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ျပည္သူ႔လႊတ္ေတာ္ကိုယ္စားျပဳေကာ္မတီ
ျပည္သူ႔လႊတ္ေတာ္ကိုယ္စားျပဳေကာ္မတီ
ျပည္သူ႔လႊတ္ေတာ္ကိုယ္စားျပဳေကာ္မတီ
ျပည္သူ႔လႊတ္ေတာ္ကိုယ္စားျပဳေကာ္မတီ
ျပည္သူ႔လႊတ္ေတာ္ကိုယ္စားျပဳေကာ္မတီ
ျပည္သူ႔လႊတ္ေတာ္ကိုယ္စားျပဳေကာ္မတီ
ျပည္သူ႔လႊတ္ေတာ္ကိုယ္စားျပဳေကာ္မတီ
ျပည္သူ႔လႊတ္ေတာ္ကိုယ္စားျပဳေကာ္မတီ
ျပည္သူ႔လႊတ္ေတာ္ကိုယ္စားျပဳေကာ္မတီ
ျပည္သူ႔လႊတ္ေတာ္ကိုယ္စားျပဳေကာ္မတီ
ျပည္သူ႔လႊတ္ေတာ္ကိုယ္စားျပဳေကာ္မတီ
ျပည္သူ႔လႊတ္ေတာ္ကိုယ္စားျပဳေကာ္မတီ
ျပည္သူ႔လႊတ္ေတာ္ကိုယ္စားျပဳေကာ္မတီ
ျပည္သူ႔လႊတ္ေတာ္ကိုယ္စားျပဳေကာ္မတီ
ျပည္သူ႔လႊတ္ေတာ္ကိုယ္စားျပဳေကာ္မတီ
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ျပည္သူ႔လႊတ္ေတာ္ကိုယ္စားျပဳေကာ္မတီ

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  • 1. (1) jynfol@v$wfawmf ukd,fpm;ðyaumfrwDqkdwmbmvJ jynfol@v$wfawmfukd,fpm;ðyaumfrwDonf jrefrmEkdifiHwGif (1990)jynfhESpf/ arv(27) &ufae@wGif a&G;cs,fwifajrmufjcif;cH&aom jynfol@v$wfawmfudk udk,fpm;jyKonf? (1998)ckESpf/ pufwifbmv (1)&ufae@wGif ,if;aumfrwD zGJ@pnf;a}unmcJhjyD; pufwifbmv(16)&ufae@wGif usif;yaomaumfrwD. yxrt}udrftpnf;ta0;wGif w&m;0ifzJG@pnf;cJhonf ? (1990)ckESpf a&G;aumufyGJ. &v'fjzpfaom jynfol@v$wfawmfzGJ@onf;a&; wm0efudk etzrS (9)ESpfausmf}um qufvufjiif;qefvsuf&Sdaoma}umifh jynfol@v$wfawmfudk,fpm;jyKaumfrwD udkorkdif;a&;&m vdktyfcsufESifhtnD zJG@pnf;cJhjcif;jzpfonf ? tzGJ@0if(10)OD;teuf (9)OD;onf trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDcsKyfrS jzpfjyD; usefwpfOD;rSm &cdkif'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyf / rGeftrsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyf / &Srf;trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyf ESifh ZdkrD;trsKd;om;uGef*&uf wdk@udk udk,fpm;jyKonf? ,if;EkdifiHa&;ygwD(5)ckonf pkpkaygif;jynfol@v$wfawmf udk,fpm;vS,f (485)ae&m teuf(433)ae&m(89)&mcdkifEýef;udk udk,fpm;jyKonf ? (2) jynfol@vïwfawmfudk,fpm;ðyaumfrwDudk bma-umifh zëJ@pnf;&ovJ 1990jynfhESpf a&ë;aumufyëJudk e0w=etzrS(31=5=89)ae@pëJjzifhxkwfjyefcJhonfh jynfol@vïwf awmfa&G;aumufyGJ Oya'trSwf (14§89) t& usif;ycJhjcif;jzpfonf? (1) ,if;Oya'. ed'gef;wGif vGwfvyfI w&m;r#waom ygwDpkH'Drkdua&pDtaxGaxGa&G;aumufyGJ usif;yI jynfol@v$wfawmfukd,fpm;vS,frsm;ukd a&G;cs,fwifa¹rSmufEkdif&ef[lI vnf;aumif;// (2) Oya'. tcef; (1) yk'frcGJ (u) wGif v$wfawmfqkdonfrSm jynfol@v$wfawmfukd qkdvkdonf? yk'frcGJ (c) wGif a&G;aumufyGJqkdonfrSm ygwDpkH'Drkdua&pDtaxGaxGa&G;aumufyGJudkqkdonf? yk'frcGJ (*) wGif jynfol@v$wfawmfukd,fpm;vS,fqkdonfrSm v$wfawmfokd@a&G;aumufwifa¹rSmufjcif;cH&olukd qkdvkdonf[l I vnf;aumif;? (3) ,if;Oya'tcef; (1) wGif v$wfawmfudk rJqENe,frsm;teufrS TOya'ESifhtnDa&G;aumuf wifa¹rSmufvdkufaom v$wfawmfudk,fpm;vS,frsm;jzifh zGJ@pnf;&rnf[lI vnf;aumif; azmfjyxm;onf? ,if;Oya'jyXmef;azmfjyr+rsm;t& 1990 jynfhESpf a&G;aumufyGJonf wdkif;ðyjynfðyv$wfawmftwGuf r[kwf yg? EdkifiHawmfzGJ@pnf;yHktajccHOya'a&;qGJ&eftwGufvnf; r[kwfyg? Oya'ðytm%m/ pDrHcef@cGJr+tm%m/ w&m;pD&ifa&;tm%mwdk@udk ydkifpdk;rnfh jynfol@v$wfawmfzGJ@pnf;&efðyvkyfrnfh a&G;aumufyGJjzpfa-umif; w&m;Oya't&xif&Sm;onf?
  • 2. a&G;aumufyGJusif;yonhfae@&ufrSmyif xdktcsdefu e0w OuUX AdkvfcsKyfrª;}uD; apmarmiftm; “tu,fI twdkuftcHrsm;rS tEdkif&rnfqdkygu tm%mvGJajymif;ay;yghrnfvm;”[kar;&m igay;xm;wJh uwdudkapmifhxdrf;ygrnf[k rJ&HkrS rJay;_yD;xGufvmumpwGif ajym-um;cJhonf? vufawG@wGifum; e0w/ etz wdk@onf ‚if;wdk@xkwfjyefxm;aom a&G;aumufyGJ Oya'udk puUL pkwfvkyfvsuf Oya'pdk;rdk;r+udk rsufuG,fðycJhonf? a&G;aumufyGJ Oya'udkcsdK;azmufvsuf 1990 jynfhESpf Zlvdkifv (27) &ufae@wGif a-unmcsuf (1§90) udk xkwfjyefcJhonf? (1§90) . tESpfom&rSm 1990 jynfh ESpf a&G;aumufyGJonf Oya'ðyr+tm%m/ pDrHcef@cGJr+tm%m/ w&m;pD&ifa&;tm%mrsm;udk usifhoHk;Edkifaom v$wfawmfudkzGJ@pnf;&efr[kwf/ a&G;cs,fcH&aom udk,fpm;vS,frsm;onf zGJ@pnf;yHktajccHOya'udka&;qGJ&ef wm0ef&Sdonfh yk*~dKvfrsm;tjzpf zGJ@pnf;yHktajccHOya'udk oma&;qGJ&rnf? ,m,DOya'a&;qGJI tcsKyftjcm tm%moHk;&yfudk usifhoHk;ygu vufrcHbJ ta&;,lrnf? 1990 jynhfESpf a&G;aumufyGJ_yD;onfhumvrSpI t}udrfaygif;rsm;pGm/ enf;vrf;aygif;rsm;pGmtoHk;ðy _yD; 1990jynfhESpf a&G;aumufyGJrSwqifh azmfjycJhonfh jynfol@vlxkqENudk taumiftxnfazmfEkdifa&;t wGuf jynfol@v$wfawmfac:,lay;&ef (trSefrSm jynfo@l v$awmfudk,fpm;ðyaumfrwDa&G;aumufyGJ Oya' wGif vnf;aumif;/ 1§90 t&vnf;aumif;/ e0w rS uwdðy_yD;jzpfonf) t}udrf}udrfawmif;qdkcJhonf? (10) ESpf eD;yg;wdkif pdwf&Snfvuf&Snfonf;cHvsuf awmif;qdkIr&onfhtqHk;wGif jynfol@v$wfawmfac:,la&;onf etz twGufom wm0ef&Sdonfr[kwf/ ta&G;cs,fcH jynfol@v$wfawmfudk,fpm;vS,frsm;wGifyg t"duwm 0ef&Sdonf[k ,lqvsuf/ jynfol@v$wfawmfac:,la&;&nf&G,fcsufjzifh jynfol@v$wfawmfudk,fpm;ðyaumfrwD udk zGJ@pnf;cJh&jcif;jzpfonf? (3) jynfol@v$wfawmfudk,fpm;ðyaumfrwD. &nf&G,fcsufu bmawGvJ (u) jynfolvlxku v$wfawmfudk,fpm;vS,frsm;tm; ‚if;wdk@ESifh‚if;wdk@.wdkif;jynftusdK;twGuf aqmif&Gufay;&ef udk,fpm;vS,fv$Jtyfxm;onfh wm0efrsm;udk vspfvsL&+Irxm;Ekdifonfh tm;avsmfpGm twdkif;twmwcktxd pGrf;aqmifay;Ekdifor# aqmif&Gufay;&ef? (c ) jynfol@v$wfawmfay:aygufvmvsif 'Drdkua&pDa&;xGef;um;vm_yD; ,if;ESihftwl vl@tcGifht a&;rsm; wdk;wufaumif;rGefvmap&ef?
  • 3. (* ) EdkifiHwGif; jynfolvlxkcHpm;óuHawG@ae&aom EdkifiHa&;/ pD;yGm;a&;/ vlr+a&;/ usef;rma&;/ ynm a&;tp&Sdonfh taxGaxGtusyftwnf;rsm;udk tm%mydkifwdk@usifhoHk;aeonfh EdkifiHa&;tiftm;pkrsm;tay: zdtm;ay;tusyfudkif/ zrf;qD;xdef;odrf;onfhenf;rsm;jzifh tusyftwnf;rsm;udk taotcsmrajz&Sif;Edkif onfa-umifh jynfol@v$awmfudk,fpm;ðyaumfrwDtaejzifh wwftm;oa&G@ ajz&Sif;ay;Edkif&ef[laom &nf &G,fcsuf (3) &yfjzifh zGJ@pnf;onf? (4) jynfol@v$wfawmfudk,fpm;ðyaumfrwDudk b,folawGeJ@ zGJ@pnf;xm;ovJ jynfol@v$wfawmfudk,fpm;ðyaumfrwD0ifrsm;udk atmufazmfjyyg yk*~dKvf (10) OD;jzifh zGJ@pnf;xm;yg onf? OD;atmifa&$ OuUX jynfol@v$wfawmfudk,fpm;jyKaumfrwD OuUX trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyf &efukefwdkif;/ r&rf;ukef;jrdK@e,f rJqENe,ftrSwf (1) jynfol@v$wfawmfudk,fpm;vS,f 1918 ckESpf Zlvdkifv(19)&ufae@wGifarG;zGm;onf? &efukefuUodkvfrS 1940ckESpfwGifwGif 0dZ…mbGJ@&cJh onf? 1942 ckESpfrS 1945 ckESpftxd ArmhvGwfvyfa&; wyfrawmf (BLA) ArmhuGmuG,fa&;wyfrawmf (BDA) ArmhrsKd;cspfwyfrawmf (PBF) wdk@wGifwm0efxrf;aqmifcJhonf? 1961 ckESpfwGif awmifydkif;wdkif; ppfXmecsKyfwdkif;rª; tjzpftrSK@xrf;aqmifaepOf tvkyfrSxkwfy,fjcif;udkcHcJh&onf? 1961ckESpfrS 1975ckESpftwGif;oHtrwfºuD;tjzpfºopaw;vs/ tD*spf/ jyifopf/ pydefESifh e,l;ZDvef wdk@wGif wm0efxrf;aqmifcJhonf? a':atmifqef;pkºunfESifh OD;wifOD;wdk@tzrf;cHae&pOftwGif; trsKd;om; 'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyf OuUXtjzpf wm0ef,lcJhonf? OD;oef;xGef; twGif;a&;rSL; jynfol@v$wfawmf udk,fpm;jyKaumfrwD A[dktvkyftrlaqmifaumfrwD trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyf rEWav;wdkif;/ awmifomjrdK@e,f rJqENe,ftrSwf (2) jynfol@v$wfawmfudk,fpm;vS,f 192 1 ckESpfwGifarG;zGm;onf? 1937 ckESpfrS 1941 ckESpftwGif; jrifjcHausmif;om;rsm;or*~tzGJ@0if jzpfcJhonf? 1942ckESpfrS1946ckESpftwGif;ArmhvGwfvyfa&;wyfrawmf (BLA) wGiftrlxrf;cJhonf? 1946 ckESpfrS 1935 ckESpftwGif;zufqpfqef@usifa&; jynfol@vGwfajrmufa&; tzGJ@ (zqyv). jrif;jcHc&dkif twGif a&;rSL;tjzpfaqmif&GufcJhonf? 1947ckESpfwGif v$wfawmftrwfjzpfcJhonf? 1953 ckESpfrS 1962 ckESpftwGif; jrefrmEkdifiHukefonfºuD;rsm;or*~twGif;a&;rSL;jzpfcJhonf? 1946ckESpfwGif rqv ygwD0ifjzpfcJhonf? xdk@t jyif OD;oef;xGef;onf 1995 ckESpfY trsKd;om;nDvmcHudk qef@usioydwfarSmufcJh olvnf;jzpfonf? f
  • 4. OD;at;omatmif twGif;a&;rSL; jynfol@v$wfawmfudk,fpm;jyKaumfrwD wGJbuftaxGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL; &cdkiftrsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyf &cdkifjynfe,fajryHkjrdK@YarG;zGm;onf? umuG,fa&;0ef=uD;Xmet}uD;pm; pufrlvkyfief;aumfydka&;&Sif; wGif 'kAdkvfrSL;}uD;tjzpf trlxrf;cJhonf? &cdkiftrsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyf. wGJbuftaxGaxGtwGif;a&; rSL;vnf;jzpfonf? ,ck jynfol@v$wfawmf udk,fpm;jyKaumfrwDwGif &Srf;wdkif;&if;om;rsm;'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyf/ rGeftrsKd;om;'Drkdua&pDtzGJ@csKyfESifh ZdrD; trsKd;om;uGef*&ufwkd@udk ukd,fpm;ðyonf? OD;wifOD; tzGJ@0if jynfol@v$wfawmfukd,fpm;ðyaumfrwD 'k - OuUX trsKd;om;'Drkdua&pDtzGJ@csKyf 1927 ckESpf/ {&m0wDwkdif;/ ykodrfòrd@Y arG;zGm;onf? 1974 ckESpfrS 1976 ckESpftxd AkdvfcsKyf}uD;t jzpfESifh umuG,fa&;0ef}uD; wm0ef,lcJhonf? 1976 ckESpfwGif zrf;qD;cH&+yD; 1980 ckESpfwGif vGwf+idrf;csrf; omcGifhtrdef@jzifh jyefvGwfvmcJhonf? 1988 ckESpf/ pufwifbmv (2) &ufae@ trsKd;om;'Drkdua&pDtzGJ@ csKyf zGJ@pnf;aomtcg 'k - OuUXjzpfvmonf? 1989 ckESpf/ Zlvkdifv (20) &ufae@wGif tus,fcsKyfjzifh tzrf;cHcJh&+yD;? 1989 ckESpf/ 'DZifbmv (22) &ufae@wGif axmif'%f (3) ESpf tjypfay;cHcJh&onf? a':atmifqef;pk=unf tzGJ@0if jynfol@v$wfawmfukd,fpm;ðyaumfrwD taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rª; trsKd;om;'Drkdua&pDtzGJ@csKyf 1945 ckESpf/ ZGefv (19) &ufae@wGif &efukefòrd@Y arG;zGm;onf? olr.zcif AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef; vkyf}uHcH&pOf touf (2) ESpfom&Sdao;onf? olr.rdcif a':cif=unf tdENd,EkdifiHqkdif&mjrefrmoHtrwf }uD;tjzpftr_xrf;pOf rdcifESifhtwl vkdufygoGm;+yD; tdENd,ESifh t*FvefEkdifiHwkd@wGif ynmoif=um;cJhonf? 1988 ckESpfwGif jrefrmEkdfifiHokd@ jyefvm+yD; jrefrmh'Drkdua&pDv_yf&Sm;r_. txifu&yk*~KdvfjzpfcJhonf? trsKd;om;'Drkdua&pDtzGJ@csKyfpwif zGJ@pnf;pOfrS ,cktxd taxGaxG twGif;a&;rª;wm0ef,lchonf? 1989 ckESpf/ Zlvkdif (19) &ufae@rS 1995 J ckESpf/ Zlvkdif (10) &ufae@txd tus,fcsKyftzrf;cHcJh&onf? 1991 ckESpfwGif Ekdb,fvf+idrf;csrf;a&;qkukd &&SdcJhonf?
  • 5. OD;vGif tzGJ@0if jynfol@v$wfawmfudk,fpm;ðyaumfrwD A[dktvkyftr+aqmifaumfrwD0if trsdK;om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyf &efukefwdkif;/ oHk;cGòrd@e,f rJqENe,ftrSwf (1) jynfol@v$wfawmfudk,fpm;vS,f 1924 ckESpf/ pufwifbmv (22) &ufae@wGif arG;zGm;onf? rqvvufxuf 'k = 0ef}uD;csKyfESifh rqvygwD0ifjzpfcJhonf? 1942 ckESpf rS 1945 ckESpftxd ArmhvGwfvyfa&;wyfrawmfESifh ArmhumuG,fa&; wyfrawmfwdk@wGif wm0efxrf;aqmifcJhonf? *syefawmf0ifppfoifwef;ausmif;ESifh _Adwdo#awmf0ifppfoif wef;ausmif;wdk@Y qnf;yl;cJhonf? tar&duefEdkifiHqdkif&m ppfoHrª;tjzpfvnf; tr+xrf;cJhzl;onf? OD;vSaz tzGJ@0if jynfol@v$wfawmfudk,fpm;ðyaumfrwD A[dktvkyftr+aqmifaumfrwD0if trsdK;om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyf {&m0wDwdkif;/ Armfvòrdifu|ef; rJqENe,ftrSwf (1) jynfol@v$wfawmfudk,fpm;vS,f 1927 ckESpf Zefe0g&Dv (19) &ufae@wGif arG;zGm;onf? {&m0wDwdkif; trsdK;om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyf A[dktvkyftr+aqmifaumfrwD0ifjzpfonf? ygvDref'Drdkua&pDumv 1951 ckESpfrS 1961 ckESpftwGif; armf vòrdifu|ef;òrd@e,f v$wfawmftrwftjzpfcJhonf? 1967 ckESpfrS 1986 ckESpftwGif; ydk@aqmifqufoG,fa&; 0ef}uD;Xme t&m&Sdtjzpf tr+xrf;cJhonf? OD;pdk;jrifh (ocif pdk;jrifh) tzGJ@0if jynfol@v$wfawmfudk,fpm;ðyaumfrwD A[dktvkyftr+aqmifaumfrwD0if trsdK;om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyf &efukefwdkif;/ awmifOuUvmyòrd@e,f rJqENe,ftrSwf (1) jynfol@v$wfawmfukd,fpm;vS,f 1923 ckESpf -o*kwfv (16) &ufae@wGif arG;zGm;onf? OD;pdk;jrifhonf? trsdK;om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyf A[dktvkyftr+aqmifaumfrwD0ifwpfOD;jzpf_yD; vGwfvyfa&;r&rD jynfol@awmfvSefa&;ygwDtzGJ@ jzpfcJhonf? xdk@tjyif 'dk@Armtpnf;t&Hk; ajrmif;jròrd@e,ftwGif;a&;rª;jzpfcJhonf? ArmhumuG,fa&;wyfrawmfwGif wyfrª; tjzpf tr+xrf;cJhonf?
  • 6. OD;vGef;wif tzGJ@0if jynfol@v$wfawmfudk,fpm;ðyaumfrwD A[dktvkyftr+aqmifaumfrwD0if trsdK;om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyf rGefjynfe,f / armfvòrdifòrd@e,f rJqENe,ftrSwf (1) jynfol@v$wfawmfudk,fpm;vS,f 192 1 ckESpf azazmf0g&Dv (1) &ufae@wGif arG;zGm;onf? 1996 ckESpf atmufwdkbmv (9) &ufae@ wGif trsdK;om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyf A[dktvkyftr+aqmifaumfrwD0ifESifh rGefjynfe,fwm0efcHjzpfvmcJhonf? 1953 ckESpfrS 1956 ckESpftxd ArmhvGwfvyfa&;wyfrawmf/ ArmhumuG,fa&;wyfrawmfwdk@wGif tr+xrf;cJh onf? ajrmufydkif;ppfXmecsKyf/ wyfr[m (7) wyfr[mrª;tjzpf wm0efxrf;aqmifcJh_yD; 1965 ckESpfwGif tvkyfðzwfcHcJh&onf? 1965 ckESpfrS 1967 ckESpfxd txdrf;odrf;cHcJh&onf? 1973 ckESpfrS 1983 ckESpftxd trSwf (1) pufr+0ef}uD;XmewGif !$ef-um;a&;rª;csKyftjzpf wm0efxrf;aqmifcJhonf? OD;!$ef@a0 tzGJ@0if jynfol@v$wfawmfudk,fpm;ðyaumfrwD A[dktvkyftr+aqmifaumfrwD0if trsdK;om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyf yJcl;wdkif; awmifilòrd@e,f rJqENe,ftrSwf (2) jynfol@v$wfawmfudk,fpm;vS,f 1926 ckESpf Edk0ifbmv (14) &ufae@wGif arG;zGm;onf? &efukefòrd@ pD;yGm;a&;wuUodkvfrSbGJ@&&SdcJh onf? tar&duefEdkifiH [m;AwfwuUodkvfrS trfatbGJ@&&SdcJhonf? 1952 ckESpfrS 1986 ckESpftxd pufr+ b%fESifh pD;yGm;a&;b%fwdk@wGif refae*smtjzpfvnf;aumif;/ tmrcHaumfydka&;&Sif;wGif t}uHay;t&m&Sd tjzpfvnf;aumif; tr+xrf;cJhonf? 1991 ckESpf rwfv (26) &ufae@rSpI trsdK;om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyf A[dktvkyfr+aqmifaumfrwD b¾a&;wm0efcHtjzpf wm0ef,lcJhonf? OD;!$ef@a0onf 1995 ckESpfY trsdK; om;nDvmcHudk oydwfarSmufcJholwOD;vnf;jzpfonf? (5) jynfol@v$wfawmfukd,fpm;ðyaumfrwD. w&m;0ifwnf&Sdr+ukd xif&Sm;apwJh Oya' a-umif;qkdif&mtcsuftvufrsm;u bmawGvJ 1? 1974 ckESpfjynfol@v$wfawmfOya'rsm;wGif tu,fI jynfol@v$wfawmf ukd,fpm;vS,ftm;t vkH;. (34) &mckdifE+ef;u jynfol@v$wfawmfac:,lay;&ef awmif; qkdcJhv#if EkdifiHawmftm%mykdifrsm;u jynfol@v$wfawmfukd ac:,lay;&efwm0ef&Sdonf [lI tpOftvm&Sdonf? 2? 1990 jynfhESpf a&G;aumufyGJwGif trsKd;om;'Drkdua&pDtzGJ@csKyfonf jynfol@v$wfawmfukd,fpm; vS,fae&m pkpkaygif;. (81) &mckdifE+ef;ausmf tEkdif&&SdcJh onf? ppftkyfpk. ygwDtm;rJqEN&Sifjynfolrsm;u ESpfòcdufr+r&SdkqkdonfrSm odomxif &Sm;vGef;_yD; tpkd;&w&yf.tcGifhtm%mukd &,lxm;&eftoifhrjzpfay? odk@aomf
  • 7. tm%mukdv$Jajymif;ay;tyf&ef jiif;qefv#ufppftkyfpkonf w&m;r0iftpkd;&wpf&yftjzpf &yfwnfaeqJ jzpfonf? 3? ppftpkd;&onf tzGJ@csKyf.nDvmcHrsm;ukd wm;jrpfydwfyifvsuf tzGJ@csKyftzGJ@0ifrsm;tm; t"rR E+wfxGuf&ef apckdif;jcif;/ tzGJ@csKyf&kH;rsm;tm; t"rRydwfyifjcif;wkd@ukd ðyvkyfvsuftrsKd;om;'Drkdua&pDtzGJ@csKyf tm; tqufrjywf qufvufaESmifh,SufzsufqD;vsuf&Sdonf? 4? trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyfESifh tjcm;EkdifiHa&;ygwDrsm;rS jynfol@v$wfawmfudk,fpm;vS,f (251) OD;onf ‚if;wkd@ ukd,fpm;ðyvkyfykdifcGifhtm; trsKd;om;'Drkdua&pDtzGJ@csKyf. A[kdtvkyftr+aqmiftzGJ@ tm; tyfESif;xm;_yD;jzpfonf? ,if;ta&twGufonf 1990 jynfhESpf/ a&G;aumufyGJwGif a&G;aumufwif a¹rSmufcH&aom jynfol@v$wfawmfukd,fpm;vS,f pkpkaygif;. (52) &mckdifE+ef;ukd ukd,fpm;ðyvsuf&Sd_yD; ‚if;wkd@ .axmufcHr+jzifh jynfol@v$wfawmfukd,fpm;ðyaumfrwDukd zGJ@pnf;cJhjcif;jzpfonf? Txufazmfjyyg tcsuf (4) csufukd -unfhjcif;tm;jzifh trsKd;om;'Drkdua&pDtzGJ@csKyf. jynfo@l v$wfawmfac:,la&;awmif;qkdr+ESifh jynfol@v$wfawmfukd,fpm;ðyaumfrwD zGJ@pnf;a&;onf w&m;r0if a-umif; wifjyazmfxkwf&ef rnfolwOD;wa,muftwGufr# Oya'a-umif;t& rvG,fulay? ppftkyfpkrS ,if;uJhokd@ trsKd;om;'Drkdua&pDtzGJ@csKyf. v$wfawmfac:,la&;awmif;qkdr+ESifh jynfol@v$wfawmfukd,fpm;ðy aumfrwDzGJ@pnf;a&;onf w&m;r0ifa-umif; rnfonfhtcgur# xkwfazmfajymqkdEkdifjcif;r&SdcJhay? ,if;okd@ a-unmxm;rnfhtpm; trsKd;om;'Drkdua&pDtzJG@taejzifh aqG;aEG;!SdE+dif;r+ukd vkdvm;onfqkdygu jynfol@ v$wfawmfukd,fpm;ðyaumfrwDtm; zsufodrf;&efukdom awmif;qkdvsuf&Sdonf? 1998 ckESpf/ arv (27) &ufae@wGifusif;yaom a&G;aumufyGJESpfywfvnftpnf;ta0;Y trsKd; om; 'Drkdua&pDtzGJ@csKyfonf jynfol@v$wfawmfac:,lusif;yEddkifa&;twGuf EkdifiHawmftm%mykdifrsm;xH awmif;qkd&efqkH;jzwfcJhonf? jynfol@v$wfawmfuk,fpm;vS,f (251) OD;rS ay;tyfxm;aom tcGifhtm%m d onfv$wfawmfusif;yEkdifa&;twGuf w&m;0ifawmif;qkdr+jzpfonfhtwGuf w&m;0ifawmif;qkdr+jzpf&ef vkdtyfaom (34) &mckdif;E+ef;xufykdrkdrsm;jym;cJhonf? trsKd;om;'Drkdfua&pDtzGJ@csKyf. A[dktvkyftr+aqmif tzGJ@u 1998 ckESpf -o*kwfv (2 1) &ufae@aemufqHk;xm;I jynfol@v$wfawmftpnf;ta0;ac:,lusif;y ay;&ef awmif;qdkcJhonf? tvm;wlawmif;qdkcsufudk tjcm;EdkifiHa&;ygwD (4) ckjzpfonfh rGeftrsdK;om;'Drdku a&pDtzGJ@/ &Srf;wdkif;&if;om;rsm;'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyf/ &cdkif'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyfESifh ZdkrD;trsdK;om;uGef*&ufwdk@rS vnf; awmif;qdkcJhonf? ppftm%m&Sifwdk@onf 1989 ckESpf jynfol@v$wfawmfa&G;aumufyGJOya'ESifh 1974 ckESpf jynfol@v$wfawmfrSjyXmef;xm;onfh tpOftvm (v$wfawmfudk,fpm;vS,fpkpkaygif;. (34) &mcdkifE+ef; u awmif;qdkvsif jynfol@v$wfawmfac:,lay;&rnf) wdk@udk azmufzsufusL;vGefvsuf trsdK;om;'Drdkua&pD tzGJ@csKyf. w&m;ojzifhaom jynfol@v$wfawmftpnf;ta0;usif;ya&;awmif;qdkr+udk vspfvsL&+ypfy,fcJh onf? ,if;uJhodk@ ppftm%m&Sifwdk@. jynfol@qENudk ypfy,fr+onf trsKd;om;'Drkdua&pDtzGJ@csKyfESifh tjcm; EkdifiHa&;ygwDwkd@tm; jynfol@v$wfawmfukd,fpm;ðyaumfrwDukd 1998 ckESpf/ pufwifbmv (1) &ufae@wGif zGJ@pnf;Ekdifa&;twGuf tpysKd;óud;yrf;r+qDokd@ OD;wnfapcJhonf? ,if;zGJ@pnf;r+onf 'Drkdua&pDygwDpkHpepfwnf aqmufa&;wm0ef&Sdr+ukd taumiftxnfazmf&ef v$wfawmftrwftrsm;pk. qENukdtaumiftxnfazmf óud;yrf;r+rS a&mifjyef[yfay:xGufvmaom &v'fjzpfayonf? okd@ygI jynfol@v$wfawmfukd,fpm;ðy aumfr wDonf w&m;Oya'a-umif;t& zGJ@pnf;xm;aomw&m;0iftzGJ@tpnf;w&yfjzpfygonf? (6) jynfol@v$wfawmfukd,fpm;ðyaumfrwDukd b,folawGuaxmufcHygovJ jynfol@v$wfawmfudk,fpm;ðyaumfrwDudk wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;pkygwD (4) ck. axmuf cHcsufjzifh zGJ@pnf;cJhonf? zGJ@pnf;_yD;vsif_yD;csif; tjcm;aomtzGJ@tpnf;rsm;uvnf; jynfol@ v$wfawmfudk,fpm;ðyaumfrwDtm;axmufcHa-umif; a-unmcJhonf? axmufcHa-umif; a-u nmcsufudk aemufusIxkwfa0ygu axmufcHr+udkwm;qD; &efetzrS zdtm;ay;vmrnfudk od&SdI a-unmcsufrsm;udk apmvsifpëmxkwfa0Edkif&ef txl;ta&;}uD;ayonf? ar#mfvifhxm; onfhtwdkif; etz rS zdtm;ay;vmojzifh jynfol@vïwfawmfudk,fpm;ðyaumfrwDtm;
  • 8. axmufcHr+a-unmcsufrsm; jyefvnf±kwf odrf;&r+rsm;onf vïJa&SmifIr&Edkifygacs? olwdk@. trSefwu,f pdwfqENrsm;udk ydkdrdk&Sif;vif;pëmazmfjyEdkif&ef &nf&ë,fcsufjzifh jynfol@vïwfawmfudk,fpm;ðyaumfrwD axmuf cHa-umif; a-unmcsufrsm;udk apmvsifpëmxkwfa0cJhjcif;ESifh jynfol@vïwfawmf udk,fpm;ðyaumfrwDtm; axmufcHr+rsm;udk jyefvnf±kwfodrf;cJh&jcif;wdk@onf etz. enf;aygif;pHkumuë,fzd tm;ay;r+jzpfa-umif; ydkrdkay:vëifxif&Sm;apcJhayonf? odk@aomf tcsdK@aomtzëJ@tpnf;rsm;onf rlv&yfwnfcsufudk xdrf;oddrf; &efóud;pm;cJhonf? Wa National Organization rSxkwfjyefa-unmcsufxJwëif jynfol@vïwfawmf udk,fpm;ðyaumfrwDtm; axmufcHr+udk tcdkiftrmazmfjyxm;_yD; ordkif;wëif trsdK;om;opPmazmuftjzpf owfrSwfxm;-u&ef typftcwf&yfpJa&; tzëJ@rsm;odk@vnf;wdkufwëef;yef-um;cJh.? ‚if;tjyif typftcwf &yfpJxm;aomtzëJ@rsm;onf udk,fydkifjyXmef;cëifh/ wef;wla&;ESifhvëwfvyf a&;wdk@tay:tajccHaom 'Drdku&uf wpfzuf'&,fjynfaxmifpk EdkifiHawmfxlaxmifa&;twëuf jynfol@vïwfawmfudk,fpm;ðy aumfrwDtm; axmufcH&efyef-um;cJh.? jynfol@vïwfawmfudk,fpm;ðyaumfrwDtm;axmufcHr+udkazmfjyaom tzëJ@tpnf;rsm;rSm jynfol@vïwfawmfudk,fpm;ðyaumfrwDonf Armr[kwfaom tjcm;typftcwf&yfpJxm;onfh wdkif;&if; om;tzëJ@ (4)ck. oabmwlnDcsufjzifh n‡dE+dif;aqë;aEë;csufrsm;.&v'ftjzpf zëJ@pnf;cJhonf? ,if;tzëJ@rsm;rS = (u) &Srf;jynfvlrsdK;pHk jynfol@vëwfajrmufa&;tzëJ@ Shan Nationalities People’s Liberation Organization (ANPLO) (c) u&ifeDvlrsdK;aygif;pHk jynfol@vëwfajrmufa&;wyfOD; Karenni Nationalities People’s Liberated Front (KNPLF) (*) rëefjynfopfygwD New Mon State Party (NMSP) wdk@jzpf_yD; ‚if;wdk@onf ‚if;wkd@. Oabm wlnDr+ (vïwfawmfac:,la&;)udk 1999 ckESpf -o*kwfv(14)&ufae@wëif xkwfjyefa-unmcJh_yD;rS -o*kwf v(18)&ufae@wëif jynfol@vïwfawmfudk,fpm;ðyaumfrwDzëJ@pnf;r+udkaxmufcHcJhonf? (C) csif;trsdK;om;wyfOD; Chin National Front(CNF)onf 1998 ckESpf/ pufwifbm (19)&ufae@ wëifvnf;aumif;/ (i) yavmifvëwfajrmufa&;wyfOD; Palaung State Liberation Front(PSLF)u 1998 ckESpf/ pufwif bm v(20)&ufae@wëifvnf;aumif;/ (p ) vm;[l'Drdku&ufwyfOD; Lahu Democratic Front(LDF)u 1998 ckESpf/ pufwifbm v(20) &ufae@wëifvnf;aumif;/ (q) 0 trsdK;om;tpnf;t&Hk; Wa National Organization (WNO)u 1998ckESpf/ pufwif bmv(24)&ufae@wëifvnf;aumif;/ (Z) rëwfpvifvëwfajrmufa&;tzëJ@=Armjynf (Muslim Liberation Organization of Burma (MLO) u 1998ckESpf/ pufwifbmv (26) &ufae@wëifvnf;aumif;/ (ps) rëeftrsdK;om; 'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@ Mon National Democratic Front (MNDF). jynfol@ vïwfawmfudk,fpm;ðyaumfrwDtay: axmufcHr+tvëeftm;aumif;onf? rëeftrsdK;om;'Drdkua&pDtzëJ@csKyf OuUX Edkifaiëodrf;/ a'gifwmrif;pdk;vif; (a&;òrd@e,f jynfol@vïwfawmfudk,fpm;vS,f)/ a'gufwm rif;-unf0if; (vïwfawmfudk,fpm;vS,fESifh MNDF taxëaxëtwëif;a&;rª;) wdk@rSm 1950jynfh/ ta&;ay: tufOya' yk'frjzifh zrf;qD;xdrf;odrf;cHcJh&onf? (n)&Srf;wdkif;&if;om;rsm;'Drdkua&pDtzëJ@csKyfonf jynfol@vïwfawmfudk,fpm;ðyaumfrwDtm; ajymifajymifwif;wif;axmufcHrªudk razmfjyaomfvnf; jynfol@vïwfawmfudk,fpm;ðyaumfrwDESifh trsdK; om;'Drdkua&pDtzëJ@csKyfwdk@rS vïwfawmfac:,la&;awmif;qdkrªtm;±+wfcs&ef etz. zdtm;ay;rªudk jiif;y,f cJhonf? etz. wif;-uyfaomzdtm;ay;rªudkowdxm;vsuf jynfol@vïwfawmfudk,fpm;ðyaumfrwDtm; ±+wfcsr+odk@r[kwf axmufcHr+rsm;udk rvkyfaomfvnf; -um;aetqifhudk a&ë;cs,fcJhonf?
  • 9. jynfol@vïwfawmfudk,fpm;ðyaumfrwDtm; tpdk;&rsm;rSaxmufcH-uouJhodk@ tpdk;&r[kwfonfh tzëJ@tpnf;rsm;rSvnf; axmufcHcJh-uonf? Oyrmtm;jzifh= tar&duefjynfaxmifpkudk Free Burma Coalition tzëJ@ -opa-w;vs&Sd Australian Manufactures Union ESifh *syefEdkifiH&Sd The People Forum on Burma wdk@rS jynfol@vïwfawmf ac:,lEdkifonftxd jynfol@vïwfawmfudk,fpm;ðyaumfrwDtm; jrefjynfolwdk@. w&m;0ifudk,fpm; vS,ftzëJ@tjzpf todtrSwfðy-uonf? Oa&myor*~/ b,fv*sD,H/ 'def;rwf/ uae'gEdkifiHrS _Adwdo#udk vHbD,mjynfe,fESifhaemfa0wdk@rS tpdk;&rsm;uvnf; jynfol@vïwfawmfudk,fpm;ðyaumfrwDtm; axmufcHcJh -uonf? ukvor*~taxëaxë nDvmcHrSvnf; taxëaxënDvmcHqHk;jzwfcsufwëif jynfol@vïwfawmfudk,f pm;ðyaumfrwDESifhywfoufI rSwfom;xm;&Sdonf? 1998 ckESpf/ pufwifbmv(22)&ufae@wëif tar&dueftajcpdkuf Free Burma Coalition (wuUodkvfaygif;100ausmfrS yg0ifzëJ@pnf;xm;onfhtzëJ@)rS jynfol@vïwfawmfudk,fpm;ðy aumfrwDtm; axmufcHa-umif;a-unmcJhonf? 1998ckESpf/ atmufwdkbmv(19)&ufae@u aemfa0trsdK;om;vëwfawmfwëif EdkifiHa&;ygwDrsm;. ygvDrefqdkif&macgif;aqmifrsm;u jynfol@vïwfawmfudk,fpm;ðyaumfrwDtm;axmufcHcJh-uonf// 1998ckESpf/ 'DZifbmv(17)&ufae@wëif 'def;rwftrsdK;om;vïwfawmfrS EdkifiHa&;ygwD(5)ck. acgif;aqmifrsm;u jynfol@vïwfawmfudk,fpm;ðyaumfrwDtm; todtrSwfðy axmufcHcJh-uonf? 1999 ckESpf/ azazmf0g&Dv(4)&ufae@wëif b,fvf*sD,HtrsdK;om;vïwfawmfrS jynfol@vïwfawmf udk,fpm;ðyaumfrwDtm; todtrSwfðyaxmufcHa-umif;a-unmonhf qHk;jzwfcsufw&yfudk twnfðycJh onf? 1999ckESpf/ azazmf0g&Dv(25)&ufae@wëif ukvor*~taxëaxënDvmcH}uD;u 1990jynfhESpf 'Drdkua&pDa&ë;aumufyëJrsm;wëif jyocJhonfhjynfolvlxk. vdktifqENESifhtnD jrefrmjynf'Drdkua&pDxëef; um;a&;twëuf vdktyfaomvkyfief;pOfrsm;udk taumiftxnfazmf&efESifh EdkifiHa&;ygwDrsm;ESifh tpdk;& r[kwfaomtzëJ@tpnf;rsm;tm; vëwfvyfpëmpDrHvkyfaqmifcëifhðy&ef jrefrmtpdk;&tm; wdkufwëef;aom azmfjycsufrsm;wëif jynfol@vïwfawmfudk,fpm;ðyaumfrwDtm; xnfhoëif;rSwfom;cJhonf? 1999 ckESpf/ rwfv(4)&ufae@wëif uae'gEdkifiHrS_Adwdo#udkvHbD,mjynfe,f. Oya'ðyvïwfawmf Y jynfol@vïwfawmfudk,fpm;ðyaumfrwDtm; tjynfht0axmufcHr+ay;aom tqdkðyw&yfudk twnfðycJh onf? Oya'ðyvïwfawmfonf jynfol@vïwfawmfudk,fpm;ðyaumfrwDtm; jrefrmjynfolwdk@ vkdtifqENudk azmfjyonfh w&m;0ifvufeufwefqmyvmtjzpf rSwf,lonfhtjyif uae'gtpdk;&tm;vnf; Ttwdkif; vkyfaqmif&efwdkufwëef;cJhonf? 1999 ckESpf/ {_yDv(14)&ufae@wëifOa&myygvDrefrS jynfol@vïwfawmfudk,fpm;ðyaumfrwDtm; axmufcHa-umif;ESifh jrefrmEdkifiHtm; EdkifiHwumrdom;pk. tpdwftydkif;w&yftaejzifh todtrSwfðya&; twëuf oHk;yëifhqdkifaqë;aEë;yëJw&yf rvëJraoëvdktyfa-umif;yg&Sdonfh yl;wëJqHk;jzwfcsufw&yfudk csrSwf twnfðycJhonf?
  • 10. 1999 ckESpf/ {_yDv(16)&ufae@wëif The International Parliamentary Union rS jrefrmEdkifiHESifhpyfvsOf;I jynfol@vïwfawmfudk,fpm;ðyaumfrwDtm;axmufcHa-umif; qHk;jzwfcsufw&yf csrSwfcJhonf? ,if;qHk;jzwfcsufwëif “jynfol@vïwfawmfac:,la&;awmif;qdkcsufESifh jynfol@vïwfawmf udk,fpm;ðyaumfrwD zëJ@pnf;&mwëif a&ë;cs,fwifajr‡mufcH&aom jynfol@vïwfawmfudk,fpm;vS,frsm;onf tjynfjynfqdkif&mvl@tcëifhta&;a-unmpmwrf; yk'fr=21 t& tyfESif;xm;onfhtwdkif; olwdk@a&ë;cs,fcH &onfhe,fajrrsm;&Sd jynfol@vlxk.ta&;udpPrsm;udk yg0ifaqmif&ëuf&rnfhtcëifhta&;udkumuë,f&efESifh 1990jynfhESpf a&ë;aumufyëJwëif vïwfawmfudk,fpm;vS,frsm;tm; ,Hk-unfpëmtyfESif;cJhonfh w&m;0ifr+t cëifhtvrf;udk toHk;ðy&ef”[lI tav;teufazmfjycJhonf? 1999 ckESpf/ arv(11)&ufae@wëif The New State Council of the Australian Manufactures Workers Union rS jynfol@vïwfawmfudk,fpm;ðyaumfrwDtm;axmufcHa-umif; a-u nmcJhonf? 1999 ckESpf/ Zëefv(21)&ufae@wëifjyifopf&Sd atmifqef;pk-unfaxmufcHa&;aumfrwD (Committee Supporting Aung San Suu Kyi)onf jyifopfvïwfawmfEdkifiHjcm;a&;&m aumfrwD OuUXtm; jynfol@vïwfawmfudk,fpm;ðyaumfrwDtm; axmufcH&efESifh jynfo@l vïwfawmftpnf; ta0; ac:,lusif;ya&;twëuf jyifopfvïwfawmftwëif;v+yf&Sm;r+rsm; pwif&eftvdk@iSm atmifjrifpëm csOf;uyf pnf;&Hk;EdkifcJhonf? 1999ckESpf/ Zlvdkifv(27)&ufae@wëif rav;&Sm;EdkifiH uëmvmvrfylY usif;yaom(48)}udrfajrmuf APRO FIET tvkyftr+aqmiftzëJ@.tpnf;ta0;Y jynfol@vïwfawmfudk,fpm;ðyaumfrwDtm; jrefrmEdkifiHjynfol@vïwfawmf. ppfrSefaomudk,fpm;vS,ftjzpf todtrSefðya-umif;qHk;jzwfcJhonfhtjyif tmqD,Htygt0if EdkifiHwumtodkif;t0dkif;odk@ jynfol@vïwfawmfudk,fpm;ðyaumfrwDtm; todtrSwf ðy&ef wdkufwëef;ESKd;aqmfcJh.? 1999 ckESpf/ Zlvdkifv(2)&ufae@wëif The Tasmanian Trade and Labor Council onf jynf ol@vïwfawmfudk,fpm;ðyaumfrwDtm; w&m;0ifr+ESifh EdkifiHa&;qdkif&m axmufyHhr+rsm;ay;tyf&ef -opa-w; vstpdk;&tm; wdkufwëef;awmif;qdkonfh qHk;jzwfcsufw&yfudk csrSwfcJhonf? 1999 ckESpf/ -o*kwfv(9)&ufae@wëif uëmvmvrfyljrefrmoH±Hk;a&S@qENjyyëJY jrefrmjynfaoë;pnf; nDnëwfa&;tzëJ@onf jynfol@vïwfawmfudk,fpm;ðyaumfrwDtm; todtrSwfðy&ef etztm;awmif;qdk cJh_yD;tjynfjynfqdkif&m vl@tcGifhta&;a-unmpmwrf; yk'fr = (2 1) wGif tyfESif;xm;onfhtwdkif; jynfol@ v$wfawmf udk,fpm;ðyaumfrwDudk jyefrmjynfolwdk@tm; udk,fpm;ðyonfh w&m;0iftzGJ@tpnf;tjzpf todtrSwfðy&ef tmqD,HtzGJ@0ifEdkifiHrsm;&Sd tpdk;&rsm;tm;wdkufwGef;Edk;aqmfcJh.? 1999 ckESpf/ pufwifbmvwGif Australia Services Union rS w&m;0ifr+ESifh EdkifiHa&;qdkif&m axmufcHr+rsm; jynfol@v$wfawmfudk,fpm;ðyaumfrwDodk@ay;tyf&ef -opa-w;vs tpdk;&tm; wdkufwGef; awmif;qdkcJhonf? 1999 ckESpf/ pufwifbmv (17) &ufae@wGif Alternative Asean Network on Burma rS jynfol@v$wfawmfukd,fpm;ðyaumfrwDtm; jrefrmjynfrJqEN&Sifwdk@. w&m;0ifajyma&;qdkcGifh&SdwJh tzGJ@tjzpf todtrSwfðycJhonf? ,if;tzGJ@onf a'owGif;tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;rS jynfol@v$wfawmfudk,fpm;ðy aumfrwDtm; ydkrdktodtrSwfðyvmapa&;twGuf pDrHv+yf&Sm;&efqHk;jzwfcJhonfhtjyif jynfol@v$wfawmf udk,fpm;ðyaumfrwDESifh tvGwfoabmawG@qHkaqG;aEG;r+rsm; usif;y&ef tmpD,HEdkifiHtpdk;&rsm;tm; wdkuf wGef;E+d;aqmfcJhonf? 1999 ckESpf atmufwkdbmv (16) &ufae@wGif tjynfjynfqdkif&mygvDrefrsm;or*~ (The International Parliamentary Union) onf jynfol@v$wfawmfudk,fpm;ðyaumfrwDtm; axmufcHa-umif; xyfrHtwnfðyonfh qHk;jzwfcsufw&yfudk csrSwfcJhonf? ‚if;tjyif ‚if;.tzGJ@0ifygvDrefrsm;odk@ jrefrmjynf 'Drdkua&pDtajccHrsm;tm; av;pm;vdkufemapa&;twGuf zdtm;ay;&efESifh oifhawmfonf[kxifjrif,lq aom enf;vrf;rsm;udktoHk;ðyI jynfol@v$wfawmfudk,fpm;ðyaumfrwDtm; axmufcHr+rSwqifh 1990 jynfh a&G;aumufyGJwGif a&G;cs,fcH&aom jynfol@v$wfawmfudk,fpm;vS,frsm;ESifh ‚if;wdk@. aoG;pnf;nD!$wfr+udk jyo&ef awmif;qdkcJhonf?
  • 11. 1999 ckESpf atmufwdkbmv (26) &ufae@wGif The Forum of Democratic Leaders - Asia Pacific (FDLAP) onf etztm; trsdK;om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyf/ jynfol@v$wfawmfudk,fpm;ðyaumfrwD/ wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;pkrsm; óudwifpnf;urf;owfrSwfcsufrygbJ awG@qHkaqG;aEG;&ef wdkufwGef;cJhonf? ‚if;t jyif awG@qHkaqG;aEG;tajz&Sma&;jzpfpOftm; wdk;wufaumif;rGefr+&Sdvmap&ef aqmif&Guf&mwGif tmqD,H tzGJ@0if EdkifiHrsm;onf tðyoabma&S@&+aom csOf;uyfr+rsm;udk vkyfaqmif&efawmif;qdkcJhonf? jynfol@v$wf awmfukd,fpm;ðyaumfrwDESifh etz acgif;aqmifrsm;qufpyfaqmif&Guf&eftwGuf xif&Sm;ausmf-um;onfh tmqD,HrSacgif;aqmifrsm;yg0ifonfh tzGJ@wzGJ@udkzGJ@xm;jcif;tm;jzifh jrefrmjynftwGif;&Sd awG@qHkaqG;aEG; tajz&Sma&;jzpfpOftm; wdk;wufr+&Sdap&ef aqmif&Guf&mwGif tmqD,HtzGJ@0ifEdkifiHrsm;onf tðyoabm a&S@&+aom csOf;uyfr+rsm;udkvkyfaqmif&ef awmif;qdkcJhonf? 1999 ckESpf atmufwdkbmv (12) &ufae@wGif ukvor*~taxGaxGnDvmcH}uD;rS tm%mydkifrsm; tm; wdkufwGef;t}uHðyEdkif&eftwGuf jynfol@v$wfawmfudk,fpm;ðyaumfrwD.wnf&Sdr+udk rSwfrSwfom;om; azmfjycJhonf? xkdodk@awmif;qdk&mwGif 1990 jynfhESpf a&G;aumufyGJrsm;wGif azmfjycJhonfh jynfolvlxk. vdk tifqENESifhtnD jrefrmjynf'Drdkua&pdxGef;um;a&;twGuf vdktyfaomtqifhrsm;udk aqmif&Guf&efESifh a':atmifqef;pk-unf tygt0if EdkifiHa&;acgif;aqmifrsm;/ wdkif;&if;om;tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;rS udk,fpm;vS,frsm; ESifh taumiftxnfr,fr,f&&&Sdaom awG@qkHaqG;aEG;tajz&Sma&;udpP&yfrsm;udk aESmifhaES;-uef@-umr+r&Sdap bJaqmif&Guf&ef xnfhoGif;awmif;qdkcJh.? 1999 ckESpf 'DZifbmv (8) &ufae@wGif udGbufjynfe,ftrsdK;om;v$wfawmfonf _Adwdo#udkvH bD,mjynfe,fv$wfawmfESifh ylwGJv#uf jynfol@v$wfawmfudk,fpm;ðyaumfrwDtm;axmufcHaom qHk;jzwf csufw&yfudkxkwfjyefcJhonf? ‚if;v$wfawmfrS jynfol@v$wfawmfudk,fpm;ðyaumfrwDtm; jrefrmjynfolwdk@ . w&m;0if udk,fpm;vS,ftzGJ@tjzpf todtrSwfðy&ef uae'gA[dktpdk&odk@ wdkufwGefcJhonf? tvm;wlyif jrefrmjynfY ydkrdkqdk;&Gmaomt-urf;zufr+rsm;ray:aygufrD tðyoabmaqmifaom awG@qHkaqG;aEG;tajz&Sm r+rsm;udk jynfol@v$wfawmfudk,fpm;ðyaumfrwDESifh ðyvkyf&ef etzodk@ wdkufwGef;E+d;aqmfcJhonf? 2000 jynfhESpf/ {_yD (11) &ufae@wGif The Council of Socialist International rS jynfol@ v$wfawmfudk,fpm;ðyaumfrwDtm; ‚if;.todtrSwfðyr+udk azmfjycJh_yD; 1990 jynfhESpfa&G;aumufyGJwGif trsdK;om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyfESifh a':atmifqefpk-unf.atifjrifr+ukd todtrSwfðy&ef yef-um;cJhonf? 2000 jynfhESpf {_yD (12) &ufae@wGif “vl@tcGifhta&;aumfr&Sif. (56) }udrfajrmuftpnf;ta0;Y rrsdK;om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyfonf jynfolvlxkutyfESif;xm;aom 'Drdkua&pDtcGifhtm%mudk usifhoHk;&ef etz. ydwfyifwm;jrpfjcif;udk cHae&aom 1990 jynfhESpfwGif a&G;cs,fwifajr‡mufcH&onfh jynfol@v$wf awmfudk,fpm;vS,frsm;udk udk,fpm;ðy&ef aumfrwDw&yfudk ,m,Dtm;jzifh zGJ@pnf;cJhonf[k jynfol@v$wf awmfudk,fpm;ðyaumfrwDtm; todtrSwfðy rSwfom;xm;cJhonf? ppftm%m&Sifwdk@tm; wdkufwGef;Ed+;aqmfcsufrsm;wGif “1990 jynfhESpfa&G;aumufyGJwGifazmfjycJh onfh jynfolvlxk. vdktifqENESifhtnD 'Drdkua&pDpepfxlaxmifa&;aocsmap&eftwGuf t"dy`g,f&Sdaom vkyfaqmifr+rsm;udk tvsiftjrefaqmif&Guf&ef ,if;udpP_yD;ajrmufatmifjrif&eftwGuf 'Drdkua&pDjyefvnf xGef;um;a&;ESifh trsdK;om;jyefvnfoifhjrwfa&;wnfaqmuf&ef &nf&G,fcsufjzifh a':atmifqef;pk-unftyg t0if ppfrSefaom oHk;yGifhqdkifaqG;aEG;yGJw&yfudk c|if;csufr&Sdtvsiftjrefaqmif&Guf&efESifh EdkifiHa&;ygwDrsm; ESifh tpdk;&r[kwfaomtzGJ@tpnf;rsm;onf vGwfvyfpGm‚if;wdk@.vkyfief;rsm;aqmif&GufcGifh&Sd&ef” [lI wdkuf wGef;cJhonf? jynfol@v$wfawmfudk,fpm;ðyaumfrwDtm; tpdk;&tzGJ@rsm;/ ygvDrefrsm;/ ukvor*~taxGaxG nDvmcHESifh vl@tcGifhta&;aumfr&SifuJhodk@aom EdkifiHwumtzGJ@tpnf;rsm;ESifh tjynfjynfqdkif&mygvDref rsm;uJhodk@aom }uD;rm;onfhtzGJ@tpnf;rsm;. w&m;0ifaxmufcHr+rsm;&&Sdjcif;onf jynfol@v$wfawmfudk,f pm;ðyaumfrwD. w&m;0ifr+udk ydkrdkI,Hk-unftm;xm;r+rsm; wdk;yGm;vmaponf?
  • 12. 1990jynfhESpf a&G;aumufyGJOya't& a&G;aumufwifa¹rSmufjcif;cH&onfh udk,fpm;vS,frsm;udk tjcm;aomrnfonfh Oya'/ enf;Oya'/ trdef@tm%mrsm;jzifhvnf;aumif; rdrdwdk@qENt&vnf;aumif; E+wfxGufjcif;ESifh xkwfy,fjcif;rsm;udk rnfolur#ðyvkyfEdkifjcif;r&Sda-umif; (17/ 9/ 98) &ufae@u jynfol@v$wfawmfudkpm; ðyaumfrwD. a-unmcsuf trSwf (1) wGif twdtvif; a-unmcJh_yD;jzpfonf? (7) jynfol@v$wfawmfudk,fpm;ðyaumfrwDu bmawGvkyfaqmifaeovJ jynfol@v$wfawmfudk,fpm;ðyaumfrwD. vkyfaqmifr+rsm; udk a,bk,stm;jzifh (4) ydkif;cGJjcm;&+jrifEdkifygonf? jynfol@v$wf awmfESifh jynfol@v$wfawmfukd,fpm;ðyaumfrwDwdk@. tajccHt aqmufttHkESifh 'Drdku a&pDtajccHrlrsm;wnfaqmufa&;? jrefrmjynfwGif usifhoHk;aeaom Oya'rsm;udk jyefvnfoHk; oyf&ef jyifqifjcif; (odk@) jyefvnf&kwf odrf;jcif;wdk@tm; oabmwl nDr+ay;jcif;? etz. usL;vGefazmufzsufr+rsm;tm; rSwfwrf;wifjcif;ESifh jynfol@v$wfawmfudk,fpm;ðyaumfrwD . rl0g'rsm;udk a0zef;qef;ppfjcif;/ oHwrefa&;vkyf&Sm;r+ESifh EdkifiHwumqufqHa&;? jynfol@v$wfawmfudk,fpm;ðyaumfrwD. EdkifiHa&;ygwDrsm;rSwfyHkwifjcif; Oya'/ toif;tzGJ@rsm;zGJ@ pnf;jcif;qdkif&mOya'/ jynfol@v$wfawmfa&G;aumufyGJOya'wdk@udk jynfol@v$wfawmfrStwnfðy&efoabm wlcJhonf? jynfol@v$wfawmfukd,fpm;ðyaumfrwDonf zdESdyfa&;Oya'yk'frrsm;jzpfonfh (yk'fr = 5) ESifh (yk'fr = 10) wdk@udk jynfol@v$wfawmfrSy,fzsuf&ef oabmwlcJhonf? jynfol@v$wfawmfudk,fpm;ðyaumfrwDonf wnfqJOya'toD;oD;udk jynfol@v$wfawmfu jyefvnfoHk;oyfI jyifqifcsifujyifqif&ef oabmwlcJhonf? jynfol@v$wfawmfudk,fpm;ðyaumfrwDonf 1998 ckESpf pufwifbmv (17) &ufae@wGif jynfol@ v$wfawmf OuUXtjzpf a'gufwmOD;apmjratmif &cdkifjynfe,f/ ajrmufOD;òrd@e,f rJqENe,ftrSwf (1) rS v$wfawmfudk,fpm;vS,ftm; a&G;aumufwifa¹rSmufcJhonf? jynfol@v$wfawmfudk,fpm;ðyaumfrwDonf 1988 ckESpf 'DZifbmv (8) &ufae@Y jynfol@v$wf awmfa&;&maumfrwDrsm;udk zGJ@pnf;cJhonf? ,if;aumfrwDrsm;onf jynfol@v$wfawmfac:,lzGJ@pnf;onfh tcsdeftxd wm0ef,l&efjzpfonf? (u) wdkif;&if;om;a&;&maumfrwD OD;at;omatmif (OuUX) a':atmifqef;pk-unf (taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rª;) (c ) b¾ = pD;yGm; ukefoG,fa&;&maumfrwD OD;!$ef@a0 (OuUX)
  • 13. (* ) Oya'a&;&maumfrwD OD;wifOD; (OuUX) (C) ynma&;aumfrwD a':atmifqef;pk-unf (OuUX) (i ) usef;rm;a&;ESifh vlr+a&;&maumfrwD OD;vGif (OuUX) (p ) EdkifiHwumqufqHa&;aumfrwD OD;atmifa&$ (OuUX) (q) awmifolv,form;a&;&maumfrwD OD;pdk;jrifh (OuUX) (Z ) tvkyform;a&;&maumfrwD OD;oef;xGef; (OuUX) OD;vGef;wif (twGif;a&;rª;) (ps ) v$wfawmfa&;&maumfrwD OD;vSaz (OuUX) (n) umuG,fa&;&maumfrwD OD;wifOD; (OuUX) 'Drdku&ufwpfvltzGJ@tpnf;w&yfxlaxmifa&;ESifh ppftm%m&Sifpepftukeftpifzsufodrf;a&;[l aom trsdK;om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyf. &yfwnfcsufrsm;udk jynfol@v$wfawmfudk,fpm;ðyaumfrwD. a-unm csufrsm;wGif &Sif;vif;pGmazmfjycJhonf? EdkifiHa&;ygwDrsm;onf Oya' u cGifhðyxm;onfh EdkifiHa&;vkyfief;rsm; udk taumiftxnfazmfaqmif&Guf&ef tcGifhta&;&Sdonf[lI jynfol@v$wfawmfudk,fpm;ðyaumfrwDrS &Sif; vif;pGm azmfjycJhonf? jynfol@v$wfawmfudk,fpm;ðyaumffrwDonf jrefrmjynfwGif 'Drdkua&pDxGef;um;a&;twGuf rnfr# ta&;}uD;a-umif;azmfjycJh_yD;/ etz. ,ckvkyfaqmifaeaomt&mrsm;rSm raumif;aomtpOftvmrsm;udk jzpfxGef;ap_yD; 'Drdkua&pDtoGif;ul;ajymif;a&;umv_yD;v#ifawmifrS jyemaxGjym;Edkifrnfh EdkifiHa&;tusifh qdk;rsm;udk &ifqdkifausmfv$m;&ef tcuftcJ&SdEdkifrnf[k axmufjycJhonf? tvm;wlyif jrefrmjynf'Drdkua&pD a&;jzpfpOfumvtwGif; wdkif;&if;om;pnf;vHk;nD!$wfa&; ta&;ygr+u¾udk tav;teufazmfjycJhonf?
  • 14. jynfol@v$wfawmfudk,fpm;ðyaumfrwDonf v$wfawmfudk,fpm;vS,ftm;vHk;. (30) &mcdkif;E+ef;u qEN&Sdv#if EkdifiHawmftm%mykdifrsm;u jynfol@v$wfawmftpnf;ta0;ukd ac:,lay;&eftwGuf jynfol@ v$wfawmfrS jyXmef;ay;&efoabmwlcJhonf? jynfol@v$wfawmfukd,fpm;ðyaumfrwDonf 'Drkdua&pDtajccHrlrsm;ESifh tjynfjynfqkdif&mvl@t cGifhta&;pHcsdefpH!$ef;rsm;ESifh ukdufnDonfhaus;&GmtufOya'ukd jyifqif&efaxmufcHcJhonf? jynfol@v$wfawmfukd,fpm;ðyaumfrwDonf ,ckwkdifjrefrmjynfrS vufrSwfa&;xkd;+yD;jzpfaomf vnf; twnfrðy&ao;onfh uav;tcGifhta&;qkdif&moabmwlnDcsuf ( Convention on the Rights of the Child ) ukd twnfðy&eftwGuf axmufcHcJhonf? jynfol@v$wfawmfukd,fpm;ðyaumfrwDonf ppfrSeaom'Drkdua&pDpepfxlaxmif&efESifh EkdifiHom; f wkd@. tcGifhta&;ukd umuG,f&eftvkd@iSmatmufazmfjyyg pmc|efawmftrdef@rsm; (Writs) udk Oya'wGif xnfhoGif;&eftwGuf jynfol@v$wfawmfokd@ axmufcH&ef oabmwlcJhonf? (u) a&S@awmfoGif;pmc|efawmftrdef@ (Habeal Corpus) (c) tm%may;pmc|efawmftrdef@ ( Mandamus) (*) wm;jrpfap pmc|efawmftrdef@ ( Writ of Prohibition) (C) tm%mykdifar; pmc|efawmftrdef@ ( Quo Warrantee) (i) tr_ac: pmc|efawmftrdef@ ( Certiorari) jynfol@v$wfawmfukd,fpm;ðyaumfrwDonf ajr¹r+yfrkdifrsm; tokH;ðyr+/ okdavSmif r+ESifh xkwfvkyfr+wm;qD;ydwfyifa&; oabmwlpmcsKyftm; jynfol@v$wfawmfrS twnfðya&;twGufaxmufcHcJhonf? pyg; ra&mif;rae& Oya' = 4§78 tm; 1978 ckESpfY ukefoG,fa&;0ef}uD;XmerS xkwfjyefchonf? okd@&mwGif ,if;trdef@tm;zsufodrf; J &efESihf 1963 ckESpfOya'tm;&kwfodrf;&ef(odk@)jyifqif&eftwGuf jynfol@v$wfawmfukd,f pm;ðyaumfrwD awmifolv,form; a&;&maumfrwDOuUX OD;pkd;jrifhrSajym-um;cJhonf? trsKd;om;'Drkdua&pDtzGJ@csKyfESifh wkdif;&if;om;ygwDrsm;onf 'Drkdua&pDtpkd;&w&yf wnfaqmufa&;twGuf awG@qkHaqG;aEG; tajz&Sm&ef pOfqufrjywfawmif;qkdcJhonf? etzrSvnf; awG@qkHaqG;aEG;a&;ukd jiif;qefv#uf w&m;r#wr+uif;rJhI vufcHEkdif zG,fr&Sdaom tajctaersm;ukdom vkyfaqmifcJhonfukdvnf; jynfol@v$wf awmfukd,f pm;ðyaumfrwDrS tckdiftrmrSwfwrf;ðycJhonf? jynfol@v$wfawmfukd,fpm;ðyaumfrwD onf etzrS tu,fI jynfol@v$wfawmfukd,fpm;ðyaumfrwDtm;zsufodrf;ay;ygu EkdifiHa&;tusOf;om; rsm;tm; v$wfay;ygrnf[k EkdifiHa&;jyefay;qGJvkyf&yftay: &mZ0wfr+oufa&mufaom vkyf&yfjzpfonf[k azmfxkwfwifjy cJhonf? jynfol@v$wfawmfukd,fpm;ðyaumfrwD zGJ@pnf;_yD;aemufykdif;wGif trsKd;om;'Drkdua&pDtzGJ@csKyf jynfol@v$wfawmfukd,fpm;vS,frsm;tm; t,kHt-unfr&SdtqkdwifoGif;I v$wfawmfukd,fpm;vS,ftjzpfrS &kwfodrf;yGJrsm;ukd OD;aqmifusif;ycJhonf? ‚if;wkd@ tokH;ðyaom enf;vrf;rsm;ESifh tusKd;oufa&mufr+ rsm;ukd jynfol@v$wfawmfudk,fpm;ðyaumfrwD. a-unmcsufrsm;wGif tao;pdwfxnfhoGif;azmfjyI xkwfazmfcJh onf? txdef;odrf;cHae&aom ta&G;cs,fcHukd,fpm;vS,frsm;tm; zdESdyf!Sif;yrf;r+rsm;ukd azmfxkwfwifjycJh onf? jynfol@v$wfawmfukd,fpm;ðyaumffrwDonf etzrS aqmif&Gufaeonfh pyg;/ &mbmESifh qDxGuf oD;ESHuJhokd@aom oD;ESHzlvkHa&;pDrHudef;onf ywf0ef;usifysufokOf;r+jyemrsm; jzpfyGm;apvdrfhrnf[k axmufjycJhonf?
  • 15. jynfol@v$wfawmfukd,fpm;ðyaumfrwDonf tif'kd;eD;&Sm;orwtjzpf ta&G;cs,fcH&aom tAŠ'l &mrmef0g[pftm; csD;usL;*k%fðya-umif; xkwfjyefcsufukd 1999 ckESpf/ Ekd0ifbmv (8) &ufae@wGif xkwfjyefcJh jcif;jzifh ‚if;.oHwrefa&;v+yf&Sm;r+ t&Sdeft[kefukd ¹rSifhwifcJhonf? ,if;xkwfjyefa-unmcsufwGif tif'kdeD; &SmEkdifiHESifh jrefrmEkdifiHonfvGwfvyfr+ESifh w&m;r#wr+twGuf tem*wfumvwGif &if;ESD;cspf-unfpGm twl wuGvufwGJtvkyfvkyfEkdifrnf[k ,kH-unfa-umif;azmfjycJhonf? jynfol@v$wfawmfukd,fpm;ðyaumfrwD. 1999 ckESpf/ Ekd0ifbmvwGif xkwfjyefaoma-unmcsufY xkdif;tm%mykdifrsm;xH jrefrmjynfrSw&m;r0ifvma&muf-uaom jrefrmtvkyform;rsm;ESifh pyfvsOf;aom udpP&yftm; vl@tcGifhta&;tajccHjzifh ukdifwG,fajz&Sif;yg&ef yef-um;cJhonf? jynfol@v$wfawmfukd,fpm; ðyaumfrwDonf jrefrmtvkyform;rsm; w&m;r0if vma&muftajccsr+rS jrefrmEkdifiH&Sd !Hh zsif;EkHcsmaom tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfa-umifhjzpfonf[k axmufjycJh_yD; ,if;jyemtjzpf,lq&ef xkwfazmfcJh onf? jynfol@v$wfawmfukd,fpm;ðyaumfrwD. ouU&mZf 2000 jynfhESpf/ Zefe0g&Dv (26) &ufae@wGif xkwfjyefaom a-unmcsufxJY &yfcsfbl&Dc&kdfifaq;&kHtm; vufeufukdiftkyfpk wpfpku 0ifa&mufpD;eif;odrf; ykdufr+ukd &+wfcscJhonf? ,if;jzpf&yfonf jrefrmjynfY _idrf;r+uif;rJhjcif;. tusKd;qufjzpfonf[k axmufjycJh onf? aemufykdif;wGif aq;&kHpD;eif;odrf;ykdufr+wGif yg0ifaom vufeufukdifrsm;tm; owfjzwfr+tay:jypfwif &+wfcscJh_yD; aq;&kHtm; odrf;ydkufcJhr+. tajccHta-umif;&if;tm; -unfh&+okH;oyfyg&ef xkdif;tpkd;&tm; yef -um;cJhonf? (8) jynfol@v$wfawmfukd,fpm;ðyaumfrwD. oufwrf;b,favmufowfrSwfxm;ovJ jynfol@v$wfawmfukd,fpm;ðyaumfrwD. oufwrf;rSm yxrt}udrf jynfol@v$wfawmf ac:,lusif; yEkdifonftxdjzpfonf?

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