf j y&v#if jrefrmEdkifiH'Drdkua&pDtajymif;tvJjzpf+yD;aom umvaemufydkif;wGif aomfrS ppftkyfpkudkaxmufcHaom tºuGif;tuseftiftm;pkrsm;u owif;pmrsm;ESihf a&'D,toHviXmersm;udk yHy;kd r_ay;um wufvmaom kd $ hf h tpd;k &opfrwnfr+idrjf zpfap&ef aqmif&uaomvky&yfrsm;/ azmfjyxkwf G f f v$icsursm;udk qufvufjyKvkyaeEdiygao;onf? hf f f kf wcgw&HwGif owif;pmrsm;/ rD'D,mXmersm;taejzifh u|rf;usifr_ t&nftaoG;enf;yg;aoma=umihfvnf;aumif;/ owif;pmapmifa& rsm;rsm;wdk;I a&mif;csvdkaom a&wdk&nf&G,fcsufa=umifhvnf;aumif;/ rjynfpaom vlxonf;ajc}udKufjzpfEiaom qlv,eyfv,f owif;rsK;d h kH k kd f G f G owif;rSm;rsm;udxwvihf azmfjyonfvnf; jzpfwwfygonf? Ttajc k k f $ 62
  56. 56. &Stvmudve,f D D k kd taewGif vlrtzG@J tpnf; twGi;f &_yaxG;a00g;r_rsm; jzpf&wwfygonf? _ f Ediia&;pepftoGiu;l ajymif;a&;umvonf obm0t&udu aumv kfH f k [mvowif;rsm;tvGeftrif; jzpfay:wwfaomumv jzpfygonf? raocsmra&&mr_rsm; jynfaeaomumv jzpfygonf? xdtajctaewGif h k owif;rD',mrsm;rSazmfjyaom rjynftpHowif;rsm;/ aoG;qlv,aom D h k G f owif;rsm;a=umifh raocsmra&&maom tajctaeudk rD;avmif&m avyifh ydq;kd apEdiygonf? k kf jynfolrsm;.od&SdydkifcGifh tcGifhta&;ESifh owif;rsm;&&SdydkifcGifhtcGifhta&; jynforsm;. od&yicihf tcGita&;qdonfrm vlom;wOD;csi;f &ydicihf l dS kd f G hf k S kfG tcGita&;w&yfjzpfygonf? TtcGita&;udk tpd;k &u T owif;odap/ hf hf Towif;rodap&[k wm;qD;ydwyif&efrjzpfEiovdk tpd;k &tkycsKyforsm; f kd f f l tvdus jyefvnf&yor;f &efvnf; rjzpfEiyg? T tcGita&;onf vlom; k kf d kd f hf rsm;. touf&ioefyiciEihf vGwvyfpmazmfjya[majymEdiciw@kd uo@kd Sf kd f G hf S f G k f G hf hJ “tjynfjynfqi&mvl@tcGita&; a=ujimcsu” tpdwtydi;f wckvnf; kd f hf f f k jzpfygonf? jynforsm;taejzifh owif;rsm;udk &&Syiciqonfrm t"du l d kd f G hf kd S tm;jzifh Ediiom;wOD;. tcGita&;jzpfaom tkycsKyfotpd;k &rsm; aqmif kfH hf f l &G u f c J h o nf h twd w f u mvu vk y f i ef ; rsm;/ vuf i if ; umvwG i f aqmif&uaeaom vkyief;rsm;/ a&S@wif qufvufaqmif&utaumif G f f G G f txnfazmfrnfh vkyief;rsm;udk od&yicihf &S&rnfjzpfonf? wenf;tm;jzifh f dS kd f G d tpd;k &rsm;uvnf; jynfoutoday;&ef wm0ef&onf jzpfonf? ,ae@tcg l kd dS urB m w0S r f ; &S d 'D r d k u a&pD t pd k ; &trsm;pk r S m jynf o l r sm;. od&SdydkifcGifhtcGifhta&;udk av;pmtod trSwfjyKvm=u+yDjzpfonf? T tcGita&;onf jynforsm;twGuf omruyJ tpd;k ;&rsm;zufuyg tzd;k wef hf l tcGifhta&;wck jzpfa=umif; av;pm;todtrSwfjyKvm=u +yDjzpfonf? xdktwGufa=umifhyg ,ae@tcg urBmay:&Sd EdkifiHaygif; (44) EdkifiHwGif “owif;rsm;vGwfvyfpGm&,l jzef@a0EdkifcGifh tcGifhta&;qdkif&mOya'” ud k j yXmef ; xm;=u+yD jzpf o nf ? vl x k rsm;. owif ; rsm;&&S d y d k i f c G i f h tcGita&;udk Oya'rsm;jzifh tumtuG,f ay;xm;=u+yDjzpfonf? hf 63

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