What is the history of the Internet? ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects AgencyNetwork) TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) NSFNET (National Science Foundation Network) Desktop computers Network upgrades Internet tools 1
What is the history of the Internet?1960s1969 - The Department of Defense Advanced ResearchProjects Agency creates an experimental network calledARPANET. This network provides a test-bed for emergingnetwork technologies.ARPANET originally connected four universities and enabledscientists to share information and resources across longdistances. ARPANET continued to expand, connecting manymore sites throughout the 1970s and 1980s. 2
What is the history of the Internet?1970sNetworking tools are developed in the 1970s including:• 1972 - The National Center for SupercomputingApplications (NCSA) develops the telnet application forremote login, making it easier to connect to a remotecomputer.• 1973 - FTP (file transfer protocol) is introduced,standardizing the transfer of files between networkedcomputers. 3
What is the history of the Internet?1980sSeveral significant events occurred in 1983, including:• The TCP/IP suite of networking protocols, or rules, becomesthe only set of protocols used on the ARPANET. Thisdecision sets a standard for other networks, and generatesthe use of the term "Internet" as the network of networkswhich either use the TCP/IP protocols or are able to interactwith TCP/IP networks.• To keep military and non-military network sites separate,the ARPANET splits into two networks: ARPANET andMILNET. 4
What is the history of the Internet?1980sIn 1982 and 1983, the first desktop computers began toappear. Many are equipped with an operating system calledBerkeley UNIX, which includes networking software. Thisallows for relatively easy connection to the Internet usingtelnet.The personal computer revolution continues through theeighties, making access to computer resources and networkedinformation increasingly available to the general public. 5
What is the history of the Internet?1980s1985-86: The National Science Foundation (NSF) connects the nations sixsupercomputing centers together. This network is called the NSFNET, orNSFNET backbone.To expand access to the Internet, the NSF supported the development ofregional networks, which were then connected to the NSFNET backbone.In addition, the NSF supported institutions, such as universities, in theirefforts to connect to the regional networks.Here is a diagram of theNSFNET backbone, as itappeared in 1993. 6
What is the history of the Internet?1980s• 1987 - The NSF awards a grant to Merit Network, Inc. tooperate and manage future development of the NSFNETbackbone. Merit Network, Inc. collaborates with InternationalBusiness Machines (IBM) Corporation and MCITelecommunications Corporation to research and developfaster networking technologies.• 1989 - The backbone network is upgraded to "T1" whichmeans that is able to transmit data at speeds of 1.5 million bitsof data per second, or about 50 pages of text per second. 7
What is the history of the Internet?1990s1990 - The ARPANET is dissolved.1991 - Gopher is developed at the University of Minnesota.Gopher provides a hierarchical, menu-based method forproviding and locating information on the Internet. This toolmakes using the Internet much easier.1993 - The European Laboratory for Particle Physics inSwitzerland (CERN) releases the World Wide Web (WWW),developed by Tim Berners-Lee. The WWW uses hypertexttransfer protocol (HTTP) and hypertext links, changing the wayinformation can be organized, presented and accessed on theInternet. 8
What is the history of the Internet?1990s• 1993 - The NSFNET backbone network is upgraded to "T3"which means that it is able to transmit data at speeds of 45 millionbits of data per second, or about 1400 pages of text per second.• 1993-1994 - The graphical web browsers Mosaic and NetscapeNavigator are introduced and spread through the Internetcommunity. Due to their intuitive nature and graphical interface,these browsers make the WWW and the Internet more appealing tothe general public.• 1995 - The NSFNET backbone is replaced by a new networkarchitecture, called vBNS (very high speed backbone networksystem) that utilizes Network Service Providers, regional networksand Network Access Points (NAPs). 9
What is the history of the Internet?In Summary:The Internet has evolved through a series of advancements innetworking and computer technologies. From its beginning in1969, the ARPANET provided a test-bed for networkingresearch and development. An important development that grewout of ARPANET was the TCP/IP protocols, which providedstandard rules for networked computers to communicate witheach other.Other significant events included the introduction of the desktopcomputer, the development of networking tools such as telnet,FTP, gopher and WWW, and the release of graphical browsers.Advancements in networking enabled the NSFNET to upgradeits speed several times, allowing more and more connections. 10
A particular slide catching your eye?
Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.