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ppfrSefaomjynfaxmifpkpepfqDodkŒ
(yxrwG)
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'Drdkua&pDa&;ESifh
wef;wla&;wdkufyGJu...
_idrf;csrf;pGmtwlvufwGJaexdkifa&;0g'rSonf
ppfrSefaomjynfaxmifpkpepfqDodkŒ
(yxrwG)
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'Drdkua&pDa&;ESifh
wef;wla&;wdkufyGJu...
yxrt}udrfyHkESdyfjcif;
tkyfa& = 3000
1999 ckESpf/ Edk0ifbmv
Zif;r,f_rdKŒ/ xdkif;EdkifiH

xkwfa0ol
qvdkif;vsefr+ef;qmacgif;...
rmwdum
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tcef;(2)

tce...
tcef;(6)

tcef;(7)

tcef;(8)
tcef;(9)

taxGaxGa±G;aumufyJG
(odkŒr[kwf)
EdkifiHawmftm%mudk t-urf;rzufaomenf;jzifh jyefvnf&,...
'Drua&pDa&;ESihf wef;wla&;wduyumvtwGi; UNLD .ordkif;0ifrSwfwrf;rsm;
kd
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jynfaxmifpjk refrmEdiitrsKd ;om;!$eŒf ayg...
+idrf;csrf;pGmtwlvufwGJaexdkifa&;0g'rSonf ppfrSefaomjynfaxmifpkpepfqDodkΠ(yxrwGJ)

aemuf+yD;awmhvnf; tem*gwfrSm az:aqmifr...
'Drua&pDa&;ESihf wef;wla&;wduyumvtwGi; UNLD .ordkif;0ifrSwfwrf;rsm;
kd
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                                         ...
+idrf;csrf;pGmtwlvufwGJaexdkifa&;0g'rSonf ppfrSefaomjynfaxmifpkpepfqDodkΠ(yxrwGJ)

The British first modernized the easil...
'Drua&pDa&;ESihf wef;wla&;wduyumvtwGi; UNLD .ordkif;0ifrSwfwrf;rsm;
kd
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xkwfa0olxHrS trSmpm
“+idrf;csrf;pGm twlvu...
+idrf;csrf;pGmtwlvufwGJaexdkifa&;0g'rSonf ppfrSefaomjynfaxmifpkpepfqDodkΠ(yxrwGJ)

“+idrf;csrf;pGmtwl vufwJGaexkdifa&;0g'...
'Drua&pDa&;ESihf wef;wla&;wduyumvtwGi; UNLD .ordkif;0ifrSwfwrf;rsm;
kd
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tcef;(1)
jynfwGif;_idrf;csrf;a&;ESifhvlrs...
+idrf;csrf;pGmtwlvufwGJaexdkifa&;0g'rSonf ppfrSefaomjynfaxmifpkpepfqDodkΠ(yxrwGJ)

xkd&nfrSef;csuf/ cH,lcsufrsm; atmifjri...
'Drua&pDa&;ESihf wef;wla&;wduyumvtwGi; UNLD .ordkif;0ifrSwfwrf;rsm;
kd
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jrefrmEdkifiHtwGif; rSDwif;aexdkif=uwJh v...
+idrf;csrf;pGmtwlvufwGJaexdkifa&;0g'rSonf ppfrSefaomjynfaxmifpkpepfqDodkΠ(yxrwGJ)

'gudk usaemfwdk@wdkif;&if;om;vlrsKd;pk...
'Drua&pDa&;ESihf wef;wla&;wduyumvtwGi; UNLD .ordkif;0ifrSwfwrf;rsm;
kd
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'D r[mvlrsKd;}uD;0g'u b,fol@udk xdcdkufep...
+idrf;csrf;pGmtwlvufwGJaexdkifa&;0g'rSonf ppfrSefaomjynfaxmifpkpepfqDodkΠ(yxrwGJ)

aumif;wmu wcdsK@ ygwD}uD;rsm;[m olwdk@...
'Drua&pDa&;ESihf wef;wla&;wduyumvtwGi; UNLD .ordkif;0ifrSwfwrf;rsm;
kd
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wdkif;jynf'kuQra&mufapzdk@ owdxm;=u&ygr,f...
+idrf;csrf;pGmtwlvufwGJaexdkifa&;0g'rSonf ppfrSefaomjynfaxmifpkpepfqDodkΠ(yxrwGJ)

0ef}uD;XmerSm rSwfyHkwif&rJh toif;tzJG...
'DruapDa;ESihf wef;wla;wduyumvtwGi; UNLD .ordkif;0ifrSwfwrf;rsm;
kd
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apkefarsmoGm;Edkifw,f? yef;wdkifudk csDwufwJ...
+idrf;csrf;pGmtwlvufwGJaexdkifa;0g'rSonf ppfrSefaomjynfaxmifpkpepfqDodkΠ(yxrwGJ)

tcef; (2)
jynfaxmifpkwdkif;if;om;vlrsKd...
'DruapDa;ESihf wef;wla;wduyumvtwGi; UNLD .ordkif;0ifrSwfwrf;rsm;
kd
k f JG
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12? jynfaxmifpk ytdk@0f trsKd;om;'DrdkuapDtz...
+idrf;csrf;pGmtwlvufwGJaexdkifa;0g'rSonf ppfrSefaomjynfaxmifpkpepfqDodkΠ(yxrwGJ)

15? OD;pHomatmif (+rdK (c) crD)
16? a'g...
'DruapDa;ESihf wef;wla;wduyumvtwGi; UNLD .ordkif;0ifrSwfwrf;rsm;
kd
k f JG
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vkyief;aumfrwD
f
vkyfief;aumfrwD (5) ckjzifh...
+idrf;csrf;pGmtwlvufwGJaexdkifa;0g'rSonf ppfrSefaomjynfaxmifpkpepfqDodkΠ(yxrwGJ)

(4) rif;udkom
(5) qvdkif; idkifqmh'f

r...
'DruapDa;ESihf wef;wla;wduyumvtwGi; UNLD .ordkif;0ifrSwfwrf;rsm;
kd
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vkyief;aumfrwDtvkutpDifcpm
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1? rl0g'a...
+idrf;csrf;pGmtwlvufwGJaexdkifa;0g'rSonf ppfrSefaomjynfaxmifpkpepfqDodkΠ(yxrwGJ)

(3) tcsKyftjcmtm%mudk vufeufjzifh t=urf...
'DruapDa;ESihf wef;wla;wduyumvtwGi; UNLD .ordkif;0ifrSwfwrf;rsm;
kd
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(15) jynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a;ESifh urBmh+idrf;...
+idrf;csrf;pGmtwlvufwGJaexdkifa;0g'rSonf ppfrSefaomjynfaxmifpkpepfqDodkΠ(yxrwGJ)

(c) tzJ@G csKyf. zJ@G pnf;yHpnf;rsO; jy...
'DruapDa;ESihf wef;wla;wduyumvtwGi; UNLD .ordkif;0ifrSwfwrf;rsm;
kd
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wdkufyGJrsm;wGif yg0ifwdkufcdkufcJh=ujcif;on...
+idrf;csrf;pGmtwlvufwGJaexdkifa;0g'rSonf ppfrSefaomjynfaxmifpkpepfqDodkΠ(yxrwGJ)

3? tzG@J csKyf.jyef=um;a;ESihf qufo,a;v...
'DruapDa;ESihf wef;wla;wduyumvtwGi; UNLD .ordkif;0ifrSwfwrf;rsm;
kd
k f JG
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(*) qdi;bkwwifyGJ tcef;tem;ESihf yl;wJvufrwx...
+idrf;csrf;pGmtwlvufwGJaexdkifa;0g'rSonf ppfrSefaomjynfaxmifpkpepfqDodkΠ(yxrwGJ)

'D§+idr; tzGŒJ ESihf !‡EKdS if;jcif;
f
...
'DruapDa;ESihf wef;wla;wduyumvtwGi; UNLD .ordkif;0ifrSwfwrf;rsm;
kd
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tajccHrsm;ESifh wlnDaomvkyfief;rsm;udk yl;wG...
+idrf;csrf;pGmtwlvufwGJaexdkifa;0g'rSonf ppfrSefaomjynfaxmifpkpepfqDodkΠ(yxrwGJ)

taumiftxnfazmfvsuaom aS@vkyief;pOfrsm;
...
'DruapDa;ESihf wef;wla;wduyumvtwGi; UNLD .ordkif;0ifrSwfwrf;rsm;
kd
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tcef; (2)
jynfaxmifpkwdkif;if;om;vlrsKd;rsm;...
+idrf;csrf;pGmtwlvufwGJaexdkifa;0g'rSonf ppfrSefaomjynfaxmifpkpepfqDodkΠ(yxrwGJ)

12? jynfaxmifpk ytdk@0f trsKd;om;'Drdku...
'DruapDa;ESihf wef;wla;wduyumvtwGi; UNLD .ordkif;0ifrSwfwrf;rsm;
kd
k f JG
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15? OD;pHomatmif (+rdK (c) crD)
16? a'gufwmq...
+idrf;csrf;pGmtwlvufwGJaexdkifa;0g'rSonf ppfrSefaomjynfaxmifpkpepfqDodkΠ(yxrwGJ)

vkyief;aumfrwD
f
vkyfief;aumfrwD (5) ck...
'DruapDa;ESihf wef;wla;wduyumvtwGi; UNLD .ordkif;0ifrSwfwrf;rsm;
kd
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(4) rif;udkom
(5) qvdkif; idkifqmh'f

rGeftr...
+idrf;csrf;pGmtwlvufwGJaexdkifa;0g'rSonf ppfrSefaomjynfaxmifpkpepfqDodkΠ(yxrwGJ)

vkyief;aumfrwDtvkutpDifcpm
f
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1? r...
'DruapDa;ESihf wef;wla;wduyumvtwGi; UNLD .ordkif;0ifrSwfwrf;rsm;
kd
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(3) tcsKyftjcmtm%mudk vufeufjzifh t=urf;zuf,...
+idrf;csrf;pGmtwlvufwGJaexdkifa;0g'rSonf ppfrSefaomjynfaxmifpkpepfqDodkΠ(yxrwGJ)

(15) jynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a;ESifh urBmh+...
'DruapDa;ESihf wef;wla;wduyumvtwGi; UNLD .ordkif;0ifrSwfwrf;rsm;
kd
k f JG
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(c) tzJ@G csKyf. zJ@G pnf;yHpnf;rsO; jyifqif...
+idrf;csrf;pGmtwlvufwGJaexdkifa;0g'rSonf ppfrSefaomjynfaxmifpkpepfqDodkΠ(yxrwGJ)

wdkufyGJrsm;wGif yg0ifwdkufcdkufcJh=ujc...
'DruapDa;ESihf wef;wla;wduyumvtwGi; UNLD .ordkif;0ifrSwfwrf;rsm;
kd
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3? tzG@J csKyf.jyef=um;a;ESihf qufo,a;vkyief...
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)
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ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)

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ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)

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ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၁)

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  2. 2. _idrf;csrf;pGmtwlvufwGJaexdkifa&;0g'rSonf ppfrSefaomjynfaxmifpkpepfqDodkŒ (yxrwG) J 'Drdkua&pDa&;ESifh wef;wla&;wdkufyGJumvtwGif; jynfaxmifpwi;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; k kd 'Drdkua&pDtzGJŒcsKyf. ordkif;0ifrSwfwrf;rsm; qvd k i f ; vsef r S K ef ; qmacgif ; (Lian H. Sakhong) pk a qmif ; wif j yonf
  3. 3. yxrt}udrfyHkESdyfjcif; tkyfa& = 3000 1999 ckESpf/ Edk0ifbmv Zif;r,f_rdKŒ/ xdkif;EdkifiH xkwfa0ol qvdkif;vsefr+ef;qmacgif; Funded By The Burma Fund
  4. 4. rmwdum ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ tcef;(2) tcef;(3) tcef;(4) tcef;(5) jynfwGif;_idrf;csrf;a&;ESifh vlrsdK;pkjyem ( jynfaxmifpkwdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;'Drdkua&pDtzGJŒcsKyf zGŒJ pnf;&ef}udK;yrf;r+umvv+y&m;r+rsm; ) fS jynfaxmifpkwdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;'Drdkua&pDtzGJŒcsKyf. v+yf&Sm;r+rsm; (tusOf;csKyf) cGJxGufa&;ESifh wef;wla&;jyem vlxkacgif;aqmifa':atmifqef;pk-unfESifh aqG;aEG;yGJ jynfaxmifpppfppfrl k (wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;nDvmcHrS qHk;jzwfcsuf) 1 10 25 32 52 ○ tcef;(1) ○ Ð xkwfa0olxHrS trSmpm ○ By Dr. Chao-Tzang Yawnghwe Advisor-Consultant, National Reconciliation Program ○ Ð FOWARD ○ Ð jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEdkifiHtrsdK;om;!$efŒaygif;tpdk;& 0ef}uD;csKyf a'gufwmpdef0if;. trSmpm
  5. 5. tcef;(6) tcef;(7) tcef;(8) tcef;(9) taxGaxGa±G;aumufyJG (odkŒr[kwf) EdkifiHawmftm%mudk t-urf;rzufaomenf;jzifh jyefvnf&,la&;vrf;pOf tm%mv$ajymif;a&;jyem J ('kw,t}udrf wdi;f &ifom;nDvmcHrawmif;qdcsursm;) d k S k f Adkvfatmifausmfvrf;ausnmcsuf ppfrSefaom zuf'&,fjynfaxmifpkqDodkŒ 61 82 105 110
  6. 6. 'Drua&pDa&;ESihf wef;wla&;wduyumvtwGi; UNLD .ordkif;0ifrSwfwrf;rsm; kd k f JG f jynfaxmifpjk refrmEdiitrsKd ;om;!$eŒf aygif;tpd;& kfH k 0ef}uD;csKyf a'gufwmpdef0if;. trSmpm 'Duae@ jrefrmekdifiH awG@óuH&ifqkdifae&wJh taxGaxGjyemrsm;[m t&if;ppfvdkuf&if ekdifiHa&;jyemyJ jzpfygw,f? ekdfifiHa&; jyemukd ekdifiHa&;enf;eJ@ ajz&Sif;ekdifzkd@qdk&if æ 1? jynfwGif;ppf&yfpJ+yD; jynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a&; wnfaqmufzkd@/ 2? wkdif;&if;om;vlrsKd;rsm;ta&;ukd ajz&Sif;zkd@/ 3? 'Drkdua&pDeJ@ vl@tcGifhta&; xGef;um;zkd@ vkdygw,f? usaemfw@dk jrefrmekiitwGi;f rSwif;aexki=f uwJh wki;f &if;om;vlrsK;d rsm;[m 1824 +AdwedfH D d d df jrefrm yxrppfyJGup+yD; vGwfvyfa&;&,lwJhtxd e,fcsJŒqef@usifa&;/ zwfqpfawmfvSefa&; wkdufyJGpOfwav#mufvkH;rSm yg0ifwkdfufckdufcJh=uwm jzpfygw,f? 1948 ckESpf vGwfvyfa&; &,l+yD;aemufykdif;rSmvnf; tm%m&tpdk;&toD;oD;[m wkdif;&if;om;vlrsKd;rsm;&JŒ &oifh&xkdufwJh tcGifhta&;rsm;ukd vpfvsL±_ rsufuG,fðyxm;cJh+yD; wjynfaxmifpepf/ A[kcsKyfuia&;0g'eJ@ ppftm%m&SipepfuyJ usio;Hk vkyaqmifcw,f? 'ga=umifh d kd f f dk hf f hJ vnf; 'Duae@txd jynfwi;f ppfr;D }uD;[m qufvufawmufavmif aeqJyJ jzpfygw,f? txl;ojzifh G 1962 ppftypk tm%modr;f +yD; tkycsKyfp;dk rk;d cJwtcseup+yD; wki;f &if;om;vlrsK;d rsm;&JŒ w&m;r#wwJh kf f h hJ d f d awmif;qkdr_awGudk cJGxGufa&;orm;rsm;/ e,fcsJŒaemufvkdufrsm; pojzifh vdrfnm0g'jzef@ r_dkif;wdkuf cJhw,f? 1988 ck orkdif;0if &Spfav;vkH;ta&;awmfykH}uD;t+yD;rSmawmh jynfolvlxk[m ekdifiHa&; tm;jzifh ykdrkdekd;=um;vmcJh=uw,f? ArmvlrsKd;pkeJ@ tjcm;wkdif;&if;om;vlrsKd;rsm;[m ykdrkdem;vnfr_ awG &SdvmcJh=uw,f? vlxkacgif;aqmif a':atmifqef;pk=unf[m wkdif;&if;om;vlrsKd;rsm;ta&;eJ@ ywfouf+yD; t+rJwrf;tav;xm;aqmif±GufcJhw,f? 1988 =o*kwfv(26) a±$wd*kHapwD taemuf bufrk'frSmuwnf;u tckvdkajymcJhygw,f? “ vlrsKd;pktmvkH;[m nD!Gwfzkd@vkdygw,f? tck vlrsKd;pk vlrsm;pkuawmh ArmvlrsKd;awG jzpfaeygw,f? vlrsm;pkArmawG[m vlenf;pkawGjzpfwJh wkdif;&if;om;awGeJ@ pnf;pnf;±kH;±kH;jzpfzkd@ tvGefóud;pm;zkd@ vkdygw,f? ukd,fu tm;&SdaewJhvl/ ukd,fu tm;rsm;aewJhvlrkd@vdk@ ykd+yD;awmh óud;pm;zkd@vkdygw,f? tm;enf;aewJhvlawGukd tpOft+rJav#mh+yD;awmh !‡may;zkd@vdkygw,f?” qvdi;f vsere;f qmacgi;f ( Lian H. Sakhong ) pkaqmif;wifjyonf k f _
  7. 7. +idrf;csrf;pGmtwlvufwGJaexdkifa&;0g'rSonf ppfrSefaomjynfaxmifpkpepfqDodkŒ (yxrwGJ) aemuf+yD;awmhvnf; tem*gwfrSm az:aqmifrJh jynfaxmifpkykHpHeJ@ ywfoufvkd@vnf; a':atmifqef;pk=unf tus,fcsKyfeJ@ txdef;odrf;rcH&cif Zlvdkif (15)&uf 1989 jynfaxmifpk wkdif;&if;om;vlrsKd;rsm;'Drdkua&pDtzJG@csKyfESifh trsKd;om;'Drkdua&pDtzJG@csKyf awG@qkHyJGrSm ckvkd !$efjycJhygw,f? “ckuwnf;up+yD; em;vnfr_,lzkd@oifhawmf+yDvdk@ usrxifygw,f? zuf'&,f vkd@yJac:ac:/ jynfaxmifpkvkd@yJac:ac: bmrSrac:vnf;&ygw,f? usrwdk@[m bmyJac:ac: ta&;}uD;wmu usrwk@d =um;xJrm tm;vk;H oabmwlneir,fh S D dk f ykHpH&SdwJh ekdifiHwckudk az:xkwfzdk@yJ?” a':atmifqef;pk=unfeJ@wuG trsKd;om;'Drkdua&pDtzJG@csKyfacgif;aqmifrsm; tjcm; 'Drkdua&pD tzJG@tpnf;rsm;rS acgif;aqmifrsm;eJ@ wkdfif;&if;om;tzJG@tpnf;rsm;rS acgif;aqmifrsm;[m zrf;qD;xdef;odrf;cHcJh=u&w,f? 'gayr,fh usef&SdaecJh=uwJh acgif;aqmiftoD;oD;[m ay;tyfvmwJh tajctaet&yf&yfay:rSm wkdif;&if;om; aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;udk vufawG@az:aqmifae=uygw,f? jynfwGif;uvnf; jynfwGif;tavsmuf/ e,fpyfuvnf; e,fpyftavsmuf? jynfyuvnf; jynfy tavsmuf óud;yrf;wkdufyJG0ifae=uygw,f? tck “+idrf;csrf;pGmtwlvufwJGaexkdifa&;0g'rSonf ppfrSefaomjynfaxmifpkpepfqDokd@” pmtkyfrSmawmh vlrsKd;aygif;pkHwkd@. v_yf&Sm;r_ESifh ywfouf+yD; pkpnf;azmfjyxm;ygw,f/ orkdif; jzpf&yfrersm;twGuf wpkw&m taxmuftulðyr,fh pmtkywtkyf jzpfaoma=umifh óudqygw,f? Sf H f dk a'gufwmpdef0if; 0ef}uD;csKyf jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEdkifiHtrsKd;om;!Gef@aygif;tpdk;& qvdi;f vsere;f qmacgi;f ( Lian H. Sakhong ) pkaqmif;wifjyonf k f _
  8. 8. 'Drua&pDa&;ESihf wef;wla&;wduyumvtwGi; UNLD .ordkif;0ifrSwfwrf;rsm; kd k f JG f                                          FORWARD This collection is immensely invaluable for all interested in Burma and its politics, and useful for political activists, leaders, and more so, for researchers.  It is a collection of historic, and forgotten -- until now -documents that shed much light on the thoughts and strategies of crucial actors in the making of Burma, Burma as we now know it.    There are so many ways a nation or a nation-state is born, or becomes a reality on the international stage.  Some are reincarnations, in modern form, of ancient kingdoms, that evolved across time. However, many post-colonial nations and nation-states of Latin America, Africa, the Middle East, and South and Southeast Asia, have been created (and bequeathed) by colonial powers.  The modern nation-state, defined as a sovereign entity, bounded by more or less fixed political borders, is relatively new -- not older than 300 years, even in Europe.    In the past, there did not exist in the area now known as "Burma", national states or kingdoms (i.e., centered on or defined by ethnicity).  Like in Thailand, for example, and in the rest of mainland Southeast Asia, kingdoms that existed were personal estates of rulers (kings, princes, lords, fief-holders, so on), and the inhabitants of these kingdoms (personal and medieval systems of domination) were either servants and retinues of rulers and princes,  or their serfs and slaves. The people, whatever their ethnic affiliation, were not citizens. The notion that there existed a golden and rigorous Burman (Burmese) kingdom since time immemorial is a later reconstruction, ironically, British scholar-historians, and this notion was picked up by Burman nationalists.  Later, this "history" was made into "real" history by successive governments and power-holders.       Colonial powers -- administrators, bureaucrats -- were responsible for the reorganization and political modernization of what is now known as Burma, or more accurately, the Union of Burma.  They first imposed legalrational administration, in order that the market and market forces function smoothly, and trade could be carried out in peace and unhindered by lawlessness or arbitrary power. Thus was created by colonial powers -- the British in Burma's case -- modern proto-states in areas they planted their flags.      qvdi;f vsere;f qmacgi;f ( Lian H. Sakhong ) pkaqmif;wifjyonf k f _
  9. 9. +idrf;csrf;pGmtwlvufwGJaexdkifa&;0g'rSonf ppfrSefaomjynfaxmifpkpepfqDodkŒ (yxrwGJ) The British first modernized the easily accessible lowlands, Burma Proper, but left the highland and border regions, the Frontier Areas, quite alone -- these being unprofitable or costly to administer and/or modernize. Influenced by the European notion of "nation-state", the British did have a plan to establish in Burma, a modern nation, albeit as a self-governing dominion like Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and so on. What shape this new, modern nation of Burma would have taken is a question that cannot be answered since the British were defeated by the Japanese.    The documents in this collection are from the years immediately after the war, on the eve of independence (gained in 1948). For both the Burman leaders in Burma Proper, and non-Burman leaders of the Frontier Areas, the hot issue was independence.   One important debate that raged within the Burman leadership circles was the question of whether to take independence alone, without the Frontier Areas, or to obtain independence jointly with the non-Burmans. At the same time, non-Burman leaders discussed the feasibility and otherwise of taking independence together and jointly with Burma Proper. The notion that Burma was a single cloth, one unified country since historical time (divided only by colonial design), which was about to be re-unified once again, did not enter the heads of either Burman or non-Burman leaders. It is clear that leaders then were thinking in terms of establishing a country, a new and modern country made up of many states and nations, a union of different countries.    The idea of a union of equal states and nations has however been distorted or twisted out of shape, especially by military rulers who usurped power in 1962. It is important therefore that both the Burman and nonBurman population and leaders get re-accquainted with the real politicks and political thoughts in the years that led to the founding of the Union of Burma and the gaining of independence.  This collection of documents will be of great help in this regard, and will expand the minds of current and future leaders of the Union of Burma.  This valuable collection of political documents is important and timely since it will contribute to a real understanding what is meant by the term Pyidaungzu (Union).    Dr.Chao-Tzang Yawnghwe Advisor-Consultant National Reconciliation Program qvdi;f vsere;f qmacgi;f ( Lian H. Sakhong ) pkaqmif;wifjyonf k f _
  10. 10. 'Drua&pDa&;ESihf wef;wla&;wduyumvtwGi; UNLD .ordkif;0ifrSwfwrf;rsm; kd k f JG f xkwfa0olxHrS trSmpm “+idrf;csrf;pGm twlvufwJGaexkdifa&;0g'rSonf ppfrSefaomzuf'&,f jynfaxmifpk pepfqDokd@ ” trnf&Sd pmtkyfukd “trsKd;om;jyefvnfoifhjrwfa&;” (National Reconciliation Program) tpDtpOfatmufwGif twJGokH;wJGjzifh xkwfa0&ef jyifqifxm; ygonf? wkdif;&if;om;vlrsKd;aygif;pHk a&maESmaexkdifaom wkdif;jynfwGif “+idrf;csrf;pGmtwl vufwaexkia&;0g'”onf tc&m jzpfI/ ‚if;ukd tawG@tóuH&ifusuI awG;ac:ar#mjf rifa&;w&m; GJ d f h f jrifjh rwfaom ekiia&;orm;rsm;/ ppfAvcsKyf}uD;rsm; ESihf todynm&Sif twwfynm&Sirsm;omru dfH dk f f vlom;csif;pmemw&m;ESifh arwWmw&m;wkd@ukd yGm;rsm;vufcHapwwfaom omref awmol awmifom;/ jynfolvlxkw&yfvkH;uyg jiif;qefypfy,fvdrfhrnf r[kwfay? okd@&mwGif u|efawmfwkd@tm;vkH; +idrf;csrf;pGmtwlvufwJGaexkdifa&;0g'udk jrwfek d; vufcycsi;f wlygv#ue@J ‚if;+idr;f csr;f pGmvufwaexkia&;udk rnfo@dk rnfyHk usio;Hk taumiftxnf H Hk f GJ d f hf az:rnfenf; æ æ æ [laom vkyfief;pOfwGif tjrifcsif; uGmjcm;ae=uygonf? wenf;tm;jzifh qd k y gu ,ae@jynf a xmif p k } uD ; twG i f ; &if q k d i f a e&aom ek d i f i H a &;jyemtm;vk H ; onf “+idr;f csr;f pGmtwlvufwGJ aexkia&;'g'”udk rnfo@kd rnfyHk taumiftxnfaz:usio;Hk rnf [laom df hf tajccHtcsufwGif tjrifcsif;rwlr_a=umifh jzpfyGm;aom jyemjzpfonf[kqkdygu rSm;,Gif;rnf rxifay? wdkif;&if;om;vlrsKd;aygif;pkH “+idrf;csrf;pGmtwl vufwJGaexkdifa&;” [laom 0g'vrf;pOfudk ekdfifiHa&;ZmwfckHwGif wifjyaqG;aEG;=uaomtcg “ekdifiHawmfzJG@pnf;ykHtajccHOya'”[laom ekdifiHa&;pum;vkH;jzifh tpm;xkd;okH;pJGae=uonfukd awG@&ygonf? xkd@a=umifh wcsKdŒu vGwfvyfcGifh/ wef;wlcihf ESihf ud,yijf yXmef;cGihf po!fh tajccHoabmw&m;rsm;udk trSðD yI “ppfreaom zuf'&,f G k f dk Sf jhynfaxmifpkpepf” jzifh ekdifiHawmfzJG@pnf;ykHtajccHOya'ukd a&;qJGjyÏmef;rSom +idrf;csrf;pGm twl vufwaexdia&;udk usio;kH taumiftxnfazmfeirnf[k cH,xm;=uygonf? wcsK@d url vlx. JG k f hf dk f l k tajccHvGwfvyfcGifh/ wkdif;&if;om;vlrsKd;rsm;. ekdifiHa&;wef;wlcGifhESifh ukd,fykdifjyÏmef;cGifhrsm;udk ±kyfodrf;I A[kdOD;pD;pepfjzifh wkdif;jynfukd wif;=uyfpGm csKyfudkiftkyfcsKyfaom “wjynfaxmifpepf” jzifh ekdifiHawmfudk zJG@pnf;xlaxmifrSom wkdif;jynf+idrf;csrf;rnf[k ,lqae=uygonf? xkdŒtjrifonf r[mvlrsKd;}uD;0g'ESifh txl; qufpyf ESD;EG,faeaoma=umifh/ ‚if;tjrif&Sdoklrsm;u “+idrf;csrf;pGm twlvufwJGaexkdifa&;0g'”udk wu,fwrf; vufcHae=uyg.avm æ [k usefwcsKd@u jyefvnf ar;cGef;xkwfae=uygonf? rnfokd@yif tjrifcsif; uJGjym;aeapumrl/ jynfaxmifpkjyemw&yfvkH; ajz&Sifa&;/ tESpfig;q,fjynfwGif;ppf &yfpJcsKyf+idrf;a&;/ 'Drkdua&pDtpkd;&w&yfukd xlaxmifI vGwfvyf yGifhvif;aom vl@tzJG@tpnf;}uD;udk jynfaxmifpk twdkif;twm jzifh wnfaqmufekdifa&;wkd@onf qvdi;f vsere;f qmacgi;f ( Lian H. Sakhong ) pkaqmif;wifjyonf k f _
  11. 11. +idrf;csrf;pGmtwlvufwGJaexdkifa&;0g'rSonf ppfrSefaomjynfaxmifpkpepfqDodkŒ (yxrwGJ) “+idrf;csrf;pGmtwl vufwJGaexkdifa&;0g'”udk tajcpkdufaeygonf[k u|efawmfwkd@ pJG+rJpGm cH,lxm; ygonf? xkd@a=umifh “+idrf;csrf;pGm twlvufwJGaexkdifa&;0g'” jzifh T jynfaxmifpk}uD;ukd xlaxmifeia&;twGuf acwftqufqufrS wki;f &if;om;vlrsK;d aygi;f pkw@dk . óud;yrf;r_ rSwwrf;rsm;ukd dk f d H f “trsKd;om;jyefvnfoifhjrwfa&;” (NRP) . t"duvkyfief;pOfw&yftjzpf jyefvnf ykHESdyf xkwfa0oGm;&ef jyifqifxm;jcif; jzpfygonf? xkdtpDtpOf. yxrajcvSrf;tjzpf “jynfaxmifpkwdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm; 'Drdkua&pD tzGJŒcsKyf (UNLD) . 1988 rS 1990 ckESpfumvt=um; 'Drkdua&pDa&;ESifh wef;wla&;twGuf v_y&m;r_ rSwwrf;rsm;ukd ,ckuo@dk jyefvnfyEyxwa0jcif; jzpfygonf? tcuftcJ trsK;d rsK;d a=umifh fS f hJ Hk dS f k f UNLD . orkdif;0ifv_yf&Sm;r_rSwfwrf;rsm; (txl;ojzifh wef;wla&;pmapmifwGif az: jya&;om; cJaom aqmif;yg;rsm;ESihf nDvmcHrsm;wGif wifoi;f cJaom pmwrf;rsm;) udk tjynftpkH azmfjyekijf cif; h G h d r&Sda=umif; ±kd;om;pGm 0efcHtyfygonf? T pmtkyfxkwfa0ekdfifa&;twGuf tzufzufrS tultnDrsKd;pkHukd ay;tyfcJh=uaom rdwfaqGrsm;ESifh vkyfaz:udkifzufrsm;udk txl;aus;Zl;wifa=umif; rSwfwrf;wiftyfygonf? txl;ojzifh UNLD rSwfwrf;rsm;ukd ulnD±SmazGay;cJhaom OD;cGefrm;ukd&fbef (NCGUB zuf'&,fa&;&m0ef}uD;ESihf UNLD obmywdtzJ@G 0if) udk vnf;aumif;/ pmtkytm; yHEyxwa0 f k dS f k f Edkifa&;udk ulnDaqmif±Gufay;cJhaom udkaZmfaZmfxGef; (vl@abmifopf'Drkdu&ufwpfygwD/ A[kdaumfrwD0if) udkvnf;aumif;/ pmrlrsm;ukd uGef¹ylwmjzifh pmpD±kdufESdyfay;aom vl@abmifopf 'Drkdu&ufwpfygwD csif;rdkif±Hk;tzGJŒom;rsm;udkvnf;aumif;/ TpmtkyfykHESdyfxkwfa0ekdifa&;twGuf &HykHaiGrsm;ukd &SmazGulnDay;aom OD;pkd;ykdif (Burma Fund) udkvnf;aumif;/ trsKd;om;jyefvnf oifhjrwfa&; (NRP) vkyfief;pOfwckvkH; atmifjrifekdifa&;twGuf tppt&m&m ulnDpGrf;aqmif ay;aom Harn Yawnghwe (Euro-Burma Office) ESifh Dr Jack Sterkan wkdukd@ vnf;aumif; txl;aus;Zl;wif&Sda=umif; rSwfwrf;wiftyfygonf? xkd@tjyif trSmpmrsm;ukd a&;om;csD;jr‡ifhay;aom a'gufwmpdef0if; (0ef}uD;csKyf/ jynfaxmifpkjrefrmekdifiHawmf trsKd;om; !Gef@aygif;tpkd;&) ESifh Dr. Chao-Tzang Yawnghwe (Advisor-Consultant, National Reconciliation Program) wkdŒtay:rSmvnf; txl;aus;Zl;wif&Sda=umif; rSwfwrf;wif tyfygonf? av;pm;pGmjzifh æ qvdkif;vsefr_ef;qmacgif; (Lian H. Sakhong) 1999 ckESpf/ atmufwdkbmv (15)&uf? qvdi;f vsere;f qmacgi;f ( Lian H. Sakhong ) pkaqmif;wifjyonf k f _
  12. 12. 'Drua&pDa&;ESihf wef;wla&;wduyumvtwGi; UNLD .ordkif;0ifrSwfwrf;rsm; kd k f JG f tcef;(1) jynfwGif;_idrf;csrf;a&;ESifhvlrsKd;pkjyem jynfaxmifpwi;&if;om;vlrsK;rsm;'Drua&pDtzJ‹G csKyf (UNLD) k kd f d kd . zJ‹G pnf;jzpfay:&ef }udK;yrf;r+umvv+y&m;r+rsm; fS 1988 ckESpfwGif jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEdkifiHtwGif; rSDwif;aexdkif=uukefaom ausmif;om; vli,f &[ef;&Sifvl jynfolvlxkESifh wdkif;&if;om;vlrsKd;aygif;pHkwdk@onf ppftm%m&Sifpepfudk toGifajymif;cJhaom rqv wygwDtm%m&Sifpepf. zdESdyftkyfcsKyfr_'%fudk rcHr&yfEdkif=uukef aoma=umifh 'Drua&pD ta&;awmfy}kH uD;udk tHºk uGqifEc=hJ u&ygonf? xd'rua&pD ta&;awmfy}kH uD; kd JG k D kd a=umifh wdkif;jynfudk (26)ESpfwdkifwdkif tm%m&Sifb0jzifh tkyfcsKyfrif;rlcJhaom AdkvfcsKyf}uD;ae0if; wjzpfvJ OD;ae0if;onf wygwDtm%m&Sif rqvOuUX&mxl;rS ElwfxGufoGm;cJh&ygonf? OD;ae0if;onf EdkifiHa&;ZmwfcHkay:rS w&m;0if qif;oGm;cJhaomfvnf; uefŒvefŒum aemufuG,frS 'Drdkua&pDta&;awmfyHk}uD;udk EdSyfuGyfòzdcJG&ef qufvuf}udK;yrf;oGm;cJhygonf? odk@&mwGif ol@udk qufcHcJhaom a'gufwmarmifarmiftpdk;&onf jynfwGif;jynfyrS EdkifiHa&;zdtm;'%frsm;udk rcHEiaoma=umifh rvJra&SmifomyJ “ygwp'rua&pDtaxGaxGa&G;aumufyusi;f ya&;aumfr&Si” kd f $ D kH D kd GJ f w&yfudk zJG@pnf;I EdkifiHa&;ygwDrsm; xlaxmifcGifhudk w&m;0ifay;tyfcJhygonf? ygwDpHk taxGaxGa&G;aumufyJGusif;ya&;aumfr&SifwGif w&m;0ifrSwfyHkwifcJh=uaom jynfe,f (7)ckrS wdkif;&if;om;vlrsKd;aygif;pHk EdkifiHa&;ygwDrsm;onf EdkifiHa&;tusKd;wlvkyfief;rsm;udk twlwuG aqmif&GufEdkif&ef 1988 Edk0ifbmv (21)&ufae@wGif y%mr rdwfqHkaqG;aEG;yJGudk vnf;aumif;/ 1988 'DZifbmv(10)&ufae@ESifh 1989 ZEM0g&Dv(7)&ufae@rsm;wGif 'kwd,ESifh wwd,t}udrf aqG;aEG;yJGrsm;udkvnf;aumif; usif;yðyvkyfcJh=uygonf? xdk!d‡Ed_if;aqG;aEG;yGJrsm;rS(u) tem*gwfjynfaxmifpkjrefrmEdkifiHawmftm; wdkif;&if;om;vlrsKd;tm;vHk; EdkifiHa&; wef;wlnDwl pepfjzifh ppfrSefaom 'Drdkua&pDEdkifiHawmfwnfaqmufa&;/ (c) wdkif;&if;om;vlrsKd;wdkif;. a&cHajrcHay:rlwnfI pD;yGm;a&; zGH@òzd;wdk;wufa&; twGuf wdkif;&if;om;vlrsKd;tm;vHk; pkaygif;0dkif;0ef;yHhydk;I }udK;yrf; aqmif&Guf=ua&;/ (*) jynfaxmifpkzGm;wdkif;&if;om;vlrsKd;rsm;tm;vHk; vufwJGrjzKwfpwrf; aqG;aEG; nD!wrj_ zifh Ediiawmf. vGwvyfa&;ESihf tcsKyftjcmtm%m wnf+rJa&;/ wd;k wuf G f kfH f pnfyifom,m0ajyma&; wd@k twGuf wpkwpnf;wnf; }udK;yrf;aqmif&u&ef vdtyf G f k onf[k cH,lcJh=uygonf? qvdi;f vsere;f qmacgi;f ( Lian H. Sakhong ) pkaqmif;wifjyonf k f _ 1
  13. 13. +idrf;csrf;pGmtwlvufwGJaexdkifa&;0g'rSonf ppfrSefaomjynfaxmifpkpepfqDodkŒ (yxrwGJ) xkd&nfrSef;csuf/ cH,lcsufrsm; atmifjrifa&;twGuf vufwJGaqmif&GufEdkif&ef “wdkif;&if; om; vlrsK;d pkrsm; qENoabmxm; avhvmaz:xkwa&;tzGŒJ (y%mr)” udvnf; zJ@G pnf;cJ=h u ygonf? f k xdkumvwkef;u EdkifiHa&;aqG;aEG;yJGrsm; rSwf wrf;rsm; jynfwGif;wGifusef&pfcJhI Tpmtkywif tao;pdwf jyefvnfaz: jy&ef tcuftcJ &daeygonf? od@k &mwGif xdtzJ@G . OD;aqmifr_ f G S k jzifh 1989 ZEM0g&Dv (7)&ufae@wGif trSwf(135) 0if'grD,m&dS &cdkif'Drdkua&pDtzGJŒcsKyf OuUX}uD; a'gufwmapmr&atmif. aetdrfwGifusif;ycJhaom “wdkif;&if;om;vlrsKd;aygif;pHk EdkifiHa&;ygwDrsm; aqG;aEG;yJG”wGif csif;trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzJG@csKyf 'kOuUXjzpfcJhol qvdkif;vsefr_ef;. aqG;aEG;csufudk jyefvnfwifjytyfygonf? xdaqG;aEG;csuukd csi;f trsKk ;d om;'Drua&pDtzJ@G csKyfu 1989 - ZEM0g&v k f kd D (10)&ufae@pJGjzifh xkwfa0 jzefcsdcJhygonf? jynfwi;+idr;csr;a&;ESihf vlrsK;pkjyem Gf f f d usaemfqvdkif;vsefr_ef;yg? csif;trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzJG@csKyfu 'k-OuUXjzpfygw,f? ckvdk wdi;f &if;om;vlrsK;d pk ygwaygi;f pHk wwd,t}udrpnf;a0;yJrm csi;f tzJ@G csKyfu,pm; aqG;aEG;wifjycGihf k D f GS kd f &wJhtwGuf *k%f,l0rf;omygw,f? u,m;'Drdkua&pDtzJG@csKyfudk,fpm;vS,fwifjyoGm;ovdk usaemfwdk@[m jynfaxmifpk jrefrmEdiiH 'kw,t}udrf vGwvyfa&;twGuf wduy0ifaejcif;jzpfygw,f?Ð 'Dwuyrm enf;vrf; kf d f k f GJ kd f GJ S rsm;pGm&dSygw,f? enf;vrf;rsm;pGm&dSwJhtwGuf usaemfwdk@[m EdkifiHa&;jyemudk EdkifiHa&;eJ@ ajz&Sif;wJhenf;vrf;udk a&G;cs,f=uwm jzpfygw,f? EdkifiHa&;jyemudk EdkifiHa&;eJ@ajz&Sif;zdk@ ygwDawG axmif+yD;/ 'Drdkua&pDeJ@ vl@tcGifhta&;twGuf vlr_awmfvSefa&;}uD;udk qifEJGaejcif;jzpfygw,f? wjynfvHk;twdkif;twmeJ@ 'Drdkua&pDwdkufyJGudk qifEJGwJhtcgrSm rvJGraoG &ifqdkif&rJh jyem ESpfck &dSygw,f? 'DjyemESpfck[m ,ae@ jrefrmEdkifiH&JŒ yuwdtajctaeudk xif[yf ay:vGif apygw,f? xif[yfay:vGi±wifrubl;/ ,ae@jzpfysur_ tajctaetm;vH;k [m 'D jyem f kH f ESpfck ay:rSm tajccHaeygw,f? 'DjyemESpfck[m 'Drdkua&pDa&;eJ@ cJGr&atmif qufpyfaejyefw,f? bmjyemvJqdkawmh “jynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a&;eJ@ vlrsKd;pkjyem”yJ jzpfygw,f? 'Drdkua&pDusus jynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a&;ESifh vlrsKd;pkjyem udkifwG,fajz&Sif;a&;[m usaemfwdk@ rvJGraoG&ifqdkif&rJh jyemjzpfygw,f? txl;ojzifh usaemfwdk@ vlrsKd;pkrsm; &ifqdkifajz&Sif;&rJhjyem jzpfygw,f? b,fvdkudkifwG,fajz&Sif;=urvJ æ jyemwckukd udiw,ajz&Si;f zd@k tJ'D jyemjzpfay:&m t&if;tjrpf/ aemufcordi;f udk kf G f h H k t&ifavhvmzdk@vdkygw,f? vGwfvyfa&;&&dS+yD;aemufydkif; jrefrmEdkifiH ordkif;a=umif;udk jyefvnfoHk;oyf=unfhygu usaemfwdk@wdkif;jynf[m ta&;t}uD;qHk;wm0efw&yfudk aus¹yGefpGm rxrf;aqmifEdkifao;bl; qdkwm awG@&ygw,f? 'D t}uD;av;qHk; wm0ef[m bmvJ? Ð rSwfcsuf? ? u,m;'Drdkua&pDtzGJŒcsKyfOuUX OD;ppfaiGaomif; udk &nf!$ef;jcif; jzpfygonf? 2 qvdi;f vsere;f qmacgi;f ( Lian H. Sakhong ) pkaqmif;wifjyonf k f _
  14. 14. 'Drua&pDa&;ESihf wef;wla&;wduyumvtwGi; UNLD .ordkif;0ifrSwfwrf;rsm; kd k f JG f jrefrmEdkifiHtwGif; rSDwif;aexdkif=uwJh vlom;wa,mufpD&J@ vGwfvyfpGm touf&Sif aexdkifcGifhudk tmrcHcsufay;EdkifwJh zJG@pnf;tkyfcsKyfyHktajccHOya'udk a&;qJGjyXmef;Edkifjcif; r&dSao; wmygyJ? vljzpfygv#ufeJ@ 'DurBmavmu}uD;rSm vlom;yDopGm touf&SifaexdkifEdkifa&;twGuf usaemfw@kd Eiiom;awG[m bmtmrcHcsurS r&dao;ygb;l ? vlom;wa,mufp&@J b0tmrcHcsuukd kd f H f S D f ay;EdkifwJh/ +yD;awmh vlrsKd;wrsKd;pD&J@ b0tmrcHcsufudkay;EdkifwJh Oya'w&yfudk usaemfwdk@ ra&;qJGEdkif ao;ygb;l ? vlom;tcsi;f csi;f wef;wlnr#ruay;Edi+f yD;/ vlrsK;d wrsK;d eJ@wrsK;d wef;wl&nfwtcGita&; D _ kd k l hf ay;EdkifwJh zJG@pnf;yHktajccHOya'w&yf usaemfwdk@ rjyXmef;Edkifao;ygbl;? wenf;tm;jzifh ppfrSefwJhjynfaxmifpk}uD;udk usaemfwdk@ rwnfaqmufEdkifao;ygbl;? emrnftm;jzifh “jynfaxmifpk”qdkwJh a0g[m&udk usaemfwdk@oHk;pJGae=uayrJh wu,fhvufawG@rSm jynfaxmifppepfxuf wjynfaxmifpepf tav;omaewJh zm;wydi;f ig;wydi;f Ediiawmf}uD;xJrm k k k kfH S usaemfwdk@ b0pcJh&ygw,f? bmjzpfvdk@ usaemfwdk@EdkifiHrSm ppfrSefwJh jynfaxmifpkpepfudk yDyDjyifjyif az:aqmifEdkifwJh zJG@pnf;tkyfcsKyfyHk tajccHOya'w&yfudk ra&;qJG rjyXmef;EdkifcJhwmvJ æ ordkif;a=umif;udk jyefvnfoHk;oyf=unfhygu jrefrmEdkifiHrSm 1947 ckESpfrSm w}udrf/ 1974 ckESpfrSm w}udrf EdkifiHawmfzJG@pnf;tkyfcsKyfyHktajccHOya' a&;qJGjyXmef;cJhwmudk awG@&ygw,f? yxrzJG@pnf;yHkudk ra&;qJGrSD vGwfvyfa&;wdkufyJGumv 1947 ck/ azaz:0g&Dv (12)&uf ae@wif &Sr;f jynfe,fawmifyi;f yifvðkH rd@rm awmifwef;a'oacgi;f aqmifrsm;ESihf AdvcsKyfatmifqef; G kd S k f awG@qHk+yD; wef;wl&nfwl yl;aygif;wJhjynfaxmifpkEdkifiHawmfwckudk xlaxmif&ef oabmwl vufrSwfa&;xdk;cJh=uygw,f? 'D oabmwlnDcsuftwdkif; topfxlaxmifrJhEdkifiHawmf&J@ zJG@pnf; tkyfcsKyfyHk tajccHOya'udk a&;qJGjyXmef;&ef AdkvfcsKyfatmifqeff;u wdkif;jyKjynfjyKv$wfawmfrSm wifoGif;cJhygw,f? 'gayrJh zJG@pnf;yHktajccHOya' ra&;qJGrSD AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;usqHk;cJhygw,f? AdkvfcsKyf atmifqef; aemufydkif; xGufay:vmwJh Armacgif;aqmifrsm;[m AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;vdk ±dk;om; wnf=unfr_ r&dS=ubl;? oabmxm; r}uD;=ubl;? tawG;tac: rjrifhjrwf=ubl;? vlrsKd;}uD;0g'udk udipae=uw,f? vlrsK;d pkacgi;f aqmifrsm;&J@ rodem;rvnfrukd tcGiaumif;,l+yD; vdrvnfvnjhf zm; k f GJ _ hf f S oGm;=uw,f? txl;ojzifh vlrsKd;pkacgif;aqmifrsm; EdkifiHa&;ESifh Oya' ru|rf;usifr_udk tjrwfxkwf oGm;=uw,f? 'ga=umifh zJG@pnf;yHktajccHOya'udk a&;qJGjyXmef;wJhtcg ArmvlrsKd;}uD;0g' }uD;pdk;aprJh trnfcHjynfaxmifpk}uD;udk zJG@pnf;oGm;=uw,f? emrnftm;jzifh jynfaxmifpkac:ayrJh tESpfom& rSmawmh wjynfaxmifpepfygyJ? 'gudk zJG@pnf;yHktajccHOya'a&;qJGwJh OD;csefxGef;udk,fwdkifu “usaemfwdk@&J@ zJG@pnf;yHktajccHOya'[m jynfaxmifpkpepfeJh wjynfaxmifpepf a&maESmaew,f” vd k @ 0ef c H c J h + yD ; jzpf w ,f ? tqd k ; 0g;qH k ; uawmh Arme,f u d k jynf e ,f w ck t aeeJ @ rowf r S w f y J jynfaxmifpktcGifhtm%mtm;vHk;udk ay;tyfvdkufwmygyJ? 'Dvkyf&yf[m ArmvlrsKd;}uD;0g'udk txGwftxdyfodk@ a&mufatmif vrf;zGifhay;vdkufwmyJ jzpfygw,f? 'Dvdkenf;eJ@ 'D zJG@pnf;tkyfcsKyfyHk tajccHOya'a=umifh usaemfw@kd wi;f &if;om;rsm;[m ArmvlrsK;d }uD;&J@ vufatmufcb0udk tvdvkd kd H k usa&mufapygw,f? wef;wl&nfwl aeygr,f? ausmom;&ifom; rcJGygbl;qdkwJh pum;awG[m avxJrSmom&dSae+yD; vufawG@rSm r&dSygbl;? qvdi;f vsere;f qmacgi;f ( Lian H. Sakhong ) pkaqmif;wifjyonf k f _ 3
  15. 15. +idrf;csrf;pGmtwlvufwGJaexdkifa&;0g'rSonf ppfrSefaomjynfaxmifpkpepfqDodkŒ (yxrwGJ) 'gudk usaemfwdk@wdkif;&if;om;vlrsKd;pkrsm; rauseyfwJhtwGuf vufeufudkif awmfvSef ykefuef=uw,f? EdkifiHa&;udk EdkifiHa&;enf;vrf;eJ@ ajz&Sif;vdk@r&wJhtqHk;/ tiftm;oHk;+yD; ajz&Sif;zdk@ }udK;pm;oGm;=uw,f? 'ga=umifyJ usaemfw@kd Eiirm jynfwi;f ppfqwm vGwvyfa&;&J@ zGm;bufawmf h kd f H S G kd f tjzpf tjrpfwG,fvmcJhygw,f? ppfqdkwm b,fppfrS raumif;bl;? jynfwGif;ppfvnf; raumif;bl;? jynfyppfvnf; raumif;bl;? EdkifiHa&;jyemudk EdkifiHa&;enf;vrf;eJ@ rajz&Sif;yJ ppfa&;eJ@ ajz&Sif;wm[m vl@ordkif; udk !d_;EGrf;apygw,f? vl@oduQmudk usqif;apygw,f? 'ga=umifh usaemfwdk@EdkifiHrSm jzpfyGm;aewJh jynfwGif;ppfudk tjrefqHk; tqHk;owfzdk@twGuf enf;vrf;&Sm }udK;pm;=u&r,f? enf;vrf;uawmh &Sif;ygw,f? vlrsKd;pkjyemudk tajccH+yD; jzpfyGm;wJhppfudk vlrsKd;pkjyemeJ@yJ ajz&Sif;&r,f? 0g'udk tajccH+yD; jzpfyGm;wJhppfudk 0g'a&;&meJ@yJ ajz&Si;f &r,f? Ediia&;udk tajccH+yD; jzpfym;wJppfukd Ediia&;eJ@ ajz&Si;f wm taumif;qH;k enf;vrf;ygy? kfH G h kfH J 'ga=umifh vlrsKd;pkjyemudk ppfa&;eJ@rajz&Sif;yJ EdkifiHa&;enf;vrf;eJ@ 'Drdkua&pDusus ajz&Si;f zd@k vlrsK;d pkacgi;f aqmifrsm; }udK;pm;cJ=h uygw,f? vlrsK;d pkjyemudk jzpfay:apwJh zJ@G pnf;tkycsKyfykH f tajccHOya'udk jyifqifa&;qJz@kd }uKd;yrf;cJ=h uw,f? 'g[m ordi;f wauG@rm trSeuefq;kH vky&yfwckukd G k S f f yDyDjyifjyifaqmif&Gufzdk@ }udK;yrf;cJh=uwmygyJ? 1961 ck/ ZGefvrSm &Srf;jynfe,f awmif}uD;òrd@Y wdkif;&if;om;vlrsKd;pk (7)rsKd;pvHk; pHknDpGm wufa&muf+yD; rjynfhrpHk rSm;,Gif;aewJh zGJŒpnf;yHktajccH Oya'}uD;udk jyifqifa&;qJG+yD;/ ppfrSefwJhjynfaxmifpk wef;wl&nfwlyl;aygif;EdkifwJh EdkifiHawmfudk topfwzef wnfaqmufzdk@ oabmwlcJh=uygw,f? 'Dupukd v$wawmfrm 'Drua&pDusus rJcq;kH jzwf&if tEdi&rSm aocsmaeygw,f? 'gayrJh dP f S kd JG kf wdkif;&if;om;vlrsKd;pkrsm; weff;wl&nfwltcGifhta&; &&dSa&;udk rvdkvm; r&_@pdrfhEdkif=uwJh r[m vlrsKd;}uD;0g'orm;rsm;u wdkif;jynftm%mudk aoewfajymif;0 usnfqefxdyfzl;rSm wyfqifay; vdkuf=uw,f? r[mvlrsKd;}uD;0g'[m ppftm%m&Sifpepfudk arG;zGm;ay;w,f? vlrsKd;pkjyemudk zefwD;w,f? jynfwGif;ppfudk &Snf=umapw,f? jynfwGif;ppfa=umifh vlrsKd;pkjyem waeŒwjcm; }uD;xGm;vmw,f? vlrsKd;a&; trkef;yGGm;r_ }uD;xGm;vmw,f? wzufrSm jynfwGif;ppfudk trSDðy+yD; ppftm%m&Sifpepf &Sifoefaeygw,f? jynfwGif;ppfa=umifh jrefrmEdkifiHrSm ppftm%m&Sifpepf cdicef@f om;w,f? ppftm%m&Sirsm;udk wefc;kd }uD;xGm;apygw,f? aemufq;kH usawmh ppftm%m&Sif kf G f pepfuyJ wygwDtm%m&Sifpepfudk arG;zGm;ay;vdkfufjyefw,f? tm%m&SifwcsKd@om wefcdk;xGm;aew,f? wdkif;jynfuawmh zGwfzGwfa=uae+yD? jynfol vlxk ukef;aumufp&m r&dSatmif rJGawae+yD? w&m;cH bmvJ æ &Sif;aeygw,f? r[mvlrsKd;}uD;0g'yJ? r[mvlrsKd;}uD;0g'udk jrefrmEdkifiHrSm tyDjyifqHk; taumiftxnfaz:wJaeŒ[m 1974 ckEpu a&;qJcwhJ zJ@G pnf;tkycsKyfytajccHOya'udk twnfjyK h Sf G hJ f kH jyXmef;wJhaeŒygyJ? trnfa0g[m&tm;jzifh “jynfaxmifpk” qdkwmudk qufvufoHk;pJGaeayrJh jynfaxmifpkpepf vHk;0r[kwfyJ “wjynfaxmifpepf” ppfppfeJ@ wdkif;jynfudk zJG@pnf;tkyfcsKyf oGm;yg w,f? jynfe,f vlrsKd;pkrsm;&J@ udk,fydkifjyXmef;cGifh vHk;0csKyf+idrf;oGm;ygw,f? vlom;wa,muf&J@ tajccHtusqHk; vl@tcGifhta&;jzpfwJh udk,fhuH=urRm udk,fzefwD;cGifhqdkwm vHk;0r&dSygbl;? 4 qvdi;f vsere;f qmacgi;f ( Lian H. Sakhong ) pkaqmif;wifjyonf k f _
  16. 16. 'Drua&pDa&;ESihf wef;wla&;wduyumvtwGi; UNLD .ordkif;0ifrSwfwrf;rsm; kd k f JG f 'D r[mvlrsKd;}uD;0g'u b,fol@udk xdcdkufepfemapovJ? wdkif;&if;om;vlrsKd;pkawGyJvm; r[kwfbl;? wwdkif;jynfvHk;udk xdcdkufepfemapw,f? wdkif;jynfudk acsmufxJ wGef;ydk@vdkufw,f? 'gudk 1988 ckEptwGi;f jzpfym;wJh ta&;tcif;awGu oufaoxlaeygw,f? 1988 ckEpf ta&;tcif;[m Sf G S 1974 zJG@pnf;yHktajccHOya'u arG;zGm;ay;wJh qdk;usKd;w&yfomv#if jzpfygw,f? wygwD tm%m&Sif pepf&J@ EdkifiHa&;jynfwnfem}uD; aygufuJGr_yJjzpfw,f? 'ga=umifh 'Dae&muae usaemf jywfjywfom;om; owday;vducsiw,f? jrefrmEdiirm k f f kfH S r[mvlrsKd;}uD;0g'udk qufvufusifhoHk;vdk@&dS&if wdkif;jynftajctaeudk 'Dxuf tqaygif;rsm;pGm qd k ; &G m ;oG m ;Ed k i f y gw,f ? jynf w G i f ; ppf yd k + yD ; &S n f = umEd k i f y gw,f ? wd k i f ; jynf b Àmawmf x J u ppftoHk;p&dwf[m vuf&dS (60)&mcdkifE_ef;uae &mcdkifE_ef;trsm;}uD; wufoGm;OD;r,f? 'Dawmh wdkif;jynf 'Dxuftqaygif;rsm;pGm qif;&JrJGawoGm;OD;r,f? ppfudk ta=umif;jyK+yD; vl@tcGifhta&; tcsKd ; ES d r f c H & OD ; r,f ? 'D r d k u a&pD q d w f o k O f ; aysmuf u G , f o G m ;OD ; r,f ? b,f o l j rwf r vJ æ ppftm%m&Sifpepf oufqdk;&SnfoGm;wmyJ tjrwfxGufr,f? 'ga=umifh usaemfwdk@ 'Duae@&ifqdkifwdkufcdkuf&rnfh t"du&efoluawmh r[mvlrsKd; }uD;0g'eJ@ usOf;ajrmif;wJh trsKd;om;a&;0g'ygyJ? 'Dvdk ao;odrfusOf;ajrmif;wJh 0g'ESpfcku usaemfwdk@ wdkif;jynfudk 'kuQay;aeygw,f? 'ga=umifh usaemfwdk@ 'kwd,t}udrf vGwfvyfa&;wdkufyJGudk qifEJGwJhtcgrSm t"du&efoljzpfwJh 'D0g'ESpfckudk rsufajcrjywf wdkufcdkufoGm;zdk@ vdkygw,f? 'D 0g' ESpfckudk tjywfwdkufxkwf+yD; jrefrmEdkifiHtwGif; rSDwif;aexdkif=uwJh jynfolvlxktm;vHk; vlom; yDopGm touf&SifaexdkifcGifhudk tmrcHcsufay;Edkif+yD;/ vl@tcGifhta&;udk tumtuG,fay;wJh 'Drdkua&pDzGH@òzd;&SifoefapwJh EdkifiHawmfudk usaemfwdk@ xlaxmif=u&r,f? 'D EdkifiHawmf[m vlrsKd; aygif;pHk wef;wl&nfwl yl;aygif;wJh/ ppfrSefwJh jynfaxmifpkpepf jzpfa=umif;udk zJG@pnf;tkyfcsKyfyHk tajccHOya'u tmrcHcsuf tjynfht0ay;&r,f? 'g[m usaemfwdk@&J@yef;wdkifyJ? usaemfwdk@[m wmxGufuwnf;u yef;wdkifudk xifxif&Sm;&Sm; jrifwwfzdk@ vdkygw,f? yef;wdkifudk raocsmra&&m&if t"dujyemudk udkifwG,fajz&Sif;EdkifrSm r[kwfygbl;? omrn jyemawGeJ@ vHk;axG;+yD; usaemfwdk@&J@ awmfvSefa&; a&pkefarsmoGm;Edkifw,f? usaemfwdk@&J@t"dujyem[m jynfaxmifpkjyemyJjzpfygw,f? jynfaxmifpk}uD;udk topfwzef b,fvdk wnfaqmufrvJqdkwJh jyemyg? jynfaxmifpkxJrSm&SdwJh wdkif;&if;om; vlrsdK;pkrsm;&J@ u¾ESifh jynfru¾udk b,fvdk udkifwG,fajz&Sif;rvJ æ 'gu t"duyg? wenf; ajym&&if jynfaxmifpktwGif;rSm rSDwif;aexdkif=uwJh wdkif;&if;om;tm;vHk; vlrdsK;tm;vHk;&J@ vlrsdK;pkjyemyJ jzpfygw,f? vlrsdK;pkjyemudk ajyvnfpGm udkifwG,fajz&Sif;Edkif&if jynfwGif; +idrf;csrf;a&;udkvnf; tjrefqHk;&&Sdatmif aqmif&GufEdkifr,fvdk@ wqufwnf; ajymvdkygw,f? 'gayr,fh æ usaemfwdk@[m t"dujyemudk udkifwG,fajz&Sif;zdk@ a=umufae=uw,f? jynfaxmifpkudk b,fvdk jyefvnfzGJ@pnf;rvJqdkwm rajym&J=uzl;? txl;ojzifh jynfrygwDrsm;[m 'DudpPudk a=umufae=uw,f? “ppfrSefwJhjynfaxmifpk” qdkwJh pum;udk olwdk@ yg;pyfxJu xGufvm rSmudkawmif a=umufae=uw,f? &Srf;jynfe,fu OD;a±$tHk; ajymzl;ovdk “z,f'&,fvf” qdkwJh pum;vHk;=um;vdkufwmeJ@ wDaumifudk qm;eJ@xdovdk wGef@vdrfukef=uw,f? jynfrygwD}uD;xJu xdyfqHk;rSm emrnf&aewJh ygwD oHk;/av;ckudk usaemfwdk@oGm;+yD; aqG;aEG;=unfhw,f? 0rf;enf;zG,f qvdi;f vsere;f qmacgi;f ( Lian H. Sakhong ) pkaqmif;wifjyonf k f _ 5
  17. 17. +idrf;csrf;pGmtwlvufwGJaexdkifa&;0g'rSonf ppfrSefaomjynfaxmifpkpepfqDodkŒ (yxrwGJ) aumif;wmu wcdsK@ ygwD}uD;rsm;[m olwdk@&J@ 0g'oabmxm;ausnmcsufxJrSm wdkif;&if;om; vlrsdK;pkrsm;u¾udk x!fhawmifrx!fh&J=uzl;? wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;pkudpPrygbJ jynfaxmifpk ta=umif;udk b,fvkd pOf;pm;ae=uovJrodb;l ? wdi;f &if;om;awGrygbJ jrefrmEdiirm bmrSvyv@kd k kfHS kf r&zl;qdkwm olwdk@ rod=ubl; xifw,f? 'gawGa=umifhyJ wdkif;jynf ig;yg;arSmufukefwmaygh? wcsKd @u pum;vS±kH “wdi;f &if;om;rsm;ESihf csp=f unf&if;ES;D pGmaeygr,f” vd@k ajymqdk a&;om; k =uw,f? b,fvdk tajccH0g'ay:rSm cspf=unf+yD;/ b,fvdk ta=umif;w&m;awGa=umifh &if;ESD;=u rvJ æ jywfom;wJh0g' wckckawmh csrSwf&rSmaygh? ppfrSefwJhjynfaxmifpkpepfudkbmjzpfvdk@a=umufae=uwmvJ æ tajz ESpfckxGufygw,f? wpfu æ rodem;rvnfvdk@ a=umufwm/ ESpfu æ r±dk;om;vdk@ a=umufwm? 'DEpcygy? rodem;rvnfv@kd a=umufwv[m tarSmifxrm wpfa,mufxJ aewJve@J Sfk J hJ l JS h l wlygw,f? tarSmifxJrSmqdkawmh rjrifEdkif/ rodEdkif/ em;rvnfEdkifwJh t&mtm;vHk;udk a=umufae &w,f? tvif;a&mifom&Sdvdkuf&if/ 'grSr[kwf tazmfaumif;aumif;wa,mufom &Sdvdkuf&if ola=umufawmhrSm r[kwfygbl;? 'DvdkyJ jynfrArmtrsm;pk[m ppfrSefwJhjynfaxmifpkpepfvdk@ usaemfwdk@ajymaewJh z,f'&,fpepf[m b,fvdkpepfrsdK;vJ/ b,fvdktESpfom&&SdovJ qdkwm rodem;rvnfwJhtwGuf a=umufae=uw,f? z,f'&,fqdk&if cGJxGufa&;vdk@yJ jrifae=uw,f? olw@kd ojd rifem;vnfatmif &Si;f vif;jyEdirnfh 'Drua&pDa&mifjcnfvnf; jrefrmEdiirm rxGe;f awmuf kf kd kfHS Edkifao;bl;? 'Drdkua&pDwHcg; ryGifhao;bl;/ ta&;awmfyHkjywif;aygufav;xJu&wJh 'Drdkua&pD a&mifjcnfavmufe@J olw@kd ta=umufrajyEdiao;bl;? +yD;awmh æ olw@kd u usaemfw@kd wi;f &if;om; kf kd vlrsdK;pkrsm;udk &Jabmf&Jbufvdk rjrifbJ jynfwGif;ppfa=umifh &efolvdkŒyJ jrifae=uao;w,f? 'ga=umifh a=umufw,f? 'Dvdk txifrSm; tjrifrSm; jzpfatmif vkyfwJh vluvnf; jrefrmEdkifiHxJrSm trsm;}uD;&Sdaeygw,f? Armvlxkuom tjrif=unf=unfvifvifeJ@ usaemfwdk@ wdkif;&if;om; vlrsdK;pkrsm;ukd aoaz:&Sifzuf&Jabmfrsm;tjzpf oabmxm;Edkifvdk@&Sd&if olwdk@ ta=umufw&m;awG ajy+yD; usaemfwdk@ vdkvm;csuf bmvJqdkwm tjrif&Sif;&Sif;eJ@ em;vnfoabmaygufoGm;rSmyg? 'kwd,a=umufaewJhvlawGuawmh olwdk@&J@ r±dk;om;pdwfa=umifh a=umufae=uwmyJ jzpfw,f? ppfrSefwJhjynfaxmifpkpepfeJ@ jrefrmEdkifiHudk zGJ@pnf;tkyfcsKyfoGm;&if wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm; wef;wltcGifhta&; &&SdrSmudk pdk;&drfylyef a=umuf±GH@ae=uw,f? 'Dvdk r±dk;om;wJhpdwfeJ@ a=umufaewJh vlawGuawmh r[mvlrsdK;}uD;0g'orm;awGygyJ? olwdk@udkawmh acsmhzdk@rvdkygbl;? jynfaxmifpk&J@ eHygwfwpf&efolrsm;tjzpf jywfjywfom;om; wdkufcdkufoGm;zdk@yJ &Sdw,f? usaemfwdk@ &ifqdkif&rnfh 'kwd,&efoluawmh usOf;ajrmif;wJhtrsdK;om;a&;0g'yJ jzpfyg w,f? 'D&efol[m usaemfwdk@ wdkif;&if;om;xJuaygufzGm;vmrSm jzpfw,f? usOf;ajrmif;wJhtrsdK;om;a&;0g'&J@armif;ESiftm;uawmh vlrsdK;pkjyemygyJ? vlrsdK;pk jyem[m urBmŒEdkifiHtoD;oD;rSm &Sdygw,f? 'gayr,fh 'Drdkua&pDxGef;um;wJhEdkifiHrSm vlrsdK;pk jyem wjznf;jznf; avsmhyg;+yD;/ aemufqHk; aysmufuG,f oGm;wwfygw,f? 'Drdkua&pDr&SdwJh EdkifiHrSmusawmh vlrsdK;pkjyem wjznf;jznf;}uD;xGm;+yD; aemufqHk;usOf;ajrmif;wJhtrsdK;om; a&;0g'tjzpfeJ@ wdkif;jynfudk 'kuQay;wwfygw,f? 'ga=umifh usaemfwdk@vlrsdK;pkrsm;zufuvnf; usOf;ajrmif;wJhtrsdK;om;a&;0g'a=umifh 6 qvdi;f vsere;f qmacgi;f ( Lian H. Sakhong ) pkaqmif;wifjyonf k f _
  18. 18. 'Drua&pDa&;ESihf wef;wla&;wduyumvtwGi; UNLD .ordkif;0ifrSwfwrf;rsm; kd k f JG f wdkif;jynf'kuQra&mufapzdk@ owdxm;=u&ygr,f? tjrifus,f&r,f? jynfe,fvlrsdK;pkrsm; nD!GwfwJh tiftm;eJ@ ppfrSefwJhjynfaxmifpkpepf wnfaqmufa&;udk wGef;tm;ay;zdk@ vdkygw,f? 'Drdkua&pD xGef;um;wJh ppfrSefwJh jynfaxmifpkpepfudk wnfaqmufEdkif&if vlrsdK;pkjyem ajyvnf+yD; usOf;ajrmif;wJh trsdK;om;a&;0g' qdwfokOf;oGm;rSm aocsmygw,f? 'gayr,fh usaemfwdk@jynfe,fvlrsdK;pkrsm; nDEdkifrvm;? jynfe,ftoD;oD;u ygwDaygif; ajrmufrsm;pGm xGufay:aewm rnD!GwfwJhoabmudk jyae+yDvm;? apmapmu rGef'Drdkua&pD tzGJ@csKyfu udk,fpm;vS,fwifjyovdk 1961 awmif}uD;rSm zGJ@pnf; cJhwJh “jynfe,frsm; nD!Gwfa&; k k tzG@J ” tqifuawmif a&mufEiygrvm;vd@k oHo,&Sp&m &Sygw,f?Ð [dwe;f u jynfe,ftoD;oD; h kd kd f h d d rSm ygwD wck ESpfckavmufyJ&Sdw,f? ckawmh t&rf;rsm;aew,f? nDEdkifyghrvm;? nDzdk@aum vG,fyghrvm;? 'Duprm usaemfawmh taumif;zufu jrifygw,f? 'Dvkd rvdvm;tyfyJ ygwawG rsm;ae d P S k D jcif;[m jzpfay:cJhwJhta&;tcif;u zefwD;oGm;wmygyJ? bmjzpfvdk@vJqdkawmh æ 'D ta&;tcif;[m pepfwus pkpnf; zGJ@pnf;+yD;rS qifE$JwJhta&;tcif;r[kwfbJ/ pepfwus pkpnf;r_r&SdbJ tvdk h kd tavsmuf ayguur}_ uD; Spontaneous Uprising jzpfaewJtwGuf vlwi;f [m ol@ae&meJ@o/l f JG ol@a'oeJ@ol/ ol@tkyfpkeJ@ol/ tpkvdkuf tpkvdkuf qENjywdkufyGJ0ifcJh=u&mu ygwDtoGifudk ajymif;vJoGm;jcif;jzpfygw,f? 'ga=umifh 'Drdkua&pDwHcg;r}uD; yGifhoGm;vdk@ vGwfvyfpGm a[majym pnf;±Hk;Edkifvdk@&Sd&if/ tm;vHk; wpkwnf; aygif;pnf;oGm;=ur,fvdk@ ar#mfvifhrdygw,f? 'kw,tcsuuawmh jrefrmEdiirm 'Drua&pD vH;k 0qdwoO;f cJwhJ twGua=umifyJ jzpfyg d f fk f H S kd f k h f h w,f? apmapmuwifjyovdk 'Drdkua&pDr&Sdawmh vlrsdK;pkjyem }uD;xGm;aeygw,f? tcsif;csif; =um;rSm em;rvnfr_/ txifv$Jr_/ emusnf;rkef;wD;r_rsm; }uD;xGm;aew,f? usaemfwdk@udk,fwdkif }uHKawG@cwhJ Oyrmwckukd wifjy&&if - r=umao;cifu usaemf csi;f jynfe,f yvuf0udk oGm;ygw,f? hJ tJ'D òrd@cHvlxkawGu bmajymovJqdkawmh (26) ESpfvHk;vHk; ajrmufydkif;om;awG cs,fvS,fpdk;rdk; cJhwm rauseyfbl;wJh? rwlyDrSmusawmh rif;wyfom;awG pdk;rdk;cJhwmudk rauseyf=ubl;? [m;cg;eJ@ zvef;rSmusawmh wD;wdefawGu (26)ESpfvHk;vHk; tkyfpdk;vdk@wJh/ wD;wdefrSmusjyefawmh ol@wdk@òrd@e,f xJu vlrsKd;EG,fpkav;wckjzpfwJh qD;,if;awGu pdk;rdk;cs,fvS,fvdk@ qdk+yD; rauseyfcsufawGudk [kdvla=umifhEdk;Edk;/ 'Dvla=umifhEdk;Edk; eD;&mvludkyJ pGyfpJG=uawmhw,f? csif;pum;yHkwck&dSw,f? “opfyifwyifuG,fvdk@ awmtkyf}uD;udk rjrifEdkifbl;wJh” teD;qHk;opfyifuG,fvdk@ awmtkyfudk rjrifEdkifovdk teD;qHk;vludkyJ w&m;cHvkyf=uawmhw,f? w&m;cHtppftrSefudk rjrifEdkif=ubl;? 'Dvw&m;cHtppfukd rjrifEib/J jyemt&if;tjrpfukd rodbJ cHjyif;pdwf em;usn;f pdwf oufouf kd kd f eJ@ EdkifiHa&;vkkyf&if trSm;awG@Edkifw,f? wcsK@d vlrsKd;EG,fpk ygwDav;awGudk usaemfar;=u!fhw,f æ olwdkŒ&J@ &nf&G,fcsufawGudk? wcsdKŒygwD&JŒ &nf±G,fcsuf[m EdkifiHa&;r[kwfbJ/ oma&; / ema&;/ vlr_a&; oGm;jzpfaew,f? vlra&;abmiftwGi;f rSm vky&rJh trsK;d om;csi;f =unf&apmifa&Smufa&;/ bmompum; xde;f odr;f a&;/ _ f h_ h pmayjr‡iwifa&; pwJupawG oGm;jzpfaew,f? Ediia&;jyemr[kwb;l ? Ediia&;qdwm tm%m hf h dP kfH f kfH k jyemyJ? ckawmh tm%mjyemr[kwfbl;? vlr_a&;oufouf? jynfxJa&;eJ@ omoema&; Ð rSwfcsuf? ? rGeftrsdK;om; 'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyfrS OD;EdkifaiGodrf;udk&nf!Gef;jcif;jzpfygonf? qvdi;f vsere;f qmacgi;f ( Lian H. Sakhong ) pkaqmif;wifjyonf k f _ 7
  19. 19. +idrf;csrf;pGmtwlvufwGJaexdkifa&;0g'rSonf ppfrSefaomjynfaxmifpkpepfqDodkŒ (yxrwGJ) 0ef}uD;XmerSm rSwfyHkwif&rJh toif;tzJG@awGu ygwDpHk'Drdkua&pDtaxGaxGa&G;aumufyJGusif;ya&; aumfr&Sif&Hk;rSm oGm;+yD; rSwfyHkwif=uw,f? 'Dvdk wvJGwacsmfjzpfaewJh udpPawGu jrefrmEdkifiHrSm 'Drdkua&pD b,favmufqdwfokOf;ae+yDvJqdkwm ay:vGifxif&Sm;apygw,f? jrefrmEdkifiHrSmom 'Drua&pD tjynft0 &vmvd@k &&if vlrsK;d EG,pe@J a'oi,fav;awGukd tajccHwhJ ygwi,fav;awG kd h Sd f k D tvdkvdk vrf;rSefa&mufoGm;=urSmyg? 'DvdkrS tjrifrSefr&bJ a'opJG/ rsKd;EG,fpkpJG/ yk*~dKvfpJG pwJh usOf;ajrmif;wJh t,l0g'ay:rSm tajccH+yD; xlaxmifwygwawGu usaemfw@kd jynfe,ftwGi;f pkpnf;nD!wrtiftm;/ jynfaxmifpk hJ D G f_ twGif; pkpnf;nD!Gwfr_tiftm;udk t[ef@twm;jzpfapw,f? +zdKcJGzdk@ }udK;pm;aew,fqdk&if 'gudkawmh usaemfwdk@vnf; jywfjywfom;om; udkifwG,f&rSmyJ? olwdk@&J@ vkyf&yfeJ@ apwem rSefuefr_ &dSr&dSqdkwmudk jynfolŒa&S@rSm tppfcHoGm;=u&r,f? ol@wdk@ vkyf&yfeJ@ apwem rrSefuefblk;qdk&if EdkifiHa&; tnpfta=u;rsm;tjzpf ordkif;a&pD;a=umif;u ab;udk wGef;ydk@jcif; cH=u&rSm aocsmw,f? 'Drdkua&pD awmfvSefa&;tiftm;pkudk [ef@wm;zdk@ }udK;pm;aewJholawG[m ordkif;bD;&JŒ eif;}udwf jcif;udk tvl;tvJ cHoGm;zdk@yJ&dSygw,f? ordkif;bD;udk b,folrS [eff@wm;EdkifrSm r[kwfbl;? 'ga=umifh vlrsKd;EG,fpkeJ@ a'oi,fav;awGudk tajccH+yD; xlaxmifwJh ygwDi,fav;awG tjrefqHk;pkpnf;+yD; jynfe,fygwD}uD;rsm;eJ@ yl;aygif;=uyg? usOf;ajrmif;wJhrsKd;EG,fpk/ a'opJGrsm;udk &J0HhpGm awmfvSefausmfv$m;+yD; trsKd;om;a&;tqifhudk wufvSrf;=uyg? tck usaemfwdk@jynfe,fawGrSm &ifqdkifae&wJh jyemuawmh trsKd;om;a&;jyem h f h tqifra&mufao;bl; Nationalism tqifr[kwb;l / Tribalism tqifom jzpfaeao;w,f? h 'ga=umifh usaemfwdk@ wdk;wufwJhtjrifeJ@ tawG;tac:awmfvSefa&;w&yf tjrefqHk; qifEJGzdk@ vdkae ygw,f? 'grS Tribalism tqifhuae Nationalismtqifhudk wufvSrf;Edkif+yD; jynfe,ftwGif; nD!Gwfr_udk EdkifrSmjzpfw,f? jynfe,ftwGif; nD!Gwfr_dSrS jynfaxmifpktwdkif;twmeJ@vnf; nD!GwfEdkifrSm jzpfw,f? [dkae@ tpnf;ta0;wkef;u usaemfajymovdk usaemfwdk@ ajcvSrf;ru|Hzdk@eJ@ ajcvSrf; raES;zdk@ vdkygw,f? qENapm+yD; ajcvSrf;u|Hif trSm;awG@Edkifw,f? ordkif;wauG@rSm wcgrSm;if ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm cHoGm;Edkifw,f? rsKd;qufeJ@csD+yD; cHoGm;Edkifw,f? ajcvSrf;aES;vGef;ifvJ tcsdeftcgeJ@ tajctaeay;wJhtwdkif; tvkyfrvkyfEdkifjzpfoGm;+yD;/ tcGifhta;qHk;H_;oGm;Edkifw,f? usaemfwdk@ jynfe,fom;awG tcGifhta;qHk;_H;aygif;rsm;vS+yD? 'ga=umifh usaemfwdk@ 'DrdkuapDawmfvSefa; udk qifEwtcgrm }udK;0di;f xJu vufa0S@orm;vdk usio;kH ygr,f? b,fbufvufe@J tumtuG,f GJ hJ S k fh ,l+yD; nmbufvufeJ@ csufaumif;udkapmifh+yD; xdk;ygr,f? b,fbufvuf[m wcsdefvHk; tumtuG,f,laevdk@ rjzpfbl;? wzufefol [efcsufysufoGm;atmif b,fbufvufeJ@ wdkufuGufqifay;r,f? wzwfefol [efcsufysuf+yD; csufaumif;ay:wmeJ@ nmbufvufeJ@ tvJxdk;ygr,f? usaemfhaqG;aEG;csufudk csKyf+yD; ajymvdkufif usaemfwdk@ qifEJGaewJh awmfvSefa;JŒ yef;wdkifudk xifxifSm;Sm; jrifwuf+yD;/ xdkyef;wdkifudk csDwufwJhtcg ifqdkifrJh tdujyem rsm;udk rSefrSefuefuef udkifwG,fajzSif;oGm;zdk@ tvGefta;}uD;ygw,f? yef;wdkifrdSif tdu jyemudk udkifwG,fEdkifrSm r[kwfbl;? omrnjyemawGeJ@ vHk;axG;+yD; usaemfwdk@ awmfvSefa; 8 qvdi;f vsere;f qmacgi;f ( Lian H. Sakhong ) pkaqmif;wifjyonf k f _
  20. 20. 'DruapDa;ESihf wef;wla;wduyumvtwGi; UNLD .ordkif;0ifrSwfwrf;rsm; kd k f JG f apkefarsmoGm;Edkifw,f? yef;wdkifudk csDwufwJhtcgjzpfjzpf/ tdujyemudk ifqdkifajzSif;wJh tcgrSmjzpfjzpf nD!Gwfr_tiftm;vdkygw,f? txl;ojzifh usaemfwdk@ jynfe,fvlrsKd;pkrsm; nD!Gwfzdk@ vdkygw,f? usaemfwdk@J@ wdkufyJG[m ESpfqifhdSw,fqdkwm tm;vHk;em;vnf+yD;om;yg? nD!GwfwJh tiftm;eJ@ usaemfwdk@ordkif;udk tvSyqHk; a;om;zefwD;=uygpdk@vdk@ wdkufwGef;if; ed*Hk;csKyfygw,f? aus;Zl;wifygw,f? qvdi;f vsere;f qmacgi;f ( Lian H. Sakhong ) pkaqmif;wifjyonf k f _ 9
  21. 21. +idrf;csrf;pGmtwlvufwGJaexdkifa;0g'rSonf ppfrSefaomjynfaxmifpkpepfqDodkŒ (yxrwGJ) tcef; (2) jynfaxmifpkwdkif;if;om;vlrsKd;rsm;'DrdkuapDtzJG‹csKyf (UNLD) . v+yfSm;r+rsm; (tusOf;) jynfaxmifpkwdkif;if;om;vlrsKd;rsm;'DrdkuapDtzJG@csKyf. pwifzJG@pnf;onfhtcsdefrS yxrt}udrf obmywd pHknDtpnf;ta0; usif;yo!fh (21 - 11 -89) umvtxd v_yfSm;r_rsm; (tusOf;csKyf)udk xdknDvmcHwGif twGif;a;rSL;tzJG@. Hk;vkyfief; wm0efcHrsm; jzpf=uaom a'gufwm atmifwifOD; (uif)ESifh Edkifatmifjrifh (rGef) wdk@. tpDifcHpmtwdkif; wifjytyfygonf? jynfaxmifpwiif;om;vlrsK;rsm; 'DruapDtzJŒG csKyf k kd f d kd efukef_rdKŒ vkyfief;tzJG@tpDifcHpm jynfaxmifpkwdkif;if;om; vlrsKd;rsm; 'DrdkuapDtzJG@csKyfudk ,cktcg tzJG@0ifwdkif;if;om; vlrsKd;pkygwDaygif; (20)jzifh yll;aygif;zJG@pnf;xm;ygonf? ,if;tzJG@0ifygwDrsm;rSm 1? cdkif'DrdkuapDtzJG@csKyf/ 2? rGeftrsKd;om; 'DrdkuapDtzJG@/ 3? watmif; (yavmif) trsKd;om;'DrdkuapDtzJG@/ 4? uifjynfe,ftrsKd;om;rsm;tzJG@csKyf/ 5? csif;trsKd;om; 'DrdkuapDtzJG@csKyf/ 6? u,m;jynfe,f vlrsKd;aygif;pHk 'DrdkuapDtzJG@csKyf/ 7? Srf;jynfwdkif;if;om; vlrsKd;pkrsm; 'DrdkuapDtzJG@csKyf/ 8? cdkiftrsKd;om; vl@tcGifhta;ESifh +idrf;csrf;a;tzJG@/ 9? ZdkrD;trsKd;om;uGef*uf/ 10? awmifolv,form; u'l;ueef;ESifh Srf;trsKd;om; 'DrdkuapDtzJG@csKyf/ 11? jynfaxmifpk EktrsKd;om;'DrdkuapDtzJG@csKyf/ 10 qvdi;f vsere;f qmacgi;f ( Lian H. Sakhong ) pkaqmif;wifjyonf k f _
  22. 22. 'DruapDa;ESihf wef;wla;wduyumvtwGi; UNLD .ordkif;0ifrSwfwrf;rsm; kd k f JG f 12? jynfaxmifpk ytdk@0f trsKd;om;'DrdkuapDtzJG@csKyf/ 13? awmifydkif;csif;'DrdkuapDygwD/ 14? ucsiftrsKd;om;vHk;qdkifm uGef*uf/ 15? +rdK (ac: ) crDtrsKd;om; nD!Gwfa;tzJG@/ 16? awmifwef;om;rsm; 'DrdkuufwpfygwD/ 17? u,ef;trsKd;om; pnf;vHk;nD!Gwfa; 'DrdkuapDtzJG@/ 18? ucsiftrsKd;om; 'DrdkuufwpfygwD/ 19? tif;trsKd;om;tzJG@csKyf/ 20? cdkiftrsKd;om; vlr_b0jr‡ifhwifa;tzJG@ (rrm}uD; ) wdk@jzpf=uygonf? tzJG@csKyfudk obmywdtzJG@/ twGif;a;rSL;tzJG@/ vkyfief;aumfrwDrsm;jzifh zJG@pnf;xm;+yD; tzJG@csKyf. vkyfief;rsm; ('DrdkuapDa;ESifh wdkif;if;om;vlrsKd;rsm; wef;wlnfwla;udk tajccHI) udk aqmifGufv#ufdSygonf? obmywdtzJ@G obmywdtzJG@udk tzJG@csKyf0ifygwDrsm;rS ay;ydk@aom obmywdtzJG@0if (1)OD;pDESifh zJG@pnf;xm;ygonf? ,ckvufdS tzJG@csKyf0ifygwD (20) dSvm+yDjzpfI obmywdtzJG@0if (20)OD;jzifh zJG@pnf;xm;ygonf? tzJ@G csKyf. obmywdtzJ@G 0ifrsm; 1? OD;at;az ('z) 2? EdkifaiGodef; ( rGef'DrdkuapDtzJG@) 3? OD;tkef;cdkif (watmif; - yavmif) 4? OD;oef;dSef (uifjynfe,ftrsKd;om;tzJG@csKyf) 5? OD;pDauwkdufuJGvf (csif;tzJG@csKyf) 6? OD;ppfaiGaomif; (u,m;tzJG@csKyf) 7? OD;vSrif; (w'z) 8? OD;omvl ( cdkiftrsKd;om;vl@tcGifhta;) 9? OD;wmefxefvsefaygif (ZdkrD;trsKd;om;uGef*uf) 10? OD;omarmif (awmifolv,form; u'l;ueef;) 11? OD;jrifhOD; (jynfaxmifpkEk) 12? cGefxGef;vGif (jynfaxmifpkytdk@yf) 13? qvdkif;atmifxGef; (awmifydkif;csif;) 14? 'l;0g; aZmfarmf (ucsiftrsKd;om;uGef*uf) qvdi;f vsere;f qmacgi;f ( Lian H. Sakhong ) pkaqmif;wifjyonf k f _ 11
  23. 23. +idrf;csrf;pGmtwlvufwGJaexdkifa;0g'rSonf ppfrSefaomjynfaxmifpkpepfqDodkŒ (yxrwGJ) 15? OD;pHomatmif (+rdK (c) crD) 16? a'gufwmqef;crRm (awmifwef;om;rsm;) 17? OD;tmfyDaomif; (u,ef;) 18? OD;'defwef (ucsifjynfe,f trsKd;om;'Drdkuufwpf) 19? OD;a$vS ( cdkiftrsKd;om; vlr_b0jr‡ifhwifa;tzJG@) 20? tif;trsKd;om; tzJG@csKyfrS pmif;rao;? rSwfcsuf? ? yxrt}udrf obmywd pHknDtpnf;ta0;wGif tzJG@csKyfobmywd tzJG@0ifrsm;xJrS t+rJwrf;obmywdtzJG@udk jynfe,frsm;udk tajccHI atmufygtwdkif; zJG@pnf;cJhygonf? t+rJwrf;obmywdtzJ@G ucsifjynfe,f u,m;jynfe,f uifjynfe,f csif;jynfe,f rGefjynfe,f cdkifjynfe,f Srf;jynfe,f æææ æææ æææ æææ æææ æææ æææ qrm;ausmfzm;aemf ppfaiGaomif; apmoef;dSef OD;pDauwdkufuGJvf EdkifaiGodrf; OD;at;az OD;jrifhOD; (aemufydkif; OD;a$tHk;) wdk@jzpfygonf? twGi;a;rSL;tzJ@G f twGif;a;rSL;tzJG@udk jynfe,f (7)cktm; ukd,fpm;ðytaejzifh zJG@pnf;xm;ygonf? ucsifjynfe,f u,m;jynfe,f uifjynfe,f csif;jynfe,f rGefjynfe,f cdkifjynfe,f Srf;jynfe,f 12 æææ æææ æææ æææ æææ æææ æææ OD;qdkif;vd OD;cifarmifcsKd a'gufwmatmifwifOD; qvdkif;vsefr_ef; Edkifatmifjrifh OD;at;omatmif cGefwifa$ qvdi;f vsere;f qmacgi;f ( Lian H. Sakhong ) pkaqmif;wifjyonf k f _
  24. 24. 'DruapDa;ESihf wef;wla;wduyumvtwGi; UNLD .ordkif;0ifrSwfwrf;rsm; kd k f JG f vkyief;aumfrwD f vkyfief;aumfrwD (5) ckjzifh tzJG@csKyf. vkyfief;rsm;udk taumiftxnfaz: aqmifGuf v#ufdSygonf? ‚if;wdk@rSm æ (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) rl0g'a;maumfrwD pnf;Hk;a;aumfrwD jyef=um;qufoG,fa;aumfrwD b¾ma;aumfrwD Hk;vkyfief;tzJG@ wdk@jzpfygonf? vkyfief;aumfrwD0ifrsm;rSm vkyfief;aumfrwDtvdkuf atmufygtwdkif;jzpfygonf? rl0g'a;m aumfrwD0ifrsm; (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) OD;at;az OD;at;omatmif Edkifcifarmif Edkifwifaz EdkifaiG OD;vmvfbd qvdkif;vsefr_ef; cGefwifa$ 'z 'z rGeftrsKd;om;'DrdkuapDtzJG@ rGeftrsKd;om;'DrdkuapDtzJG@ rGeftrsKd;om;'DrdkuapDtzJG@ csif;trsKd;om;'DrdkuapDtzJG@csKyf csif;trsKd;om;'DrdkuapDtzJG@csKyf jynfaxmifpk ytdk@0ftrsKd;om;tzJG@csKyf pnf;±Hk;a;aumfrwD0ifrsm; (1) (2) (3) (4) EdkifaiGodef; cGefwifa$ OD;armifcdkif OD;bausmf rGeftrsKd;om;'DrdkuapDtzJG@ jynfaxmifpkytdk@0ftrsKd;om;tzJG@csKyf watmif; (yavmif) trsKd;om;'DrdkuapDtzJG@csKyf 'z jyef=um;a;ESihf qufo,a;aumfrwD0ifrsm; G f (1) OD;ombef; (2) OD;at;omatmif (3) ODarmifqm 'z 'z watmif (yavmif) trsKd;om;'DrdkuapDtzJG@csKyf qvdi;f vsere;f qmacgi;f ( Lian H. Sakhong ) pkaqmif;wifjyonf k f _ 13
  25. 25. +idrf;csrf;pGmtwlvufwGJaexdkifa;0g'rSonf ppfrSefaomjynfaxmifpkpepfqDodkŒ (yxrwGJ) (4) rif;udkom (5) qvdkif; idkifqmh'f rGeftrsKd;om;'DrdkuapDtzGJŒ csif;trsKd;om;'DrdkuapDtzJG@csKyf b¾ma;aumfrwD0ifrsm; (1) OD;pDauwdkufuGJvf (2) Edkifatmifjrifh (3) OD;ausmfyf csif;trsKd;om;'DrdkuapDtzJG@csKyf rGeftrsKd;om; 'DrdkuapDtzJG@ csif;tzJG@csKyf H;vkyief;tzJ@G k f (1) (2) (3) (4) OD;at;az EdkifaiG a'gufwmatmifwifOD; rdkifeDeDatmif cdkif'DrdkuapDtzJG@csKyf rGeftrsKd;om;'DrdkuapDtzJG@ uifjynfe,ftrsKd;om;tzJG@csKyf csif;trsKd;om;'DrdkuapDtzJG@csKyf tzJG@csKyftaejzihf tzJG@csKyf.vkyfief;rsm;udk obmywdtzJG@0ifrsm;/ twGif;a;rSL; tzJG@0ifrsm;/ vkyfief;aumfrwD0ifrsm;ESihf wdkifyifnd‡Ed_if;aqG;aEG;aqmifGufv#ufdSmwGif wywfwcg aom=umae@wdkif; yHkrSeftpnf;ta0;rsm; ðyvkyfjcif;/ vdktyfovdk ta;ay:tpnf;ta0;rsm;/ txl;tpnf;ta0;rsm;ðyvkyfjcif;/ aqG;aEG;yJGrsm;ðyvkyfjcif;/ tjcm; EdkifiHa;ygwD tzJG@tpnf;rsm;ESifh tzJ@G csKyf;kH cef;Y awG@qaqG;aEG;jcif;/ xdygwtzJ@G tpnf;rsm;xH ud,pm;vS,rsm; apv$waqG;aEG;jcif; kH k D k f f f rsm;udk wm0efus tvSnfhus obmywdtzJG@0ifrsm;/ twGif;a;rSL;tzJG@0ifrsm;/ vkyfief; aumfrwD0ifrsm;u aqmifGufv#ufdSygonf? xdkodk@aqG;aEG;nd‡Ed_if;mwGif æ • • • 14 tzJG@. ta;tmudpPrsm; tzJG@csKyf0if tzJG@tpnf; ygwDwckcsif; ta;tmudpPrsm; tjcm;EdkifiHta;tmudpPyfrsm;udk pGrf;tm;dSor# ausyGefpGm nd‡E_dif;aqmifGuf v#ufdSa=umif; wifjytyfygonf? qvdi;f vsere;f qmacgi;f ( Lian H. Sakhong ) pkaqmif;wifjyonf k f _
  26. 26. 'DruapDa;ESihf wef;wla;wduyumvtwGi; UNLD .ordkif;0ifrSwfwrf;rsm; kd k f JG f vkyief;aumfrwDtvkutpDifcpm f d f H 1? rl0g'a;maumfrwD rl0g'a;maumfrwDudk obmywdtzJG@0ifrsm;rS yk*~dKvfrsm;/ twGif;a;rSL;tzJG@0ifrsm;rS yk*~dKvfrsm;/ vkyfief;aumfrwD0ifrsm;rS yk*~dKvfrsm;ESifh zJG@pnf;xm;+yD;/ tzJG@csKyf. rl0g'ydkif;qdkifm udpPyfrsm;udk nd‡Ed_if;aqmifGufv#ufdSygonf? rl0g'a;maumfrwDtaejzihf tzJG@csKyftwGuf ta;}uD;aom rl0g'a;m vkyfief;rsm;jzpfonfh æ (u) (c) (*) (C) jynfaxmifpkrla;qJGjcif;/ tzJG@csKyf. zJG@pnf;yHkpnf;rsOf; jyifqifa;qJGjcif;/ rsufarSmufumv pnf;±Hk;a;rl0g' xkwfjyefjcif;/ tzJG@csKyf. yfwnfcsufoabmxm; xkwfjyefjcif;/ ponfwdk@tjyif tzJG@csKyf. tvSnfhusobmywdtzJG@/ twGif;a;rSL;tzJG@wdk@rS tcg tm;avsmfpGm xkwfjyefaom oabmxm;ausnmcsufrsm;/ t}uHðycsufrsm;ESifh wjcm;ygwD tzJG@pnf;rsm;rS ay;ydk@aom pmwrf;rsm;tay: tzJG@csKyf.rl0g'ESifh udkufnD rnD pDppf+yD; xkwfjyefay; ygonf? (u) jynfaxmifpra;qJjG cif; k l tzJ@G csKyf. rl0g'a;m aumfrwDtaejzifh aemif tem*gwjf ynfaxmifpk jrefrmEdiiawmf kfH udk ppfrSefaom jynfaxmifpkwck wnfaqmufEdkifeftwGuf jynfaxmifpkrlwck a;qJGcJhygonf? Todk@a;qJGmwGif atmufygtajccHrl (15)csufudk tajccHxm;I a;qJGcJhygonf? tajccHrl 15 csuf æ jynfaxmifpwi;if;om;vlrsK;rsm; 'DruapDtzJ@G csKyf k kd f d kd tem*gwjf ynfaxmifp. tajccHrrsm; k l (1) tcsKyftjcmtm%monf jynfaxmifpkorRwjrefrmEdkifiHawmfwGifom wnfrnf? (2) jynfaxmifpktcsKyftjcmtm%monf jynfaxmifpkwdkif;if;om;rsm; jzpf a om ucsif / u,m;/ uif / csif ; / rG e f / Arm/ S r f ; / cd k i f tpd S o nf h wdkif;if;om;jynfolrsm;rS qif;oufrnf? qvdi;f vsere;f qmacgi;f ( Lian H. Sakhong ) pkaqmif;wifjyonf k f _ 15
  27. 27. +idrf;csrf;pGmtwlvufwGJaexdkifa;0g'rSonf ppfrSefaomjynfaxmifpkpepfqDodkŒ (yxrwGJ) (3) tcsKyftjcmtm%mudk vufeufjzifh t=urf;zuf,ljcif;rðy/ wygwD tm%mSifpepfESifh rnfo!fhtm%mSifpepfrsKd;xHwGifrS tcsKyftjcmtm%m rwnfap/ (4) jynfaxmifpk. tcsKyftjcmtm%monf }uD;/ i,f/ enf;/ rsm; r[l wdkif;if;om;vlrsKd;rsm;tm;vHk;. tusKd;pD;yGm;udk wm;r#wpGm pDrHcef@cJGaom ud,mwefqmyvmom jzpfrnf? (5) vl@b0wefbdk;dSa;ESifh vl@oduQmjrifhrm;a;twGuf wdkif;if;om;vlrsKd;rsm; tm;vHk;twGif;wGif wm;r#wjcif;/ vGwfvyfjcif;/ nDr#jcif;wnf;[laom avmuygvwm;rsm; xGef;um;rnf? (6) jynfaxmifpkwdkif;if;om; vlrsKd;rsm;tm;vHk;onf EdkifiHa;wef;wlnDr#r_/ pD;yGm;a;tcGitvrf;nDr#r/_ vlra;wef;wlnr#r/_ vl@tcGita;wef;wlnr#rEihf hf _ D hf D _S 'DrdkuapDa;wef;wlnDr#r_ dSrnf? (7) wef;wlnDr#r_ tcGifhta;rsm;onf olawmif;pm;. cGufxJodk@ ypfcscHo!fh tojyma=u;jym;uJo@kd usamufvmr!fh pGe@f }uJrrsK;d rjzpfap/ wdi;f if;om;rsm; h _ k tcsi;f csi;f tay;t,l =unfjzLr#wpGm aqG;aEG;ndEi;f I cHpm;tyfaom tmom ‡ _d jzpfrnf? (8) jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEdkifiHonf wdkif;if;om;vlrsKd;rsm;tm;vHk;. e,fajr a'oudk aygif;pyfzJG@pnf;xm;aom e,fedrdwftydkif;tjcm;dSo!fh EdkifiHtjzpf todtrSwfðyrnf? (9) EdkifiHwuma;me,fy,fwGif jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEdkifiHtjzpf wdkif;if;om; vlrsKd;rsm;tm;vHk;udk ukd,fpm;ðyrnf? (10) jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEdkifiHudk EdkifiHa;t wef;wlnDr#aom wdkif;if;om; vlrsKd;rsm;. jynfaxmifpkjynfe,frsm;jzifh zJG@pnf;xm;onf[k cH,lonf? (11) xdo@kd pkpnf;aygi;f pyf zJ@G pnf;xm;aom jynfaxmifpukd jynfaxmifptpd;k u k k k pDrHcef@cJGrnf? (12) jynfaxmifptpd;k ESihf tpd;k tm%mcJa0a;udk tay;t,l =unfjzLr#wpGm k G ESifh ,xmblwusus nd‡Ed_if;oufrSwfrnf? (13) jynf a xmif p k t pd k ; wG i f a omf v nf ; aumif ; / jynf e ,f t pd k ; wG i f a omf vnf ; aumif ; / tjcm; tm%myd k i f t zJ G @ tpnf ; rsm;wG i f a omf v nf ; aumif ; / wdkif;if;om;vlrsKd;rsm;tm;vHk; oifhwifhr#waom udk,fpm;vS,frsm; yg0ifcGifh tajctae jynfhpHkpGm zefwD;ay;rnf? TudpPtwGuf jynfaxmifpkzJG@pnf; tkyfcsKyfyHktajccHOya'wGifaomfvnf;aumif;/ jynfe,frsm;. zJG@pnf;tkyfcsKyfyHk tajccHOya'wGifaomfvnf;aumif;/ jyXmef;ay;rnf? (14) jynfaxmifpktpdk;taejzifhaomfvnf;aumif;/ jynfe,ftpdk;taejzifh aomfvnf;aumif;/ tkyfcsKyfmwGif Oya'utkyfcsKyfaompepf (Rule of Law) jzpfapI vly*Kd~ vf.qENoabmt tkycsKyfaompepf (Rule of Men) rjzpfap? k f 16 qvdi;f vsere;f qmacgi;f ( Lian H. Sakhong ) pkaqmif;wifjyonf k f _
  28. 28. 'DruapDa;ESihf wef;wla;wduyumvtwGi; UNLD .ordkif;0ifrSwfwrf;rsm; kd k f JG f (15) jynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a;ESifh urBmh+idrf;csrf;a;udk wnfaqmufmwGif wm; r#wI +idrf;csrf;aomenf;jzifhom wnfaqmufEdkifrnf[kcH,lonf? vufdS urBmhjzpfay:wdk;wufr_tajctaersm;tvnf;aumif;/ tjcm;aom enf;vrf; rsm;jzifh aqmifGufr_rSm atmifjrifvdrfhrnf[k r,Hk=unfyg? T enf;vrf;om toifhavsmfqHk;[k ,Hk=unfonf? rl0g'a;m aumfrwDtaejzifh tpnf;ta0;rsm; (5)}udrfwdkifac:,lusif;y+yD; aqmifGuf cJh=uygonf? xdkodk@ usif;yaqG;aEG;mwGif tem*gwfzJG@pnf;tkyfcsKyfyHktajccHOya'twGuf æ (1) ucsiftrsKd;om;'DrdkuapDygwD XmecsKyfrSay;ydk@aom zJG@pnf;yHka;qJGmwGif tajccHr!fh rl0g'rsm;udk‚if;? (2) rGeftrsKd;om;'DrdkuapDtzJG@ (3) 'DrdkuapDr[mrdwfrsm;tzJG@csKyf (4) Srf;jynfwdkif;if;om;vlrsKd;pkrsm;'DrdkuapDtzJG@csKyf wdkŒrS wifjyaom wwd,jrefrmEdkifiHawmfodk@ pmwrf;rsm;udk rl0g'a;mtzJG@. tjrifESifh aygif;pyf+yD;a;qJGxm;ygonf? xdkodk@a;qJGmwGif udk;um;xm;aom pmtkyfrsm;rSm æ (1) zqyv tzJG@csKyf. y%mrjyifqifr_ nDvmcHrSwfwrf;? (2) 1947 ckESpf zJG@pnf;tkyfcsKyfyHk tajccHOya' (3) 1974 ckESpf zJG@pnf;tkyfcsKyfyHk tajccHOya' (4) OD;xGef;jrifh. wef;wlaomSrf;jynf (5) tarduefEdkifiH. zJG@pnf;yHktajccHOya' paom pmtkyfpmwrf;rsm;udk rSDjirf;+yD; a;om;ðypkwifjyxm;ygonf? a;qJG+yD;aomrl=urf;udk yxrtqifhtaejzifh tzJG@csKyf0ifygwDtzJG@tpnf;rsm;udk ay;yd@k t}uHOm%fawmif;cHef/ 'kw, æ tzJ@G csKyf0ifr[kwaom tjcm;wdi;f if;om;vlrsK;d pkygwrsm; d f k D xHrS t}uHOm%f,lef/ wwd, æ tjcm; EdkifiHa;ygwDtzJG@tpnf;/ tzJG@csKyf/ wyfaygif;pkrsm;ESifh nd‡Ed_if;ef qHk;jzwfcsuf csrSwfxm;ygonf? +yD;aemuf Edk0ifbmvwGif usif;yr!fh obmywd pHknD tpnf;ta0;wGif wifjy+yD; twnfjyKcsuf ,lygrnf? xdk@aemuf twnfjyK+yD;aom rl=urf;udk azaz:0gDvavmufwGif usif;yr!fh vlrsKd;pknDvmcHESifh EdkifiHvHk;qdkifm trsKd;om;nDvmcHwdk@wGif wifjyef pDpOfxm;ygonf? qvdi;f vsere;f qmacgi;f ( Lian H. Sakhong ) pkaqmif;wifjyonf k f _ 17
  29. 29. +idrf;csrf;pGmtwlvufwGJaexdkifa;0g'rSonf ppfrSefaomjynfaxmifpkpepfqDodkŒ (yxrwGJ) (c) tzJ@G csKyf. zJ@G pnf;yHpnf;rsO; jyifqifa;qJjG cif; k f rSwfcsuf? ? tao;pdwfSif;vif;csufudk tpnf;ta0;tpDtpOfwGif xnfhoGif; xm;ygonf? (*) rsuarSmufumv pnf;±H;a;rl0g'xkwjf yefjcif; (twdcsKyfi;vif;csu) f k k Sf f rsuf a rS m uf u mvtajctaeonf “trsd K ;om;'D r d k u apD a wmf v S e f a ;umv” jzpfayonf? Tumvonf wdkif;if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;twGuf 'kwd,yifvHkumv jzpfonf? yXr yifvumvonf AdvcsKyfatmifqef;OD;pD;I wdi;f if;om;pnf;vH;k nD!wa;udk wnfaqmufaom kH k f k G f umv/ 'k w d , yifv Hk u mvonf wd k if ;if ;om;vl rsd K ;rsm;pk aygif ;I pnf ;vH k ;r_ nD ! G w f r_ u dk wnfaqmufaomumv/ ppfrSefaom jynfaxmifpkazmfxkwfa;/ vGwfvyfa;ESifh tcsKyftjcm tm%mwnfwHhcdkif+rJa; wdk@twGuf wdkif;if;om;rsm; 0dkif;0ef;óud;yrf;aomumvjzpfayonf? Todk@óud;yrf;mY 'DrdkuapDa;ESifh trsdK;om;a;udk w®yifwnf; azmfxkwfif;/ [ef; S i f v l j ynf o l r sm;/ tod y nmS i f / twwf y nmS i f / tvk y f o rm;rsm;/ v,f o rm;rsm;ES i f h ausmif;om;vli,frsm; po!fh vlwef;pm;aygi;f pHk tv$m aygi;f pHukd pnf;±H;k I pnf;±H;k rdaomtm;jzifh k trsdK;om;a;ESifh 'DrdkuapDa;udk azmfxkwfwdkufyGJ0if=uayrnf? rdrtiftm;udk pkpnf;Edief wygwtm%mSipepfEihf tjcm;tm%mSipepftrsKd ;rsKd ;od@k d fk f D f S f ODD;wnfaom tajctaersm;udk wdkufcdkufif; rdrdtiftm;udk ®yuGJapr!fh twGif;yËdyuQrsm; tpGef;amufr_rsm;udk aSmifSm;=uayrnf? rdrdtiftm;udk pkpnf;mwGif vlwef;pm;udk tajccHaom pnf;±Hk;a;yHko¾mefrjzpfapbJ trsdK;om;a;udktajccHaom pnf;±Hk;a;yHko¾mefjzpfygrnf? (C) tzG@J csKyf.yfwnfcsuoabmxm;xkwjf yefjcif; (twdcsKyfi;vif;csu) f k Sf f jynfaxmifpkwdkif;if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;'DrdkuapDtzGJ@csKyfonf wdkif;if;om;vlrsdK;tm;vHk; EdkifiHa; wef;wlnfwla;ESifh udk,fydkifjyÏmef;cGifh tjy!fht0Sdaom jynfe,frsm;udk aygif;pyfvsuf ppfrSefaomjynfaxmifpkzGJ@pnf;Edkifa; r[mAsL[myfwnfcsufonfum; “'DrdkuapDwdkufyGJwGif wkdif;if;om;vlrsdK;rsm; wef;wlnfwludk,fydkifjyÏmef;cGifhSdeftwGuf w®yifwnf; qufpyf wdkufyGJ0ifa;” yif jzpfonf? u|Efkyfwdk@ wdkif;if;om;rsm; jzpf=uaom ucsif/ u,m;/ uif/ csif;/ rGef/ cdkif/ Srf; ponfwdk@onf ArmvlrsdK;rsm;uJhodk@yif wcsdefu vGwfvGwfvyfvyf udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyfvsuf xD;®yifeef;®yif ya'omZfEdkifiHrsm; xlaxmifI aexdkifcJh=uonf? e,fcsJ@wdk@vufatmufodk@ usamufoGm;aomtcg e,fcsJ@qef@usifa;/ zufqpfwdkufzsufa;/ trsdK;om;vGwfajrmufa; 18 qvdi;f vsere;f qmacgi;f ( Lian H. Sakhong ) pkaqmif;wifjyonf k f _
  30. 30. 'DruapDa;ESihf wef;wla;wduyumvtwGi; UNLD .ordkif;0ifrSwfwrf;rsm; kd k f JG f wdkufyGJrsm;wGif yg0ifwdkufcdkufcJh=ujcif;onfvnf;/ rdrdwdk@. vGwfvyfa;ESifh udk,fh=urRm udk,fzefwD;cGifhudk jrwfEdk;jcif;a=umifh jzpfonf? odk@aomf vGwfvyfa;+yD;aomtcg wdkif;if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;. ar#mfrSef;csufrsm;onf arS;rSdefoGm;cJhayonf? xdk@a=umifh wdkif;if;om;aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfr_®yysufum/ vlrsdK;a;rkef;wD;r_rsm; ay:aygufvmcJhygonf? 1961 ckESpfwGif wdkif;if;om;rsm; aoG;pnf;a;udk jyefvnfwnfaqmufef jynfaxmifpkrlwyfudk udk,fpm;ðyudk,fpm;vS,frsm; aqG;aEG;=umwGif xdkrludk ta=umif;jyvsuf tm%modrf;vdkufjcif;a=umifh 'DrdkuapDtcGifhta;rsm;ESifh ppfrSefaomjynfaxmifpktESpfom onfvnf; aysmufuG,fcJhayonf? TuJhodk@ wpfygwDtm%mSifpepfESifh wjynfaxmif tkyfpdk;r_pepfqdk;udk enf;rsdK;pHkESifh qef@usifawmfvSefcJh=uovdk awmfvSefqJvnf; jzpfayonf? tjcm;wbufwGif ausmif;om;rsm;OD;aqmifr_jzifh (8-8-88) ae@wGif [ef;Sifvl wdkif;if;om; jynfoltaygif; tHkºuGawmfvSefcJhojzifh wygwDtm%mSifpepfðywf=ucJhaomfvnf; 'DrdkuapD yGifhvef;Sifoefr_rSm tvSrf;uGmaeayao;onf? 'DrdkuapDtcGifhta; tjynfht0rSdv#if wm; r#waom a±G;aumufyGJ[lonf SdEkdifygrnfavm? wm;r#waom a±G;aumufyGJr[kwfygu jynfolESifh wdkif;jynftwGuf rnfo!fhtudsK;oufamufr_SdEkdifrnfenf;? xd@k a=umifh u|Eyw@kd onf vufiif;óuHawG@aeaom tcuftcJrsm;ESihf aemifóuHawG@r!fh kf f jyemt00udkoHk;oyfjcif;tm;jzifh trsdK;om;nD!Gwfa;udk wnfaqmuf+yD;/ 'DrdkuapD tjynfht0Sda;twGuf wdkufyGJ0ifoGm;efrSwyg; tjcm;rSday? trsdK;om;nD!Gwfa;udk wdkif;if;om;rsm;wef;wla;tajccHay:wGif wnfaqmufayrnf? xdk@a=umifh tzGJ@csKyf. r[mAsL[myfwnfcsufjzpfaom 'DrdkuapDa;wdkufyGJESifh wdkif;if;om;rsm;wef;wla; SdeftwGuf qufpyfwdkufyGJ0ifa;onf trdsK;om;nD!Gwfr_udk wnfaxmifa;ESifh 'DrdkuapDtjy!fht0Sda; wdkufyGJudk wdkufa;yif jzpfonf? odk@mwGif wdkufyGJ.enf;AsL[mudk rlvvufSdEdkifiHa;tajctae tcsdeftcgESifh tvSnfhtajymif;udktajccHI csrSwfefESifh rdrd.tiftm;udkvnf; cdkifrmatmif pnf;±Hk;oGm;ef vdktyfayonf? xdk@a=umifh tzGJ@0ifygwDtoD;oD;onf rlay:wGiftajccHaom pnf;±Hk;a;udk wnfaqmuf+yD;/ xdkrSwqifh ygwDtcsif;csif;onfvnf; tzGJ@csKyf. rlESifhyfwnfcsufudkyif wom;wnf; yfwnfvsuf/ wzGJ@wygwDuJhodk@ uspfvpfcdkifrmvma;twGuf pnf;±Hk;wnfaqmuf rnf? xd@k aemuf tjcm;aom 'DruapDygwtzG@J tpnf;rsm;ESivnf; cdi+f rJaom r[mrdwjf zpfa;udk kd D hf k aqmif±GufI 'DrdkuapDa;ESifh wdkif;if;om;rsm;wef;wlnfwla; wdkufyGJudk qufvuf qifE$J=u ayrnf? qvdi;f vsere;f qmacgi;f ( Lian H. Sakhong ) pkaqmif;wifjyonf k f _ 19
  31. 31. +idrf;csrf;pGmtwlvufwGJaexdkifa;0g'rSonf ppfrSefaomjynfaxmifpkpepfqDodkŒ (yxrwGJ) 3? tzG@J csKyf.jyef=um;a;ESihf qufo,a;vkyief;rsm; G f f (u) ausnmcsursm;xkwjf yefjcif; f tzGJ@csKyfudk pwifzGJ@pnf;jcif;rðyrD wkdkif;if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;. EdkifiHa;tzGJ@tpnf;ygwDrsm; pwifawG@qHk!SdE_dif;yGJrsm;udk (4)}udrfwdkifwdkif ðyvkyfcJhonf? 1989 ckESpf/ azazmf0gDv (11)uf ae@wGif usif;yaom yÌrt}udrfawG@qHk!SdE_dif;yGJwGif tzGJ@csKyfudk wnDw!Gwfwnf; zGJ@pnf; xlaxmifconf? tzG@J csKyfz@JG pnf;+yD;aemuf oabmxm;a=ujimcsutrSwf (1)udk xkwjf yef+yD; tzG@J csKyf hJ f wGif yg0ifjcif;rSdao;aom wdkif;if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;. EdkifiHa;tzGJ@tpnf;ygwDrsm;udk yg0ifvmef zd w f a c:urf ; vS r f ; cJ h o nf ? 1989 ck E S p f / rwf v (5)uf w G i f ausnmcsuf t rS w f ( 2) tjzpf nf±G,fcsufESifh vkyfief;pOfrsm;udk xkwfjyefcJhonf? 1989 ckESpf/ rwfv(24)ufae@wGif EdkifiHa;t zrf;qD;xm;olrsm; v$wfay;a; awmif;qdkcsufudk ausnmcsuftrSwf (3) tjzpf xkwfjyefcJhonf? 1989 ck / rwf v (27)uf w G i f (44)}ud r f a jrmuf zuf q pf q ef @ usif a ;ae@ txd r f ; trS w f ausnmpmwrf;udk xkwfjyefcJhonf? 1989 ckESpf/ ZGefv(14)ufwGif twGif;a;rSL;tzGJ@. tpDifcHpmudk xkwfjyef+yD;/ Srf;jynfe,f/ u,m;jynfe,fESifh rE Wav; pnf;±Hk;a;cD;wGif wifjy Edkifef pDpOfcJhonf? 1989 ckESpf/ Zlvdkifv(8)ufae@wGif trdsK;om;EdkifiHa;odk@OD;wnfa;twGuf EdkifiHawmf+idrf0yfydjym;a;tzGJ@ OuUX AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmifxH obmywdtzGJ@u pmwapmif ay;ydk@cJhonf? 1989 ckESpf/ Zlvdkifv (19)ufae@wGif (42)ESpfajrmuf tmZmenfae@ txdrf;trSwf ausnmcsufudk xkwfjyefcJhonf? tmZmenfae@aemufydkif; wjynfvHk;EdkifiHa;tajctaersm; wif;rm+yD; tzrf;tqD;rsm;xlajymvmcJhm tzGJ@csKyfrS e-0-w tpdk;ESifh EdkifiHa;ygwDrsm;t=um; !SdE_dif;ajzSif;a;twGuf txl;ausnmcsuf wapmifudk 1989 ckESpf/ Zlvfdkif (22)ufae@wGif xkwfjyefcJhonf? (c) owif;pmSi;vif;yGJ ESihf owif;v$mxkwjf yefjcif; f tzGJ@csKyfjzpfay:vmyHk/ tzGJ@csKyf.nfrSef;csufrsm;ESifh yfwnfcsufrsm; txl;ojzifh 'DrdkuapDa;ESifh wdkif;if;om;vlrsdK;rsm; wef;wlnfwltcGifhta;Sda;wdk@twGuf wdkif;if;om; arG;csif;om;csif; nDaemifif; EdkifiHa;ygwDrsm; arG;zGm;jcif;/ ,if;wdkŒ. nD!Gwfr_rsm;ESifh tjcm; 'DrdkuapDtiftm;pkEdkifiHa;ygwDrsm;ESifh vufwGJaqmif±Gufr_rsm;udk jynfyowif;Xmersm;rS owif;pmqmrsm;ESifh jrefrmhowif;pOfrS owif;axmufrsm;udk 1989 ckESpf/ Zlvdkifv (24)uf wGif zdwfac:Sif;vif;wifjy+yD; owif;pmqmrsm;. ar;jref;csufrsm;udk ajz=um;cJhonf? tzGJ@csKyf. v_yfSm;r_owif;rsm;udk tzGJ@0ifEdkifiHa;tzGJ@tpnf;ygwDrsm;odk@ yHkrSefay;ydk@Edkifa;twGuf “wef;wla;”trnfjzifh owif;v$mxkwfjyefa;udk qHk;jzwf+yD;/ trSwfpOf (1) owif;v$mudk 1989 ckESpf/ pufwifbm (5)ufae@u xkwfa0EdkifcJhonf? “wef;wla;”owif;v$mudk yHkrSef xkwfjyef Edkifa;twGuf tpDtpOfrsm;udk ðyvkyfvsufSdaeonf? t,f'DwmtzGJ@udk wm0efcHt,f'Dwm OD;ombef;(cdi)/ Edicifarmif(rGe) / qvdi;f vsere;f (csi;f ) / OD;at;az(cdi) wd@k jzifh zG@J pnf;oGm;onf? kf kf f k f_ kf 20 qvdi;f vsere;f qmacgi;f ( Lian H. Sakhong ) pkaqmif;wifjyonf k f _
  32. 32. 'DruapDa;ESihf wef;wla;wduyumvtwGi; UNLD .ordkif;0ifrSwfwrf;rsm; kd k f JG f (*) qdi;bkwwifyGJ tcef;tem;ESihf yl;wJvufrwx;yJG kf f G S f kd tzJ@G csKyfukd zJ@G pnf;xlaxmif+yD;aemuf ,m,D H;k cef;udk A[ef;ðrd@e,f trSwf (*§1) vrf;dS rGeftrsKd;om;'DrdkuapDtzJG@ efukefXmecsKyfcJG±Hk;Y zGifhvSpfxm;cJhonf? xdkrSwqifh cdkif 'DrdkuapD tzJG@csKyfHk;wnfm ausmufwHwm;òrd@e,f trSwf 393 (yxrxyf) Adkvfatmifausmfvrf;odk@ ajymif;a$@zGifhvSpfcJhygonf? tzJG@csKyfqdkif;bkwfwifyJGtcef;tem;ESifh tzJG@csKyf0if wdkif;if;om; EdkifiHa;tzJG@tpnf;ygwDrsm; yl;wGJvufrSwfa;xdk;yJGudk 1989 ckESpf/ {+yDv (29) ufae@ eHeuf (9;00)emDwGif ðyvkyfcJhonf? xdktcef;tem;odk@ trsKd;om;'DrdkuapDtzJG@csKyfrS OuUX olOD;wifOD;/ trsKd;om;jyefvnfwnfaqmufa;'DrdkuapDwyfaygif;pk OuUX 0dl ocifcspfarmif/ 'DrdkuapD r[mrdwfrsm;tzJG@csKyfrS 'kwd,OuUX a'gufwmarmifarmifausmf/ jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEdkifiH 'DruapDwyfaygi;f pkrS ygarmuQa[mif; OD;vSatmifw@kd wufamufre@f ce;f ajym=um;+yD;/ 'DruapDe@J kd d G kd +idrf;csrf;a;tzJG@csKyfrS OD;0rf;udka[m wufamufo0%fv$mzwf=um;onf? (C) tjcm;Ediia; tzJ@G tpnf; ygwrsm;ESihf yl;aygi;vkyaqmifcsuf kfH D f f tzJ G @ csKyf o nf jynf e ,f c k E S p f c k E S i f h w uG jynf a xmif p k t wG i f ; d S usef w d k i f ; tcsKd @ rS wd k i f ; if ; om;vl r sKd ; rsm;ud k tajccH u m 'D r d k u apD a ;ES i f h wd k i f ; if ; om;rsm;wef ; wl nf w l tcGifhta;rsm;dSa;twGuf EdkifiHa;t v_yfSm;aqmifGufef zJG@pnf;xm;aom EdkifiHa; tzJG@tpnf;jzpfonf? xdk@a=umifh zdEdSyfcsKyfcs,fr_rsm;/ vl@tcGifhta;ydwfyifr_rsm;/ 'DrdkuapD tcGifhta;rsm; kwfodrf;cHaeolrsm;udk 'DrdkuapDtiftm;pk0if tjcm; EdkifiHa;tzJG@tpnf; ygwDrsm;ESifh yl;wJGawmif;qdkr_rsm;/ qef@usifuef@uGufr_rsm;udk ðyvkyfcJhonf? ygwDpHk'DrdkuapDtaxGaxGaG;aumufyJGaumfrSifrS xkwfjyefcJhaom jynfol@v$wfawmf Oya'rl=urf;udk trsKd;om;'DrdkuapDtzJG@csKyfESifhwuG tjcm; EdkifiHa;tzJG@tpnf; ygwDrsm;ESifh yl;wJGum jynfol@v$wfawmfaG;aumufyJGOya'=urf;twGuf vdktyfo!fh t}uHðycsufrsm;udk ay;ydk@cJhonf? tzJG@csKyftaejzifhvnf; oD;jcm;t}uHðycsufwyfudk ay;ydk@cJhonf? tzJG@csKyf. t}uHðycsufwGif wdkif;if;om;vlrsKd;rsm;. tduvdktyfcsufjzpfo!fh zJG@pnf;tkyfcsKyfyHktajccH Oya'a;qJGmwGif wdkif;if;om;vlrsKd;rsm; wef;wlnfwltcGifhta; dSa;udk OD;wnfum “jynfe,fckESpfckudk tajccHI oifhawmfaom jynfol@v$wfawmf udk,fpm;vS,frsm;ESifh Arm wdkif;if;om;rsm; trsm;pkaexdkifma'orS oifhawmfnDr#aom jynfol@v$wfawmf udk,fpm;vS,f rsm; tcsdK;usjzifh jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEdkifiHawmfopf. zGJŒpnf;tkyfcsKyfyHktajccHOya'udk a;qGJydkifcGifh tm%mSdaom tzGJŒtpnf;wyfudk zGJŒpnf;rnf? xdktzGJŒrS a;qGJaom zGJŒpnf;tkyfcsKyfyHk tajccHOya'udk yifvHknDvmcHuJhodkŒaom trsdK;om;nDvmcH}uD;jzifh twnfjyKrnf” [lI t}uHjyKcJhonf? qvdi;f vsere;f qmacgi;f ( Lian H. Sakhong ) pkaqmif;wifjyonf k f _ 21
  33. 33. +idrf;csrf;pGmtwlvufwGJaexdkifa;0g'rSonf ppfrSefaomjynfaxmifpkpepfqDodkŒ (yxrwGJ) 'D§+idr; tzGŒJ ESihf !‡EKdS if;jcif; f d Ediiawmf0ef}uD;csKyfa[mif;OD;Ek em,utjzpfaqmifuaom 'DruapDEihf +idr;f csr;f a; kfH G f kd S tzJ@G csKyfrS zdw=f um;csut tzJ@G csKyf. efuewif daeaom tzJ@G 0if Ediia;tzJ@G tpnf;ygwrsm;rS f kf G S kfH D udk,fpm;vS,frsm;onf 1989 ckESpf/ {+yDv(10)ufae@wGif OD;Ekaetdrfodk@ oGm;amuf+yD; nd‡Ed_if; aqG;aEG;=uonf? 'kwd,t}udrftjzpf 'DrdkuapDESifh +idrf;csrf;a;tzJG@csKyfHk;odk@ oGm;amuf+yD; 1989 ckESpf/ pufwifbmv(1)ufae@wGif nd‡E_dif;aqG;aEG;cJhonf? xdkaqG;aEG;yJGrsm;wGif OD;Eku cJGxGufcGifh rygaom z,f',frludk rdrdaxmufcHa=umif;/ vlrsKd;pkrsm;u Armudk jynfe,fwck owfrSwfrnf qdkuvnf; oufrSwfEdkifa=umif; xkwfaz:ajymqdkcJhonf? tzJG@csKyfrSvnf; rdrdwdk@onf 'DrdkuapDa; ESihf twl wdi;f if;om;vlrsK;d rsm; wef;wlnfwl tcGita; da;udk w+ydKifwnf;vkyaqmifom;ef k hf S f G qHk;jzwfoHdXmefcsoGm;a=umif; wifjycJhonf? trsKd ;om;'DruapDtzG@J csKyftaxGaxGtwGi;a;rSL; a':atmifqef;pk=unfEi!Ei;jcif; kd f S hf dS d_ f tzGJ@csKyfobmywdtzGJ@0ifrsm;/ twGif;a;rSL;tzGJ@0ifrsm;/ vkyfief;aumfrwD0ifrsm; ESifh trsdK;om;'DrdkuapDtzGJ@csKyftaxGaxGtwGif;a;rSL; a':atmifqef;pk=unfwdk@ 'DrdkuapDa;ESifh wdkif;if;om;vlrsdK;rsm; wef;wlnfwltcGifhta;Sda;wdk@tay: tajccHum aqG;aEG;yGJwyfudk tzGJ@csKyf±Hk;wnfm ausmufwHwm;®r@e,f/ trSwf (393) (yxrxyf) Adkvfatmifausmfvrf;wGif 1989 ckESpf/ Zlvdkifv (15) ufae@/ ae@vnf (2) emDwGif usif;ycJhonf? xdkaqG;aEG;yGJwGif tzGJ@csKyfrS wdkif;if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;onf ,ck'DrdkuapDwdkufyGJESifhtwl wdkif;if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;. wef;wlnfwltcGifhta;ESifh udk,fydkiftcGifhta;onf w®yifwnf; vkyfr!fhvkyfief;jzpfonf[k wifjycJhonf? a':atmifqef;pk=unfu wifjymwGif rdrdwdk@ESifh wdkif;if;om;vlrdsK;rsm;. vdktyfo!fhqENrsm;rSm tjiif;yGm;pm wpHkwmr#rSd/ vkyfief;t taumiftxnfazmfefomvdkonf? wdkif;if;om;vlrdsK;rsm;tzGJ@csKyfESifh trsdK;om;'DrdkuapD tzGJ@csKyfwkd@ yl;aygif;+yD;/ tjcm;pdwf0ifpm;olrsm;tygt0ifjzifh vkyfief;aumfrwDwyfzGJ@pnf;um tem*gwfjynfaxmifpktwGuf ,ckuyif pwiftaumiftxnfazmfef vdktyfonf? tu,fI wm;r#wwJha±G;aumufyGJjzpfvmcJhv#if tjcm;trwfudpPrsm;udk em;vnfr_,lEdkifef aemifwGif zGJ@pnf;r!fh tpdk;tzGJ@ tiftm;Sdzdk@ tvGefta;}uD;onf? odk@rSom jyemtm;vHk;udk ajzSif; Edkifrnf pojzifhwifjyonf? odk@aomf a':atmifqef;pk=unf tus,fcsKyfcHae+yD;aemuf rnfo!fh aqG;aEG;csufudkr# taumiftxnfrazmfEdkifaom tajctaersdK;jzpfaeonf? 'DruapDr[mrdwrsm;tzG@J csKyfEi!Ei;jcif; kd f S hf dS d_ f tzG@J csKyfEihf 'DruapDr[mrdwrsm;tzG@J csKyfw@kd . 'DruapDa;ESihf wdi;f if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; S kd f kd k wef;wla; udpPyfrsm;udk 1989 ckESpf/ =o*kwfv (31)ufwGif tzGJ@csKyf±Hk;cef;Y usif;ycJhonf? xdkodk@aqG;aEG;mwGif zGJ@pnf;yHktajccHOya'opfa;qGJmwGif xm;oifhaom rl0g'oabmxm; 22 qvdi;f vsere;f qmacgi;f ( Lian H. Sakhong ) pkaqmif;wifjyonf k f _
  34. 34. 'DruapDa;ESihf wef;wla;wduyumvtwGi; UNLD .ordkif;0ifrSwfwrf;rsm; kd k f JG f tajccHrsm;ESifh wlnDaomvkyfief;rsm;udk yl;wGJvkyfaqmifa;ESifhywfouf+yD; if;EDS;pGm tjrifcsif; zvS,fcJh=uonf? wdkif;if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;.xm0aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa;udk aS@±SkI udk,fydkif qHk;jzwfcGifhudk tjy!fht0usifhoHk;efESifh wef;wla;udkaS@±_I jynfe,fopfwdk@jzifh jynfaxmifpk jrefrmEdkifiHawmfopfudk xlaxmifef oabmwl=uonf ponfjzifhyl;wGJazmfjyonf? jynfaxmifptrsKd ;om;rsm;'DruapDygwEihf !SEi;jcif; k kd D S d d_ f AdkvfrSL;csKyfa[mif; OD;atmif}uD; em,utjzpf OD;aqmifaom jynfaxmifpk trsdK;om; rsm;'DrdkuapDygwDESifh tzGJ@csKyfwdk@.!SdE_dif;aqG;aEG;yGJwyfudk 1989 ckESpf/ pufwifbmv (23) ufae@wGif usif;ycJhonf? EdkifiHa;vGwfvyfcGifh/ pD;yGm;a;vGwfvyfcGifh/ vlrsdK;a;vGwfvyfcGifhrsm;udk rdrw@kd vdvm;a=umif; ODatmif}uD;rS tus,w0ifh wifjyonf? tzG@J csKyfu,pm;vS,rsm; uvnf; d k f kd f f rdrdwdk@onf 'DrdkuapDa;ESifhtwl wdkif;if;om;vlrdsK;rsm;. udk,fydkifjyÏmef;cGifhtygt0if wef;wl nfwla;udk w+ydKifeufwnf; az:aqmif=uef }udK;yrf;ae=ua=umif; xdkodk@wifjyonf? 4? ±H;vkyief;tzG@J k f (1) 0ifpmxGufpmrsm;vufcHjcif;/ zdkifwGJodrf;qnf;jcif;/ rSwfwrf;pmtkyfwGif pmif;oGif; rSwfwrf;xm;jcif;? (2) ay;pm jyefpmrsm;ydk@jcif;? tzGJ@csKyf0ifygwDrsm;. 0ifpmrsm;udk vkdtyfovdk jyefpmay;ydk@jcif;? tjcm;ygwDtzGJ@tpnf;rsm;rS 0ifpmrsm;udk vdktyfovdk jyefpmay;ydk@jcif;? tzGJ@csKyfrS tzGJ@0ifygwDrsm;ESifh wjcm;ygwDtzGJ@tpnf;rsm;odk@ ydk@pmrsm;ay;ydk@jcif;? (3) tzGJ@csKyf. (obmywdtzGJ@ESifh twGif;a;rSL;tzGJ@ tpnf;ta0;) rl0g'a;m aumfrwD/ jyef=um;a;ESihf qufo,a; aumfrwDw@kd rS !$e=f um;csursm;/ qH;k jzwfcsursm;/ oabmxm; G f f f ausnmcsufrsm; ±dkufESdyfjzef@a0jcif;? (4) rSwfwrf;rSwfmrsm;odrf;qnf;xm;jcif;? ponfhvkyfief;rsm;udkaqmif±GufvsufSdygonf? qvdi;f vsere;f qmacgi;f ( Lian H. Sakhong ) pkaqmif;wifjyonf k f _ 23
  35. 35. +idrf;csrf;pGmtwlvufwGJaexdkifa;0g'rSonf ppfrSefaomjynfaxmifpkpepfqDodkŒ (yxrwGJ) taumiftxnfazmfvsuaom aS@vkyief;pOfrsm; f dS f (1) Srf;jynfe,f/ u,m;jynfe,f/ rE Wav;pnf;±Hk;a;cD;pOfrS qHk;jzwfcsufrsm; taumiftxnf az:ef (u) jynfaxmifpkwdkif;if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;'DrdkuapDtzGJ@csKyfrS vrf;!$efrl0g'tjzpf udkifpGJr!fh “jynfaxmifpkrlwpfck” udk a;qGJef tm;vHk;oabmwlqHk;jzwfygonf? (c) xdkvrf;!$efrl0g'udk a;qGJef obmywdtzGJ@ESifh twGif;a;rSL;tzGJ@u !SdE_dif;+yD; oifhawmfaomyk*~dvfrsm;/ todynmSif twwfynmSifrsm;udk zdwfac:+yD; a;qGJaprnf? (*) jynfe,fa;mESifhywfoufaom rl0g'rsm;udka;qGJmY oufqdkifmjynfe,ftoD;oD;rS tzGJ@csKyf0ifEdkifiHa;ygwD tzGJ@tpnf;udk,fpm;vS,frsm; yg0ifa;qGJaprnf? (2) tzGJ@csKyfydkifpmapmifwpfckxkwfef? ‚if;twGuf t,f'DwmtzGJ@/ tkyfcsKyfa;tzGJ@rsm; zGJ@pnf;wm0efay;+yD; aqmif±Gufef }udK;yrf;aeygonf? tzGJ@csKyf0ifygwDrsm;onf rdrdwdk@qENSdm'DrdkuapDa;ESifh wkdif;if;om; ta;rsm;qdkifm aqmif;yg;/ uAsmponfrsm;ESifh t}uHOm%frsm;ay;=uygef wdkufwGef; tyfygonf? 24 qvdi;f vsere;f qmacgi;f ( Lian H. Sakhong ) pkaqmif;wifjyonf k f _
  36. 36. 'DruapDa;ESihf wef;wla;wduyumvtwGi; UNLD .ordkif;0ifrSwfwrf;rsm; kd k f JG f tcef; (2) jynfaxmifpkwdkif;if;om;vlrsKd;rsm;'DrdkuapDtzJG‹csKyf (UNLD) . v+yfSm;r+rsm; (tusOf;) jynfaxmifpkwdkif;if;om;vlrsKd;rsm;'DrdkuapDtzJG@csKyf. pwifzJG@pnf;onfhtcsdefrS yxrt}udrf obmywd pHknDtpnf;ta0; usif;yo!fh (21 - 11 -89) umvtxd v_yfSm;r_rsm; (tusOf;csKyf)udk xdknDvmcHwGif twGif;a;rSL;tzJG@. Hk;vkyfief; wm0efcHrsm; jzpf=uaom a'gufwm atmifwifOD; (uif)ESifh Edkifatmifjrifh (rGef) wdk@. tpDifcHpmtwdkif; wifjytyfygonf? jynfaxmifpwiif;om;vlrsK;rsm; 'DruapDtzJŒG csKyf k kd f d kd efukef_rdKŒ vkyfief;tzJG@tpDifcHpm jynfaxmifpkwdkif;if;om; vlrsKd;rsm; 'DrdkuapDtzJG@csKyfudk ,cktcg tzJG@0ifwdkif;if;om; vlrsKd;pkygwDaygif; (20)jzifh yll;aygif;zJG@pnf;xm;ygonf? ,if;tzJG@0ifygwDrsm;rSm 1? cdkif'DrdkuapDtzJG@csKyf/ 2? rGeftrsKd;om; 'DrdkuapDtzJG@/ 3? watmif; (yavmif) trsKd;om;'DrdkuapDtzJG@/ 4? uifjynfe,ftrsKd;om;rsm;tzJG@csKyf/ 5? csif;trsKd;om; 'DrdkuapDtzJG@csKyf/ 6? u,m;jynfe,f vlrsKd;aygif;pHk 'DrdkuapDtzJG@csKyf/ 7? Srf;jynfwdkif;if;om; vlrsKd;pkrsm; 'DrdkuapDtzJG@csKyf/ 8? cdkiftrsKd;om; vl@tcGifhta;ESifh +idrf;csrf;a;tzJG@/ 9? ZdkrD;trsKd;om;uGef*uf/ 10? awmifolv,form; u'l;ueef;ESifh Srf;trsKd;om; 'DrdkuapDtzJG@csKyf/ 11? jynfaxmifpk EktrsKd;om;'DrdkuapDtzJG@csKyf/ qvdi;f vsere;f qmacgi;f ( Lian H. Sakhong ) pkaqmif;wifjyonf k f _ 1
  37. 37. +idrf;csrf;pGmtwlvufwGJaexdkifa;0g'rSonf ppfrSefaomjynfaxmifpkpepfqDodkŒ (yxrwGJ) 12? jynfaxmifpk ytdk@0f trsKd;om;'DrdkuapDtzJG@csKyf/ 13? awmifydkif;csif;'DrdkuapDygwD/ 14? ucsiftrsKd;om;vHk;qdkifm uGef*uf/ 15? +rdK (ac: ) crDtrsKd;om; nD!Gwfa;tzJG@/ 16? awmifwef;om;rsm; 'DrdkuufwpfygwD/ 17? u,ef;trsKd;om; pnf;vHk;nD!Gwfa; 'DrdkuapDtzJG@/ 18? ucsiftrsKd;om; 'DrdkuufwpfygwD/ 19? tif;trsKd;om;tzJG@csKyf/ 20? cdkiftrsKd;om; vlr_b0jr‡ifhwifa;tzJG@ (rrm}uD; ) wdk@jzpf=uygonf? tzJG@csKyfudk obmywdtzJG@/ twGif;a;rSL;tzJG@/ vkyfief;aumfrwDrsm;jzifh zJG@pnf;xm;+yD; tzJG@csKyf. vkyfief;rsm; ('DrdkuapDa;ESifh wdkif;if;om;vlrsKd;rsm; wef;wlnfwla;udk tajccHI) udk aqmifGufv#ufdSygonf? obmywdtzJ@G obmywdtzJG@udk tzJG@csKyf0ifygwDrsm;rS ay;ydk@aom obmywdtzJG@0if (1)OD;pDESifh zJG@pnf;xm;ygonf? ,ckvufdS tzJG@csKyf0ifygwD (20) dSvm+yDjzpfI obmywdtzJG@0if (20)OD;jzifh zJG@pnf;xm;ygonf? tzJ@G csKyf. obmywdtzJ@G 0ifrsm; 1? OD;at;az ('z) 2? EdkifaiGodef; ( rGef'DrdkuapDtzJG@) 3? OD;tkef;cdkif (watmif; - yavmif) 4? OD;oef;dSef (uifjynfe,ftrsKd;om;tzJG@csKyf) 5? OD;pDauwkdufuJGvf (csif;tzJG@csKyf) 6? OD;ppfaiGaomif; (u,m;tzJG@csKyf) 7? OD;vSrif; (w'z) 8? OD;omvl ( cdkiftrsKd;om;vl@tcGifhta;) 9? OD;wmefxefvsefaygif (ZdkrD;trsKd;om;uGef*uf) 10? OD;omarmif (awmifolv,form; u'l;ueef;) 11? OD;jrifhOD; (jynfaxmifpkEk) 12? cGefxGef;vGif (jynfaxmifpkytdk@yf) 13? qvdkif;atmifxGef; (awmifydkif;csif;) 14? 'l;0g; aZmfarmf (ucsiftrsKd;om;uGef*uf) 2 qvdi;f vsere;f qmacgi;f ( Lian H. Sakhong ) pkaqmif;wifjyonf k f _
  38. 38. 'DruapDa;ESihf wef;wla;wduyumvtwGi; UNLD .ordkif;0ifrSwfwrf;rsm; kd k f JG f 15? OD;pHomatmif (+rdK (c) crD) 16? a'gufwmqef;crRm (awmifwef;om;rsm;) 17? OD;tmfyDaomif; (u,ef;) 18? OD;'defwef (ucsifjynfe,f trsKd;om;'Drdkuufwpf) 19? OD;a$vS ( cdkiftrsKd;om; vlr_b0jr‡ifhwifa;tzJG@) 20? tif;trsKd;om; tzJG@csKyfrS pmif;rao;? rSwfcsuf? ? yxrt}udrf obmywd pHknDtpnf;ta0;wGif tzJG@csKyfobmywd tzJG@0ifrsm;xJrS t+rJwrf;obmywdtzJG@udk jynfe,frsm;udk tajccHI atmufygtwdkif; zJG@pnf;cJhygonf? t+rJwrf;obmywdtzJ@G ucsifjynfe,f u,m;jynfe,f uifjynfe,f csif;jynfe,f rGefjynfe,f cdkifjynfe,f Srf;jynfe,f æææ æææ æææ æææ æææ æææ æææ qrm;ausmfzm;aemf ppfaiGaomif; apmoef;dSef OD;pDauwdkufuGJvf EdkifaiGodrf; OD;at;az OD;jrifhOD; (aemufydkif; OD;a$tHk;) wdk@jzpfygonf? twGi;a;rSL;tzJ@G f twGif;a;rSL;tzJG@udk jynfe,f (7)cktm; ukd,fpm;ðytaejzifh zJG@pnf;xm;ygonf? ucsifjynfe,f u,m;jynfe,f uifjynfe,f csif;jynfe,f rGefjynfe,f cdkifjynfe,f Srf;jynfe,f æææ æææ æææ æææ æææ æææ æææ OD;qdkif;vd OD;cifarmifcsKd a'gufwmatmifwifOD; qvdkif;vsefr_ef; Edkifatmifjrifh OD;at;omatmif cGefwifa$ qvdi;f vsere;f qmacgi;f ( Lian H. Sakhong ) pkaqmif;wifjyonf k f _ 3
  39. 39. +idrf;csrf;pGmtwlvufwGJaexdkifa;0g'rSonf ppfrSefaomjynfaxmifpkpepfqDodkŒ (yxrwGJ) vkyief;aumfrwD f vkyfief;aumfrwD (5) ckjzifh tzJG@csKyf. vkyfief;rsm;udk taumiftxnfaz: aqmifGuf v#ufdSygonf? ‚if;wdk@rSm æ (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) rl0g'a;maumfrwD pnf;Hk;a;aumfrwD jyef=um;qufoG,fa;aumfrwD b¾ma;aumfrwD Hk;vkyfief;tzJG@ wdk@jzpfygonf? vkyfief;aumfrwD0ifrsm;rSm vkyfief;aumfrwDtvdkuf atmufygtwdkif;jzpfygonf? rl0g'a;m aumfrwD0ifrsm; (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) OD;at;az OD;at;omatmif Edkifcifarmif Edkifwifaz EdkifaiG OD;vmvfbd qvdkif;vsefr_ef; cGefwifa$ 'z 'z rGeftrsKd;om;'DrdkuapDtzJG@ rGeftrsKd;om;'DrdkuapDtzJG@ rGeftrsKd;om;'DrdkuapDtzJG@ csif;trsKd;om;'DrdkuapDtzJG@csKyf csif;trsKd;om;'DrdkuapDtzJG@csKyf jynfaxmifpk ytdk@0ftrsKd;om;tzJG@csKyf pnf;±Hk;a;aumfrwD0ifrsm; (1) (2) (3) (4) EdkifaiGodef; cGefwifa$ OD;armifcdkif OD;bausmf rGeftrsKd;om;'DrdkuapDtzJG@ jynfaxmifpkytdk@0ftrsKd;om;tzJG@csKyf watmif; (yavmif) trsKd;om;'DrdkuapDtzJG@csKyf 'z jyef=um;a;ESihf qufo,a;aumfrwD0ifrsm; G f (1) OD;ombef; (2) OD;at;omatmif (3) ODarmifqm 4 'z 'z watmif (yavmif) trsKd;om;'DrdkuapDtzJG@csKyf qvdi;f vsere;f qmacgi;f ( Lian H. Sakhong ) pkaqmif;wifjyonf k f _
  40. 40. 'DruapDa;ESihf wef;wla;wduyumvtwGi; UNLD .ordkif;0ifrSwfwrf;rsm; kd k f JG f (4) rif;udkom (5) qvdkif; idkifqmh'f rGeftrsKd;om;'DrdkuapDtzGJŒ csif;trsKd;om;'DrdkuapDtzJG@csKyf b¾ma;aumfrwD0ifrsm; (1) OD;pDauwdkufuGJvf (2) Edkifatmifjrifh (3) OD;ausmfyf csif;trsKd;om;'DrdkuapDtzJG@csKyf rGeftrsKd;om; 'DrdkuapDtzJG@ csif;tzJG@csKyf H;vkyief;tzJ@G k f (1) (2) (3) (4) OD;at;az EdkifaiG a'gufwmatmifwifOD; rdkifeDeDatmif cdkif'DrdkuapDtzJG@csKyf rGeftrsKd;om;'DrdkuapDtzJG@ uifjynfe,ftrsKd;om;tzJG@csKyf csif;trsKd;om;'DrdkuapDtzJG@csKyf tzJG@csKyftaejzihf tzJG@csKyf.vkyfief;rsm;udk obmywdtzJG@0ifrsm;/ twGif;a;rSL; tzJG@0ifrsm;/ vkyfief;aumfrwD0ifrsm;ESihf wdkifyifnd‡Ed_if;aqG;aEG;aqmifGufv#ufdSmwGif wywfwcg aom=umae@wdkif; yHkrSeftpnf;ta0;rsm; ðyvkyfjcif;/ vdktyfovdk ta;ay:tpnf;ta0;rsm;/ txl;tpnf;ta0;rsm;ðyvkyfjcif;/ aqG;aEG;yJGrsm;ðyvkyfjcif;/ tjcm; EdkifiHa;ygwD tzJG@tpnf;rsm;ESifh tzJ@G csKyf;kH cef;Y awG@qaqG;aEG;jcif;/ xdygwtzJ@G tpnf;rsm;xH ud,pm;vS,rsm; apv$waqG;aEG;jcif; kH k D k f f f rsm;udk wm0efus tvSnfhus obmywdtzJG@0ifrsm;/ twGif;a;rSL;tzJG@0ifrsm;/ vkyfief; aumfrwD0ifrsm;u aqmifGufv#ufdSygonf? xdkodk@aqG;aEG;nd‡Ed_if;mwGif æ • • • tzJG@. ta;tmudpPrsm; tzJG@csKyf0if tzJG@tpnf; ygwDwckcsif; ta;tmudpPrsm; tjcm;EdkifiHta;tmudpPyfrsm;udk pGrf;tm;dSor# ausyGefpGm nd‡E_dif;aqmifGuf v#ufdSa=umif; wifjytyfygonf? qvdi;f vsere;f qmacgi;f ( Lian H. Sakhong ) pkaqmif;wifjyonf k f _ 5
  41. 41. +idrf;csrf;pGmtwlvufwGJaexdkifa;0g'rSonf ppfrSefaomjynfaxmifpkpepfqDodkŒ (yxrwGJ) vkyief;aumfrwDtvkutpDifcpm f d f H 1? rl0g'a;maumfrwD rl0g'a;maumfrwDudk obmywdtzJG@0ifrsm;rS yk*~dKvfrsm;/ twGif;a;rSL;tzJG@0ifrsm;rS yk*~dKvfrsm;/ vkyfief;aumfrwD0ifrsm;rS yk*~dKvfrsm;ESifh zJG@pnf;xm;+yD;/ tzJG@csKyf. rl0g'ydkif;qdkifm udpPyfrsm;udk nd‡Ed_if;aqmifGufv#ufdSygonf? rl0g'a;maumfrwDtaejzihf tzJG@csKyftwGuf ta;}uD;aom rl0g'a;m vkyfief;rsm;jzpfonfh æ (u) (c) (*) (C) jynfaxmifpkrla;qJGjcif;/ tzJG@csKyf. zJG@pnf;yHkpnf;rsOf; jyifqifa;qJGjcif;/ rsufarSmufumv pnf;±Hk;a;rl0g' xkwfjyefjcif;/ tzJG@csKyf. yfwnfcsufoabmxm; xkwfjyefjcif;/ ponfwdk@tjyif tzJG@csKyf. tvSnfhusobmywdtzJG@/ twGif;a;rSL;tzJG@wdk@rS tcg tm;avsmfpGm xkwfjyefaom oabmxm;ausnmcsufrsm;/ t}uHðycsufrsm;ESifh wjcm;ygwD tzJG@pnf;rsm;rS ay;ydk@aom pmwrf;rsm;tay: tzJG@csKyf.rl0g'ESifh udkufnD rnD pDppf+yD; xkwfjyefay; ygonf? (u) jynfaxmifpra;qJjG cif; k l tzJ@G csKyf. rl0g'a;m aumfrwDtaejzifh aemif tem*gwjf ynfaxmifpk jrefrmEdiiawmf kfH udk ppfrSefaom jynfaxmifpkwck wnfaqmufEdkifeftwGuf jynfaxmifpkrlwck a;qJGcJhygonf? Todk@a;qJGmwGif atmufygtajccHrl (15)csufudk tajccHxm;I a;qJGcJhygonf? tajccHrl 15 csuf æ jynfaxmifpwi;if;om;vlrsK;rsm; 'DruapDtzJ@G csKyf k kd f d kd tem*gwjf ynfaxmifp. tajccHrrsm; k l (1) tcsKyftjcmtm%monf jynfaxmifpkorRwjrefrmEdkifiHawmfwGifom wnfrnf? (2) jynfaxmifpktcsKyftjcmtm%monf jynfaxmifpkwdkif;if;om;rsm; jzpf a om ucsif / u,m;/ uif / csif ; / rG e f / Arm/ S r f ; / cd k i f tpd S o nf h wdkif;if;om;jynfolrsm;rS qif;oufrnf? 6 qvdi;f vsere;f qmacgi;f ( Lian H. Sakhong ) pkaqmif;wifjyonf k f _
  42. 42. 'DruapDa;ESihf wef;wla;wduyumvtwGi; UNLD .ordkif;0ifrSwfwrf;rsm; kd k f JG f (3) tcsKyftjcmtm%mudk vufeufjzifh t=urf;zuf,ljcif;rðy/ wygwD tm%mSifpepfESifh rnfo!fhtm%mSifpepfrsKd;xHwGifrS tcsKyftjcmtm%m rwnfap/ (4) jynfaxmifpk. tcsKyftjcmtm%monf }uD;/ i,f/ enf;/ rsm; r[l wdkif;if;om;vlrsKd;rsm;tm;vHk;. tusKd;pD;yGm;udk wm;r#wpGm pDrHcef@cJGaom ud,mwefqmyvmom jzpfrnf? (5) vl@b0wefbdk;dSa;ESifh vl@oduQmjrifhrm;a;twGuf wdkif;if;om;vlrsKd;rsm; tm;vHk;twGif;wGif wm;r#wjcif;/ vGwfvyfjcif;/ nDr#jcif;wnf;[laom avmuygvwm;rsm; xGef;um;rnf? (6) jynfaxmifpkwdkif;if;om; vlrsKd;rsm;tm;vHk;onf EdkifiHa;wef;wlnDr#r_/ pD;yGm;a;tcGitvrf;nDr#r/_ vlra;wef;wlnr#r/_ vl@tcGita;wef;wlnr#rEihf hf _ D hf D _S 'DrdkuapDa;wef;wlnDr#r_ dSrnf? (7) wef;wlnDr#r_ tcGifhta;rsm;onf olawmif;pm;. cGufxJodk@ ypfcscHo!fh tojyma=u;jym;uJo@kd usamufvmr!fh pGe@f }uJrrsK;d rjzpfap/ wdi;f if;om;rsm; h _ k tcsi;f csi;f tay;t,l =unfjzLr#wpGm aqG;aEG;ndEi;f I cHpm;tyfaom tmom ‡ _d jzpfrnf? (8) jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEdkifiHonf wdkif;if;om;vlrsKd;rsm;tm;vHk;. e,fajr a'oudk aygif;pyfzJG@pnf;xm;aom e,fedrdwftydkif;tjcm;dSo!fh EdkifiHtjzpf todtrSwfðyrnf? (9) EdkifiHwuma;me,fy,fwGif jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEdkifiHtjzpf wdkif;if;om; vlrsKd;rsm;tm;vHk;udk ukd,fpm;ðyrnf? (10) jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEdkifiHudk EdkifiHa;t wef;wlnDr#aom wdkif;if;om; vlrsKd;rsm;. jynfaxmifpkjynfe,frsm;jzifh zJG@pnf;xm;onf[k cH,lonf? (11) xdo@kd pkpnf;aygi;f pyf zJ@G pnf;xm;aom jynfaxmifpukd jynfaxmifptpd;k u k k k pDrHcef@cJGrnf? (12) jynfaxmifptpd;k ESihf tpd;k tm%mcJa0a;udk tay;t,l =unfjzLr#wpGm k G ESifh ,xmblwusus nd‡Ed_if;oufrSwfrnf? (13) jynf a xmif p k t pd k ; wG i f a omf v nf ; aumif ; / jynf e ,f t pd k ; wG i f a omf vnf ; aumif ; / tjcm; tm%myd k i f t zJ G @ tpnf ; rsm;wG i f a omf v nf ; aumif ; / wdkif;if;om;vlrsKd;rsm;tm;vHk; oifhwifhr#waom udk,fpm;vS,frsm; yg0ifcGifh tajctae jynfhpHkpGm zefwD;ay;rnf? TudpPtwGuf jynfaxmifpkzJG@pnf; tkyfcsKyfyHktajccHOya'wGifaomfvnf;aumif;/ jynfe,frsm;. zJG@pnf;tkyfcsKyfyHk tajccHOya'wGifaomfvnf;aumif;/ jyXmef;ay;rnf? (14) jynfaxmifpktpdk;taejzifhaomfvnf;aumif;/ jynfe,ftpdk;taejzifh aomfvnf;aumif;/ tkyfcsKyfmwGif Oya'utkyfcsKyfaompepf (Rule of Law) jzpfapI vly*Kd~ vf.qENoabmt tkycsKyfaompepf (Rule of Men) rjzpfap? k f qvdi;f vsere;f qmacgi;f ( Lian H. Sakhong ) pkaqmif;wifjyonf k f _ 7
  43. 43. +idrf;csrf;pGmtwlvufwGJaexdkifa;0g'rSonf ppfrSefaomjynfaxmifpkpepfqDodkŒ (yxrwGJ) (15) jynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a;ESifh urBmh+idrf;csrf;a;udk wnfaqmufmwGif wm; r#wI +idrf;csrf;aomenf;jzifhom wnfaqmufEdkifrnf[kcH,lonf? vufdS urBmhjzpfay:wdk;wufr_tajctaersm;tvnf;aumif;/ tjcm;aom enf;vrf; rsm;jzifh aqmifGufr_rSm atmifjrifvdrfhrnf[k r,Hk=unfyg? T enf;vrf;om toifhavsmfqHk;[k ,Hk=unfonf? rl0g'a;m aumfrwDtaejzifh tpnf;ta0;rsm; (5)}udrfwdkifac:,lusif;y+yD; aqmifGuf cJh=uygonf? xdkodk@ usif;yaqG;aEG;mwGif tem*gwfzJG@pnf;tkyfcsKyfyHktajccHOya'twGuf æ (1) ucsiftrsKd;om;'DrdkuapDygwD XmecsKyfrSay;ydk@aom zJG@pnf;yHka;qJGmwGif tajccHr!fh rl0g'rsm;udk‚if;? (2) rGeftrsKd;om;'DrdkuapDtzJG@ (3) 'DrdkuapDr[mrdwfrsm;tzJG@csKyf (4) Srf;jynfwdkif;if;om;vlrsKd;pkrsm;'DrdkuapDtzJG@csKyf wdkŒrS wifjyaom wwd,jrefrmEdkifiHawmfodk@ pmwrf;rsm;udk rl0g'a;mtzJG@. tjrifESifh aygif;pyf+yD;a;qJGxm;ygonf? xdkodk@a;qJGmwGif udk;um;xm;aom pmtkyfrsm;rSm æ (1) zqyv tzJG@csKyf. y%mrjyifqifr_ nDvmcHrSwfwrf;? (2) 1947 ckESpf zJG@pnf;tkyfcsKyfyHk tajccHOya' (3) 1974 ckESpf zJG@pnf;tkyfcsKyfyHk tajccHOya' (4) OD;xGef;jrifh. wef;wlaomSrf;jynf (5) tarduefEdkifiH. zJG@pnf;yHktajccHOya' paom pmtkyfpmwrf;rsm;udk rSDjirf;+yD; a;om;ðypkwifjyxm;ygonf? a;qJG+yD;aomrl=urf;udk yxrtqifhtaejzifh tzJG@csKyf0ifygwDtzJG@tpnf;rsm;udk ay;yd@k t}uHOm%fawmif;cHef/ 'kw, æ tzJ@G csKyf0ifr[kwaom tjcm;wdi;f if;om;vlrsK;d pkygwrsm; d f k D xHrS t}uHOm%f,lef/ wwd, æ tjcm; EdkifiHa;ygwDtzJG@tpnf;/ tzJG@csKyf/ wyfaygif;pkrsm;ESifh nd‡Ed_if;ef qHk;jzwfcsuf csrSwfxm;ygonf? +yD;aemuf Edk0ifbmvwGif usif;yr!fh obmywd pHknD tpnf;ta0;wGif wifjy+yD; twnfjyKcsuf ,lygrnf? xdk@aemuf twnfjyK+yD;aom rl=urf;udk azaz:0gDvavmufwGif usif;yr!fh vlrsKd;pknDvmcHESifh EdkifiHvHk;qdkifm trsKd;om;nDvmcHwdk@wGif wifjyef pDpOfxm;ygonf? 8 qvdi;f vsere;f qmacgi;f ( Lian H. Sakhong ) pkaqmif;wifjyonf k f _
  44. 44. 'DruapDa;ESihf wef;wla;wduyumvtwGi; UNLD .ordkif;0ifrSwfwrf;rsm; kd k f JG f (c) tzJ@G csKyf. zJ@G pnf;yHpnf;rsO; jyifqifa;qJjG cif; k f rSwfcsuf? ? tao;pdwfSif;vif;csufudk tpnf;ta0;tpDtpOfwGif xnfhoGif; xm;ygonf? (*) rsuarSmufumv pnf;±H;a;rl0g'xkwjf yefjcif; (twdcsKyfi;vif;csu) f k k Sf f rsuf a rS m uf u mvtajctaeonf “trsd K ;om;'D r d k u apD a wmf v S e f a ;umv” jzpfayonf? Tumvonf wdkif;if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;twGuf 'kwd,yifvHkumv jzpfonf? yXr yifvumvonf AdvcsKyfatmifqef;OD;pD;I wdi;f if;om;pnf;vH;k nD!wa;udk wnfaqmufaom kH k f k G f umv/ 'k w d , yifv Hk u mvonf wd k if ;if ;om;vl rsd K ;rsm;pk aygif ;I pnf ;vH k ;r_ nD ! G w f r_ u dk wnfaqmufaomumv/ ppfrSefaom jynfaxmifpkazmfxkwfa;/ vGwfvyfa;ESifh tcsKyftjcm tm%mwnfwHhcdkif+rJa; wdk@twGuf wdkif;if;om;rsm; 0dkif;0ef;óud;yrf;aomumvjzpfayonf? Todk@óud;yrf;mY 'DrdkuapDa;ESifh trsdK;om;a;udk w®yifwnf; azmfxkwfif;/ [ef; S i f v l j ynf o l r sm;/ tod y nmS i f / twwf y nmS i f / tvk y f o rm;rsm;/ v,f o rm;rsm;ES i f h ausmif;om;vli,frsm; po!fh vlwef;pm;aygi;f pHk tv$m aygi;f pHukd pnf;±H;k I pnf;±H;k rdaomtm;jzifh k trsdK;om;a;ESifh 'DrdkuapDa;udk azmfxkwfwdkufyGJ0if=uayrnf? rdrtiftm;udk pkpnf;Edief wygwtm%mSipepfEihf tjcm;tm%mSipepftrsKd ;rsKd ;od@k d fk f D f S f ODD;wnfaom tajctaersm;udk wdkufcdkufif; rdrdtiftm;udk ®yuGJapr!fh twGif;yËdyuQrsm; tpGef;amufr_rsm;udk aSmifSm;=uayrnf? rdrdtiftm;udk pkpnf;mwGif vlwef;pm;udk tajccHaom pnf;±Hk;a;yHko¾mefrjzpfapbJ trsdK;om;a;udktajccHaom pnf;±Hk;a;yHko¾mefjzpfygrnf? (C) tzG@J csKyf.yfwnfcsuoabmxm;xkwjf yefjcif; (twdcsKyfi;vif;csu) f k Sf f jynfaxmifpkwdkif;if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;'DrdkuapDtzGJ@csKyfonf wdkif;if;om;vlrsdK;tm;vHk; EdkifiHa; wef;wlnfwla;ESifh udk,fydkifjyÏmef;cGifh tjy!fht0Sdaom jynfe,frsm;udk aygif;pyfvsuf ppfrSefaomjynfaxmifpkzGJ@pnf;Edkifa; r[mAsL[myfwnfcsufonfum; “'DrdkuapDwdkufyGJwGif wkdif;if;om;vlrsdK;rsm; wef;wlnfwludk,fydkifjyÏmef;cGifhSdeftwGuf w®yifwnf; qufpyf wdkufyGJ0ifa;” yif jzpfonf? u|Efkyfwdk@ wdkif;if;om;rsm; jzpf=uaom ucsif/ u,m;/ uif/ csif;/ rGef/ cdkif/ Srf; ponfwdk@onf ArmvlrsdK;rsm;uJhodk@yif wcsdefu vGwfvGwfvyfvyf udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyfvsuf xD;®yifeef;®yif ya'omZfEdkifiHrsm; xlaxmifI aexdkifcJh=uonf? e,fcsJ@wdk@vufatmufodk@ usamufoGm;aomtcg e,fcsJ@qef@usifa;/ zufqpfwdkufzsufa;/ trsdK;om;vGwfajrmufa; qvdi;f vsere;f qmacgi;f ( Lian H. Sakhong ) pkaqmif;wifjyonf k f _ 9
  45. 45. +idrf;csrf;pGmtwlvufwGJaexdkifa;0g'rSonf ppfrSefaomjynfaxmifpkpepfqDodkŒ (yxrwGJ) wdkufyGJrsm;wGif yg0ifwdkufcdkufcJh=ujcif;onfvnf;/ rdrdwdk@. vGwfvyfa;ESifh udk,fh=urRm udk,fzefwD;cGifhudk jrwfEdk;jcif;a=umifh jzpfonf? odk@aomf vGwfvyfa;+yD;aomtcg wdkif;if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;. ar#mfrSef;csufrsm;onf arS;rSdefoGm;cJhayonf? xdk@a=umifh wdkif;if;om;aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfr_®yysufum/ vlrsdK;a;rkef;wD;r_rsm; ay:aygufvmcJhygonf? 1961 ckESpfwGif wdkif;if;om;rsm; aoG;pnf;a;udk jyefvnfwnfaqmufef jynfaxmifpkrlwyfudk udk,fpm;ðyudk,fpm;vS,frsm; aqG;aEG;=umwGif xdkrludk ta=umif;jyvsuf tm%modrf;vdkufjcif;a=umifh 'DrdkuapDtcGifhta;rsm;ESifh ppfrSefaomjynfaxmifpktESpfom onfvnf; aysmufuG,fcJhayonf? TuJhodk@ wpfygwDtm%mSifpepfESifh wjynfaxmif tkyfpdk;r_pepfqdk;udk enf;rsdK;pHkESifh qef@usifawmfvSefcJh=uovdk awmfvSefqJvnf; jzpfayonf? tjcm;wbufwGif ausmif;om;rsm;OD;aqmifr_jzifh (8-8-88) ae@wGif [ef;Sifvl wdkif;if;om; jynfoltaygif; tHkºuGawmfvSefcJhojzifh wygwDtm%mSifpepfðywf=ucJhaomfvnf; 'DrdkuapD yGifhvef;Sifoefr_rSm tvSrf;uGmaeayao;onf? 'DrdkuapDtcGifhta; tjynfht0rSdv#if wm; r#waom a±G;aumufyGJ[lonf SdEkdifygrnfavm? wm;r#waom a±G;aumufyGJr[kwfygu jynfolESifh wdkif;jynftwGuf rnfo!fhtudsK;oufamufr_SdEkdifrnfenf;? xd@k a=umifh u|Eyw@kd onf vufiif;óuHawG@aeaom tcuftcJrsm;ESihf aemifóuHawG@r!fh kf f jyemt00udkoHk;oyfjcif;tm;jzifh trsdK;om;nD!Gwfa;udk wnfaqmuf+yD;/ 'DrdkuapD tjynfht0Sda;twGuf wdkufyGJ0ifoGm;efrSwyg; tjcm;rSday? trsdK;om;nD!Gwfa;udk wdkif;if;om;rsm;wef;wla;tajccHay:wGif wnfaqmufayrnf? xdk@a=umifh tzGJ@csKyf. r[mAsL[myfwnfcsufjzpfaom 'DrdkuapDa;wdkufyGJESifh wdkif;if;om;rsm;wef;wla; SdeftwGuf qufpyfwdkufyGJ0ifa;onf trdsK;om;nD!Gwfr_udk wnfaxmifa;ESifh 'DrdkuapDtjy!fht0Sda; wdkufyGJudk wdkufa;yif jzpfonf? odk@mwGif wdkufyGJ.enf;AsL[mudk rlvvufSdEdkifiHa;tajctae tcsdeftcgESifh tvSnfhtajymif;udktajccHI csrSwfefESifh rdrd.tiftm;udkvnf; cdkifrmatmif pnf;±Hk;oGm;ef vdktyfayonf? xdk@a=umifh tzGJ@0ifygwDtoD;oD;onf rlay:wGiftajccHaom pnf;±Hk;a;udk wnfaqmuf+yD;/ xdkrSwqifh ygwDtcsif;csif;onfvnf; tzGJ@csKyf. rlESifhyfwnfcsufudkyif wom;wnf; yfwnfvsuf/ wzGJ@wygwDuJhodk@ uspfvpfcdkifrmvma;twGuf pnf;±Hk;wnfaqmuf rnf? xd@k aemuf tjcm;aom 'DruapDygwtzG@J tpnf;rsm;ESivnf; cdi+f rJaom r[mrdwjf zpfa;udk kd D hf k aqmif±GufI 'DrdkuapDa;ESifh wdkif;if;om;rsm;wef;wlnfwla; wdkufyGJudk qufvuf qifE$J=u ayrnf? 10 qvdi;f vsere;f qmacgi;f ( Lian H. Sakhong ) pkaqmif;wifjyonf k f _
  46. 46. 'DruapDa;ESihf wef;wla;wduyumvtwGi; UNLD .ordkif;0ifrSwfwrf;rsm; kd k f JG f 3? tzG@J csKyf.jyef=um;a;ESihf qufo,a;vkyief;rsm; G f f (u) ausnmcsursm;xkwjf yefjcif; f tzGJ@csKyfudk pwifzGJ@pnf;jcif;rðyrD wkdkif;if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;. EdkifiHa;tzGJ@tpnf;ygwDrsm; pwifawG@qHk!SdE_dif;yGJrsm;udk (4)}udrfwdkifwdkif ðyvkyfcJhonf? 1989 ckESpf/ azazmf0gDv (11)uf ae@wGif usif;yaom yÌrt}udrfawG@qHk!SdE_dif;yGJwGif tzGJ@csKyfudk wnDw!Gwfwnf; zGJ@pnf; xlaxmifconf? tzG@J csKyfz@JG pnf;+yD;aemuf oabmxm;a=ujimcsutrSwf (1)udk xkwjf yef+yD; tzG@J csKyf hJ f wGif yg0ifjcif;rSdao;aom wdkif;if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;. EdkifiHa;tzGJ@tpnf;ygwDrsm;udk yg0ifvmef zd w f a c:urf ; vS r f ; cJ h o nf ? 1989 ck E S p f / rwf v (5)uf w G i f ausnmcsuf t rS w f ( 2) tjzpf nf±G,fcsufESifh vkyfief;pOfrsm;udk xkwfjyefcJhonf? 1989 ckESpf/ rwfv(24)ufae@wGif EdkifiHa;t zrf;qD;xm;olrsm; v$wfay;a; awmif;qdkcsufudk ausnmcsuftrSwf (3) tjzpf xkwfjyefcJhonf? 1989 ck / rwf v (27)uf w G i f (44)}ud r f a jrmuf zuf q pf q ef @ usif a ;ae@ txd r f ; trS w f ausnmpmwrf;udk xkwfjyefcJhonf? 1989 ckESpf/ ZGefv(14)ufwGif twGif;a;rSL;tzGJ@. tpDifcHpmudk xkwfjyef+yD;/ Srf;jynfe,f/ u,m;jynfe,fESifh rE Wav; pnf;±Hk;a;cD;wGif wifjy Edkifef pDpOfcJhonf? 1989 ckESpf/ Zlvdkifv(8)ufae@wGif trdsK;om;EdkifiHa;odk@OD;wnfa;twGuf EdkifiHawmf+idrf0yfydjym;a;tzGJ@ OuUX AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmifxH obmywdtzGJ@u pmwapmif ay;ydk@cJhonf? 1989 ckESpf/ Zlvdkifv (19)ufae@wGif (42)ESpfajrmuf tmZmenfae@ txdrf;trSwf ausnmcsufudk xkwfjyefcJhonf? tmZmenfae@aemufydkif; wjynfvHk;EdkifiHa;tajctaersm; wif;rm+yD; tzrf;tqD;rsm;xlajymvmcJhm tzGJ@csKyfrS e-0-w tpdk;ESifh EdkifiHa;ygwDrsm;t=um; !SdE_dif;ajzSif;a;twGuf txl;ausnmcsuf wapmifudk 1989 ckESpf/ Zlvfdkif (22)ufae@wGif xkwfjyefcJhonf? (c) owif;pmSi;vif;yGJ ESihf owif;v$mxkwjf yefjcif; f tzGJ@csKyfjzpfay:vmyHk/ tzGJ@csKyf.nfrSef;csufrsm;ESifh yfwnfcsufrsm; txl;ojzifh 'DrdkuapDa;ESifh wdkif;if;om;vlrsdK;rsm; wef;wlnfwltcGifhta;Sda;wdk@twGuf wdkif;if;om; arG;csif;om;csif; nDaemifif; EdkifiHa;ygwDrsm; arG;zGm;jcif;/ ,if;wdkŒ. nD!Gwfr_rsm;ESifh tjcm; 'DrdkuapDtiftm;pkEdkifiHa;ygwDrsm;ESifh vufwGJaqmif±Gufr_rsm;udk jynfyowif;Xmersm;rS owif;pmqmrsm;ESifh jrefrmhowif;pOfrS owif;axmufrsm;udk 1989 ckESpf/ Zlvdkifv (24)uf wGif zdwfac:Sif;vif;wifjy+yD; owif;pmqmrsm;. ar;jref;csufrsm;udk ajz=um;cJhonf? tzGJ@csKyf. v_yfSm;r_owif;rsm;udk tzGJ@0ifEdkifiHa;tzGJ@tpnf;ygwDrsm;odk@ yHkrSefay;ydk@Edkifa;twGuf “wef;wla;”trnfjzifh owif;v$mxkwfjyefa;udk qHk;jzwf+yD;/ trSwfpOf (1) owif;v$mudk 1989 ckESpf/ pufwifbm (5)ufae@u xkwfa0EdkifcJhonf? “wef;wla;”owif;v$mudk yHkrSef xkwfjyef Edkifa;twGuf tpDtpOfrsm;udk ðyvkyfvsufSdaeonf? t,f'DwmtzGJ@udk wm0efcHt,f'Dwm OD;ombef;(cdi)/ Edicifarmif(rGe) / qvdi;f vsere;f (csi;f ) / OD;at;az(cdi) wd@k jzifh zG@J pnf;oGm;onf? kf kf f k f_ kf qvdi;f vsere;f qmacgi;f ( Lian H. Sakhong ) pkaqmif;wifjyonf k f _ 11

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