Mansi saxena   dissertation on branding of cities case of delhi
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Mansi saxena dissertation on branding of cities case of delhi

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This study attempts to understand the concept of city branding and its applicability to cities across the world. It delves deep into the making of a brand from a city, what are the factors involved, ...

This study attempts to understand the concept of city branding and its applicability to cities across the world. It delves deep into the making of a brand from a city, what are the factors involved, the models used and the theories published. It tries to understand what advantages a city receives upon being branded and what are the risks involved in such a branding exercise. It also explores how a city branding is different from a product branding. It further investigates whether the overall acceptability of the concept of city branding, whether it is a trend, a fad or a necessity of today’s time.
Using these learning’s, this study attempts to undertake the case of Delhi in the lieu of Common Wealth Games 2010, and builds a branding methodology for New Delhi, the capital of India.
At the dawn of globalization, a new world has emerged. A world which is vast, but is well connected, a world which develops and gets smaller with it. This is no more a time of a few big cities, where all the attention used to exist. This is no more a time, where these big cities used to compete with one another to attract the Headquarters of Global Corporations, Neither is this the time, where tourism was the way to attract people to a city.
Cities now have evolved and learned to showcase that something special about them to attract audiences of all sorts. Cities have carved niches for themselves, hitherto unknown. Branding cities is no more a fad or something different; it has become a well accepted phenomenon by the marketing gurus of today. In fact, branding a city is no more the extra effort, but the required effort in the contemporary times today.
Cities have realized how a well strategized and well executed branding exercise results in a 360 degree development to the fabric of a city. They have understood that branding is about everything that a city offers to its target audiences. An important thing to note is that cities, through treated like products while branding them are vastly different in their inherent nature. Cities are a brand to begin with, branding is undertaken to change the brand perception. Also, they cater to audiences or consumers differently, as they directly affect the living conditions of the consumer.
A city has three different types of target groups, which are; people who live in the city, people who come to work in the city and people who come to visit the city. Therefore, a city needs to develop value propositions which cater all three separately and all three together.
A successful city branding needs to involve stakeholders at all the levels, which includes the government, the industries, the educational institutions, the citizens, and everyone else associated with the city. A clear, strategic vision followed consistently through all the stakeholders is pertinent for a city to turn into a brand.

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    Mansi saxena   dissertation on branding of cities case of delhi Mansi saxena dissertation on branding of cities case of delhi Document Transcript

    • 1 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 CITY BRANDING - IMPLICATIONS OF PERCEPTIONS, LIVEABILITY, ECONOMIC & POLITICAL SCENARIO, AND IMPACT ON RELATED TRADES Branding | Delhi
    • 2 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 CITY BRANDING - IMPLICATIONS OF PERCEPTIONS, LIVEABILITY, ECONOMIC & POLITICAL SCENARIO, AND IMPACT ON RELATED TRADES: Branding Delhi By Mansi Saxena 200829A PGDM (C)-II, (2008‐2010) Submitted to MUDRA INSTITUTE OF COMMUNICATIONS, AHMEDABAD (MICA) In partial fulfillment of requirements of the Post Graduate Diploma in Communications Management Guided by: Professor Tarun Tripathi
    • 3 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 © Copyright Mansi Saxena, 2010 & Mudra Institute of Communications, Ahmedabad
    • 4 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 In the fond memory of my Nanaji, who left us a few days ago, and my Dadaji, who left us 5 years ago. Two of the most incredible men, I had the honor of meeting, knowing and being loved by in my life! May your soul rest in peace and May you both look down upon me, as I do my best to make you both proud! I love you & I miss you.
    • 5 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This study attempts to understand the concept of city branding and its applicability to cities across the world. It delves deep into the making of a brand from a city, what are the factors involved, the models used and the theories published. It tries to understand what advantages a city receives upon being branded and what are the risks involved in such a branding exercise. It also explores how a city branding is different from a product branding. It further investigates whether the overall acceptability of the concept of city branding, whether it is a trend, a fad or a necessity of today’s time. Using these learning’s, this study attempts to undertake the case of Delhi in the lieu of Common Wealth Games 2010, and builds a branding methodology for New Delhi, the capital of India. At the dawn of globalization, a new world has emerged. A world which is vast, but is well connected, a world which develops and gets smaller with it. This is no more a time of a few big cities, where all the attention used to exist. This is no more a time, where these big cities used to compete with one another to attract the Headquarters of Global Corporations, Neither is this the time, where tourism was the way to attract people to a city. Cities now have evolved and learned to showcase that something special about them to attract audiences of all sorts. Cities have carved niches for themselves, hitherto unknown. Branding cities is no more a fad or something different; it has become a well accepted phenomenon by the marketing gurus of today. In fact, branding a city is no more the extra effort, but the required effort in the contemporary times today. Cities have realized how a well strategized and well executed branding exercise results in a 360 degree development to the fabric of a city. They have understood that branding is about everything that a city offers to its target audiences. An important thing to note is that cities, through treated like products while branding them are vastly different in their inherent nature. Cities are a brand to begin with, branding is undertaken to change the brand perception. Also, they cater to audiences or consumers differently, as they directly affect the living conditions of the consumer.
    • 6 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 A city has three different types of target groups, which are; people who live in the city, people who come to work in the city and people who come to visit the city. Therefore, a city needs to develop value propositions which cater all three separately and all three together. A successful city branding needs to involve stakeholders at all the levels, which includes the government, the industries, the educational institutions, the citizens, and everyone else associated with the city. A clear, strategic vision followed consistently through all the stakeholders is pertinent for a city to turn into a brand. Delhi, the national capital of India has all the elements which can turn it into a world class branded city. This study explores the possibilities that a branded Delhi can look forward to and it suggests the process of branding, positioning and promoting Delhi. It explores the various facets of Delhi and intertwines them to develop the Brand called Delhi. The research methodology used for this study is exploratory in nature. It has been executed in three phases. The first stage involved secondary research and analysis, wherein an extensive review of the existing literature on branding of cities was undertaken to understand and learn about the city branding. In addition to this, the study also looked at some successful cases of branded cities to apply the learning’s from those into the case of Delhi. These findings and review led to the development of the second stage of research, framework for getting expert views on branding of cities to provide credibility for the literature review and also to understand the current scenario, schools of thoughts and trends in City Branding. This led to the third phase of the research, which was garnering information about New Delhi, which utilized in-depth consumer interviews, across the three target group to enable understanding of the perceptions, character analysis, values, offerings, and facilities of Delhi. These findings were integrated to develop a case study for Delhi, which explores Delhi through its history to what it has become today, and where branding can take Delhi. This chapter incorporates findings from the experts, cases and consumers to journey Delhi through characterization, color associations, historical associations, governance, and
    • 7 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 quality of life. The study looks at the factors which work for Delhi and which don’t work for Delhi. The study further looks at Delhi as a product, proposed models which can be utilized to turn Delhi into a brand, uses data from the Common Wealth Games to be held in Delhi in 2010 and understand the current versus desired perceptions of Delhi. Finally the study helps building the city Delhi into a brand Delhi through a series of steps, and recommends the methodology to take it forward. With more and more cities indulging into branding themselves, this study assumes great importance at this time, as India is being touted at the next super power. Delhi being the capital city of the country, it is imperative for Delhi to emerge as an attractive and lucrative option across its value offerings to its target group nationally and internationally. Also, with the Delhi2010 due this year, this study is highly relevant and an opportune time for Delhi to get serious about branding itself.
    • 8 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This study would not have been successful, if it weren’t for a few people, I would like to take this opportunity to thank them for their immense support. Tarun Tripathi. Thank you for all your help and direction, in helping me find people who can help me with this dissertation and for showing faith in me and my capabilities. Thank you for being a friend. All the industry experts who took time out and provided me with their views and opinions which helped me develop my thoughts into a coherent study. My Mom, for being the coolest mother ever. My Dad, for being the father every kid should have My Maasi, for the being the friend in a parent I am lucky to have three parents who made me the person I am today. Thank you for always believing in me, for showing me the right path, for always standing behind my shoulder and for loving me so selflessly. Thank you for everything. I won’t be half the person, I am today if it weren’t for you guys! My lovely sister, Anu, who has a karmic connection with me, Thank you for being my friend, my companion, my partner in crime and the sweetest angel that you are. You are my first kid, even though you treat me like one. Sagar Shah. For just being you and for being my biggest patron, You make me believe in myself. Thank you so much, MICA would’ve been incomplete without you My dearest friends at MICA, who shared the labor through the nights, the laughter and tears through this dissertation, thank you guys, this won’t have been half as fun, if it weren’t for you all. Delhi. For being the best city in the world! And, finally MICA for giving me this opportunity to turn my love for Delhi into a study, which I truly enjoyed and learnt from.
    • 9 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ....................................................................................................................... 5 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS........................................................................................................................ 8 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................12 LITERATURE REVIEW .......................................................................................................................14 DECIPHERING: CITY BRANDING.....................................................................................................15 Leadership............................................................................................................................. 15 Strategy ................................................................................................................................. 16 Creativity .............................................................................................................................. 17 WHY BRAND PLACES? ....................................................................................................................18 WHAT IS A BRAND? .........................................................................................................................19 Elements of a Brand............................................................................................................. 20 Brands as Business Assets and Explosion of Branding .................................................... 21 Guideline for good brand management .............................................................................. 21 APPLYING BRAND SCIENCE TO CITIES: BRANDS VS. CONCEPT ...............................................22 BRANDING OF CITIES – SENSE OR NONSENSE?.........................................................................22 Brand Architecture: ............................................................................................................... 23 Positioning: How should the brand of a city stand out?........................................................ 24 Organization Structure: What is a good structure for the management of a city?................ 24 COMMUNICATION MODEL FOR CITY BRANDING.........................................................................26 Primary Communication for City Branding:......................................................................... 26 Secondary Communication for City Branding:..................................................................... 27 Tertiary Communication for City Branding:......................................................................... 27 LEVELS OF PLACE MARKETING......................................................................................................28 ELEMENTS OF A PLACE MARKETING PROCESS..........................................................................29 MARKETING STRATEGY FOR PLACES ...........................................................................................36 Local Players: ....................................................................................................................... 37 Regional Players................................................................................................................... 38 National players.................................................................................................................... 38 International players ............................................................................................................ 38
    • 10 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 SUCCESS FACTORS FOR PLACE MARKETING..............................................................................39 Planning Group:..................................................................................................................... 40 Vision and Strategic Analysis................................................................................................ 40 Place Identity and Place Image.............................................................................................. 41 Public-Private Partnerships.................................................................................................... 41 Political Unity........................................................................................................................ 42 Global Marketplace and Local Development........................................................................ 42 Process Coincidences ............................................................................................................ 42 Leadership ............................................................................................................................. 43 KNOWLEDGE GAP & NEED FOR RESEARCH................................................................................44 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY & OBJECTIVES .................................................................................44 RESEARCH DESIGN..........................................................................................................................45 Secondary Research............................................................................................................... 45 Primary Research................................................................................................................... 46 Sampling Plan........................................................................................................................ 48 Branding Delhi : Developing a marketing Case Study................................................................49 BRANDING DELHI.............................................................................................................................50 Delhi, it’s origin and history ........................................................................................................50 Main Attractions Of Delhi..................................................................................................... 53 The Product called Delhi – An Evolution...................................................................................54 What works for Delhi? .................................................................................................................56 What works against Delhi?.........................................................................................................56 The Typical ‘Delhite’.....................................................................................................................57 Delhi the Person ...........................................................................................................................59 Delhi in Colors...............................................................................................................................59 Nicknames for Delhi ....................................................................................................................60 Competition from other World Class cities ..............................................................................61 The current Delhi Branding.........................................................................................................63 Resonance, Recall and Perception of Current Branding Activities of Delhi........................64 Non Aided Recall .................................................................................................................. 64 Aided Recall .......................................................................................................................... 65 Developing a Brand for Delhi......................................................................................................67
    • 11 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 Relevance Of Delhi ............................................................................................................... 68 The Awareness Levels of Delhi............................................................................................. 69 How Consistent is Delhi? ...................................................................................................... 69 Attracting the Creative Class: The 4 Pillars of branding the city: Applicability to Delhi....70 Education:.............................................................................................................................. 72 Industry:................................................................................................................................. 72 Government: .......................................................................................................................... 73 Foundation:............................................................................................................................ 74 Positioning the Brand Delhi........................................................................................................77 Type of Brand........................................................................................................................ 78 Tagline................................................................................................................................... 79 Promoting the Brand Delhi .........................................................................................................81 The Suggested Media and Channel Mix................................................................................ 84 CONCLUSION.....................................................................................................................................86 Annexure I..........................................................................................................................................88 Annexure II ........................................................................................................................................90 CITY BRANDING CASE STUDY: NEW YORK...............................................................................90 CITY BRANDING CASE STUDY: PARIS .......................................................................................95 WORKS CITED...................................................................................................................................99
    • 12 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 INTRODUCTION In the times that we live in, everything from products, services, people, to places are branded. This is no more an interesting marketing technique, instead the need of the hour today. While there are some critiques of the concept, Place Branding is becoming a well accepted theoretical development by marketing gurus in the world. The days where the big cities used to compete with one another for placing headquarters of multi-national companies are gone. To a great extent, this paradigm shift can be attributed to technological advances and lowering of regulations across the world. Therefore, cities can now carve their own niche for a separate value proposition they have on offer. A great deal of research has been conducted on the concept of city branding; some of the identified requirements for city branding are leadership, strategy and creativity. It is important to admit that a city is widely different from a product, yet has its set of similarities. The greatest point of distinction is that a city is a single product, which can be multi-sold. Therefore, it is imperative that a city defines its target segments clearly. In broad terms, the customers for a city are people who live there, i.e. a city’s inhabitants, people who create job there (the creative class) and people who stay there (contribute to the city through tourism). A city cannot function without its people, who form the stakeholders for the city. A city branding exercise to a great deal is driven by the concept of leadership. Leadership includes a city’s citizens, government authorities, private and public companies, institutions, etc. The key to city branding is that there is no hierarchy in the organizational structure for a city’s leadership board. They all are equal partners, who take strategic decisions together, implement it as a group and therefore, enjoy the benefits or bear the risks equally. In order for a city to be a good brand, the city should have distinctive, differentiated characteristics, which can be easily identified by the target group. A city branding exercise requires a city to have certain basic characteristics, without which branding cannot be successful (Winfield-Pfefferkorn, August 2005):
    • 13 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 - The city must offer attractive employment opportunities - The purchasing power of the citizens should be reasonable - It should provide reasonable living conditions - The public transport system should be in place - Education and recreational facilities should be present Branding, if executed well has the capability to infuse life into the city. It has a direct bearing on the work of urban and economic planners for the city. The key is to identify the promise of a value that a city has, i.e. what is it that the city offers which can keep the businesses, institutions and residents attracted and interested in the city (Gelder & Roberts, Branding Bring Life to a City, 2006). In case of city branding, the role of branding is not just strategic or visionary in nature. The value of the brand is built at every point of contact with the consumer through the experiences that the consumer has at that point. Therefore, relying only on the physical characteristics of the place is not enough. It is each experience which defines the image of the city in the consumers’ mind (Baker, 2007) Therefore, the process of city branding is interesting albeit very complex in nature. There are no one-size-fits-all phenomena for city branding. Each city’s stakeholders need to think individually about their city and identify the differentiating characteristics, the strengths and weaknesses and the areas which need work to execute a meaningful, strategic city branding process.
    • 14 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 LITERATURE REVIEW
    • 15 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 DECIPHERING: CITY BRANDING In the competitive age today, almost nothing has a strategic competitive advantage. Therefore, the cities as well are competing with one another for attention, tourism, talent, events, investment etc. (Sicco van Gelder, June, 2008). The author points out the days where the big cities used to compete with one another for placing headquarters of multi- national companies are gone. To a great extent, this paradigm shift can be attributed to technological advances and lowering of regulations across the world. Therefore, cities can now carve their own niche for a separate value proposition they have on offer. At this point, the author points out that the traditional methods of advertising with CNN or pepping up the proposal in terms of commercial, industrial or cultural spaces is no more enough to lure consumers onshore. This is the onset of requirement of a ‘branding’ strategy for a city. He urges the reader to think about how a value proposition needs to be devised from analyzing which aspect of the city can be used to differentiate itself. He further explains, the three main heads with are required for branding of cities: - Leadership - Strategy - Creativity Leadership The author has identified ‘Leadership’ as the most crucial component of any city branding exercise and how if leadership is taken into consideration, strategy and creativity can be built around it. The first step to leadership is identifying who are the stakeholders of the city, who would work as partners in the a combined unified goal of re-structuring the city, because unless all the stake holders are on the same page, a restructuring, branding or any such activity can be successfully implemented. In addition to this, it is important to realize that unlike a company, in case of a city all the shareholders are equally responsible for a city branding exercise forming a hybrid type of organization. “What is required is a partnership where all of the key stakeholders regard
    • 16 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 each other as equals, regardless of their power or resources, where their individual contributions are valued because, without them, the city will not realize its full potential.” Another important characteristic of leadership is that the leadership should be shared in nature, because a partnership can be created but an effective execution requires the participants to take care of their own agendas along with a collective decision making. “Shared leadership in a brand partnership requires a far greater degree of common understanding and joint thinking than traditional forms of leadership in the public and private sectors.” All the partners should be keen, eager and willing to work together. A city branding exercise is a collective wisdom which is driven by team work. The author points out that there may be various conflicts of interest, opinions, timing issues, etc. However, the stakeholders need to work together irrespective. At this point the author introduces the concept of a ‘Brand Management Organization’, where he illustrates that the role of a Brand Organization is to devise a clear cut branding strategy for the city, i.e. policy changes, re-look at the concerned areas, investment, city attraction strategies, etc. Thus, in the area of brand management as a whole, a city branding provides the following lessons, according to the author: - The partnership of the stakeholders is an on-going process. Their work cannot be skewed towards anyone and it doesn’t end once a strategy formulation is over. - The partnership is not an elitist society; newer members need to be added from time to time. The partnership needs to evolve as time changes. - The partnership needs to take timely reviews of the brand strategy and be fluid in making the necessary amendments from time to time. - The partnership cannot work in a silo. It needs to motivate the citizens of the city to work together with the brand strategy Strategy There are three forms of strategy which exist: Business Strategy, Brand Strategy and Marketing Strategy (Gelder, The new imperatives for global branding: Strategy, Creativity
    • 17 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 and Leadership, January, 2005). The author further illustrates that the business strategy is an overall phenomenon, which further dictates the branding strategy. The branding strategy further dictates what differentiates the brand (in this case, a city) from others, what is its unique value proposition, believable, and likeable. Based on these strategies, the promotion design, pricing, delivery, etc. can be decided. To execute the branding strategies, the marketing strategy is devised. The marketing strategy according to the author is translating the brand proposition as value for the stakeholders. As Illustrated earlier all of it revolves around leadership. The author insists that leadership is the key to the three types of strategy, which has direct implications on a successful implementation on the workforce. Creativity Creativity as the name suggests is about ideas (Gelder, The new imperatives for global branding: Strategy, Creativity and Leadership, January, 2005). Creativity according to the author can be of two types: Thinking of existing scenarios in a different manner or coming up with completely new ideas. Creativity forms an inherent component of the entire strategy design. The author explains through the ideas of Jeff Mauzy and Richard A. Harriman, who introduce the concept of systemic creativity, which is further argued by Nicholas Ind and Cameron Watt that creativity is the fluidity within the organization which breaks down barriers. The author illustrates that creativity is not restricted to the mere ideation process, but should be embedded in every aspect of a strategy. “Creativity is not the same as innovation, which may be termed ‘applied creativity’. Creativity is also not the same as improvement, which may be termed ‘routine creativity’. However, both innovation and improvement require pure creativity to function” To conclude, the author insists that one without the other is pointless. For a successful execution of a branding process, they all need to work in tandem with one another.
    • 18 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 WHY BRAND PLACES? Kotler explains how place branding and marketing results in the overall growth of the place and value for the involved stake holders. The equation is quite simple actually, branding a place leads to attraction for the place, which leads to varied benefits as described by the flow chart below: However, it isn’t a completely upward graph. In fact, it’s a growth and decline cycle (Kotler, Place Growth Dynamics, 1999). While the attractiveness of a place brings new industries, job opportunities and betters quality of life, it has its own set of implications. When more and more external industries and people come into a city it leads to increase in usage of a city’s resource, which further leads to depletion, increase in costs, etc. which in turn leads to increase in taxes for the community. In addition to this, the author states that there are external damaging effects as well which are defined as ‘process coincidences’. Some examples of process coincidences are air pollution, increased crime rate, etc. Therefore, the learning from this is that a city should be branded to gain attractiveness, which is seen directly proportional to a city’s prosperity. However, the implications of such
    • 19 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 a step should be taken into account and contingency plans should be devised by the involved stakeholders and authorities in the city’s branding exercise. WHAT IS A BRAND? An Oxford dictionary definition: Brand (noun): a trade mark, goods of a particular make: a mark of identification made with a hot iron, the iron used for this: a piece of burning or charred wood, (verb): to mark with a hot iron, or to label with a trade mark. Varied definitions of brand exist across definitions and disciplines. However, there lies a common line of thought which implies that in its passive form a brand is an object by which an impression is formed, and hence branding is the process of forming this impression (Blackett, April 2004). This book attempts to illustrate how branding has evolved in both active and passive manner. “The word brand comes from the Old Norse brandr, meaning to burn, and from these origins made its way into Anglo-Saxon.” This process was undertaken to differentiate ones’ cattle from another. It was also realized that the farmers who took care of their cattle, hence provided much better quality were preferred and came to be identified with the marks on the cattle. The author goes on to explain how brands have come a long way since that era. He provides examples of the Mediterranean age, Ancient Rome, the British Museum, such as: potters’ marks, roman eagle, flags, to explain the concept further. The true arriving of brands took place during the industrial revolution, when the trading between countries became possible. In fact some of the brands during that time are some of the biggest brands even today: Singer sewing-machines, Coca-Cola soft drinks, Bass beer, American Express, Prudential Insurance, etc. Ever since, the 2nd world war, the world has seen real explosion in the world of brands (Blackett, April 2004).
    • 20 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 Elements of a Brand Brands are supposed to have some inherent features which are distinctive. Brands are intrinsically striking and that their role is to create an indelible impression (Blackett, April 2004). Intrinsically Striking: According to the author a brand is distinctive through a combination of factors such as, name, letters, numbers, a symbol, a signature, a shape, a slogan, a color, a particular typeface. He also adds that the name is the most important part of a brand, as it provides a universal language interface. However, the name can never be enough; it has to be complemented by other symbols, signs, logo, tagline, etc. which then derive the brands’ overall philosophy. It is the repetition of these across consumers’ senses which make a brand what it is. There are obviously exceptions to this rule. However, the exceptions usually only work when a brand enjoys a cult status and has a huge following of loyalists that the changes in the logo, tagline, or even the name do not affect a consumers’ perceptions about the brand and they continue to relate to it Creating an Indelible Impression: This is the age of high competition and high variety, the author notes. Therefore, the need to differentiate oneself from another becomes of primary importance. Since the consumer is flooded with choice, the brand needs to create an impression which is long lasting and captivating for a consumer to sit up and notice. The brand needs to function in a manner such that it creates a route map in the consumers’ mind making it an obvious choice amongst the clutter. This loosely translated implies that the consumer needn’t be aware about the industry, i.e. the brand just needs to offer a value proposition interesting enough for the consumer to pick it above others. The author also adds that the successful brands are those, which create equity for the consumer, meets the expectations of the consumer and keep the promise they have made (Blackett, April 2004).
    • 21 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 Brands as Business Assets and Explosion of Branding Blackett further explains that this age expects brands to be assets to a company. Brands, with their ability to secure income, can be classed as productive assets (Blackett, April 2004) in exactly the same way as any other, more traditional assets of a business (plant, equipment, cash, investments and so on). Needless to say that the brands which result in high earnings for the business have direct implications on the overall performance of the business and also results in positive shareholder value for the stakeholders. As the world is moving further, more and more corporations are fighting for the same space. Also, it has moved beyond products. In this age, products are branded, corporations are branded, and literally everything is branded. Guideline for good brand management The author explains that if a brand wants to be truly successful, there are certain guru mantras which need to be incorporated in all brands across categories: - Protection of the Brand: This essentially means patenting or trade-marking a brand and its’ complementing characteristics’, such as, logo, name, colors, etc. - Honoring the Stakeholders: Each brand should identify who are the stakeholders and work in an efficient manner for all of them, whether it’s the employees, the consumers, the shareholders or partners. - Treating the Brand as an Investment Tool and not Cost: Brand owners need to realize that unless branding is viewed as an investment which brings results, appropriate actions will never be taken and true profitability will never be achieved. Hence, the school of thought which treats branding activities as cost needs to be discarded. - Exploiting the Financial Potential of a Brand: Branding these days goes beyond a company’s premise. Therefore, it is important for the brand owners to look for and tap opportunities where a brand’s equity can be maximized. Some examples which the author provides are co-branding, licensing, franchising, training, etc.
    • 22 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 APPLYING BRAND SCIENCE TO CITIES: BRANDS VS. CONCEPT Brands have sometimes been subjected to a lot of criticism from an array of industries (Gelder, Brand versus Concept in Area Development, July, 2008). Due to association of brands with advertising and marketing phenomenon various industries and professionals find it difficult to accept ‘branding’, while are willing to apply ‘concept’ to their line of thinking. The author attempts to compare and contrast ‘Concept’’ and ‘Brands’. According to him, while the two are often used interchangeably, the key difference between the two is the applicability period. He says that while a ‘concept’ is a unique idea for a specific target group, it usually has an end date. A brand on the other hand, is a promise of value that must be kept for different audiences simultaneously, such as residents, visitors, businesses, investors and institutions. Essentially, brands are not short term; they form the underlying philosophy which is applicable across segments and time periods. Also, while a concept’s value proposition decreases with time, in case of a brand, it increases with time. However, he suggests that there is no reason why the two should not complement each other. Particularly, in the area development, place branding process, the two should truly work in tandem with one another. If used in conjunction, the two result in benefits for both. The author further illustrates with an example: A concept such as a designer hotel, a slow food restaurant, an organic market, shared facilities for creative start-ups, an ecological district, a culture institution or a factory outlet centre, etc. can help realize the brand. BRANDING OF CITIES – SENSE OR NONSENSE? With Nations, Cities, Places and Areas realizing the perils of branding themselves, branding of places is becoming a popular phenomenon, particularly in European areas. The question is whether the laws and rules of branding can be imitated for places, especially with the restricted flexibility a place offers in comparison to a product or service (Riezebos, 2007).
    • 23 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 The author attempts to solve this issue by focusing on Brand Architecture, Positioning and Organizational Structure of a City Brand. Place branding as defined by the author is a concept of umbrella branding which a term used for branding different geographical locations. He also distinguishes between city branding and city marketing, the principle difference being that marketing uses the consumer preferences as a guiding principle, while branding defines the vision which the company plans to achieve (Riezebos, 2007). In this journal, the author focuses on the term ‘city branding’ to disseminate the applicability of the concept as a genuine principle. Using examples of New York, Barcelona and Rotterdam, the author derives Brand Architecture, Positioning and Organization Structure in the following ways (Riezebos, 2007): BRAND ARCHITECTURE: - From which level, i.e. country, region, city, borough or area of operations should one communicate from and for which target group? He adds that the first step to create brand architecture is identifying the target group, which in the case of a city is living, working and staying. o People who come under the ‘living’ category constitute of people who live there currently and people who might live there. o People who come under the ‘working’ category are not the people who come to a city to work, instead constitute of entrepreneurs who create new employment opportunities. o People, who come under the ‘staying’ category, are essentially the spin off effect it has for the inhabitants by tourists who visit, when they pay for things for their stay – food, accommodation, etc. In terms of relevance for devising a brand plan for a city, the idea is to keep in mind the relevance of the offerings and value proposition for each of the target groups. He also adds that while devising the proposition for each target group, the brand architecture needs to be kept in mind. Failing to do so, will result in each level of the city (neighborhood, borough, etc.) provide their own set of offerings to the target group, which may not be in
    • 24 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 synch with the city’s overall value proposition. As a result, the consumer will be confused and hence, inconsistency will not be able to form a brand for the city. POSITIONING: HOW SHOULD THE BRAND OF A CITY STAND OUT? o Unlike in the case of products, service, etc. a city usually holds their own set of experiences for the consumer. Therefore, the positioning needs to be in sync with the delivery capabilities of the city, otherwise, the city’s value proposition will fall flat. He also adds that positioning need not be of a positive tone, i.e. a negative city cannot present itself as a positive city. However, this does not imply that negative cities cannot brand themselves. A city can use its negative properties to brand itself as well. An example is the way Texas used its mosquitoes plague problem by starting the annual mosquito’s festival. The author adds that a city should include the two key aspects in its’ branding: 1. Distinct positioning and differentiating factors 2. Targeted institution of sales activities such that sales activities are tied to certain activities with the city ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE: WHAT IS A GOOD STRUCTURE FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF A CITY? o Since there are a number of parties which influence the management of a city, all the involved parties need to work in the below defined structure:
    • 25 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 According to this structure, the Chief Marketing Officer (CMO) occupies the most central position (Riezebos, 2007). CMO or the Project Organization takes care of all the marketing, sales and promotional activities of all the target groups. The CMO then reports its activities to the relevant authorities or the City Brand Board (CBB). Usually the CBB consists of researchers, experts on branding and communication, appointed on a revolving term basis. The CBB then reports to the Supervisory Board, which usually includes the Mayor, certain CEOs or heads of companies and institutions. According to the author, this type of an organization structure has the following advantages: 1. Centralization of Brand Related Activities 2. Clear Separation of Execution, Strategy and Top Ranking Ambassadors He insists that these three points should be the guiding principle for drafting a branding plan for any city.
    • 26 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 COMMUNICATION MODEL FOR CITY BRANDING In a city branding exercise, there are certain types of communications which drive the image of a city (Kavaratizis, 2004). The author implies through this model that the primary target of a city is its inhabitants, and that the beginning and the end point of a city branding is the same, i.e. a city’s image. Needless to say that a city always has an image, irrespective of any marketing/branding efforts dedicated to it. He identifies three main methods of communication, in terms of primary, secondary and tertiary: PRIMARY COMMUNICATION FOR CITY BRANDING: - The primary communication revolves around the communicative effects taken by the city, which are defined by 4 types of actions: o Landscape: Essentially the outer appearance of the city, its design, architectural pieces, places of art, etc. o Infrastructure: Essentially the accessibility of the city, i.e. roads, transport facilities, conference halls, etc.
    • 27 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 o Organization: Essentially the marketing efforts of the city’s authorities and how they involve the inhabitants in the decision making process o Behavior: Essentially the services available and provided in the city, events and investment patterns of the city SECONDARY COMMUNICATION FOR CITY BRANDING: - The secondary communication is the planned and intended communication by the city authorities, in forms of both ATL1 and BTL2. It revolves around what content is being communicated and what is the communication capability of the city authorities TERTIARY COMMUNICATION FOR CITY BRANDING: - The tertiary communication is derived from word-of-mouth advertising usually created by media, competing cities, visitors, etc. The author reflects that while the first two forms of communications are largely positive in nature as they are controlled and are of top-down structure. However, it is the third form of communication (Kavaratizis, 2004), which leads to maximum brand salience, making the inhabitants of the city as the chief marketers for the city. 1 ATL = Above the Line Activities, comprising of advertising, media, etc. 2 BTL = Below the Line Activities, such as PR, Sales Promotion, On Ground activations, etc.
    • 28 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 LEVELS OF PLACE MARKETING According to Philip Kotler, there are various levels to place marketing, which is a combination of target markets, marketing factors and planning groups. Target markets comprise of the certain chosen segments and the customers to whom the marketing messages are directed at. Marketing factors are essentially the attraction of the place, its infrastructure, the people, its perceived image the quality of life enjoyed by the inhabitants. The planning group is the number of stakeholders who decide and implement the process of place marketing (Kotler, Levels of Place Marketing, 2002). The author further adds that creation of a marketing process creates certain value for the consumer which involves creation of appropriate infrastructure for satisfaction of citizens and visitors, constant need for existing and new attractions which keep businesses and visitors interested, clear communication of its benefits and distinction, generation of support from citizens, government authorities, companies, and institutions.
    • 29 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 ELEMENTS OF A PLACE MARKETING PROCESS The process of place marketing usually begins with the strategic analysis of a place, which involves its strengths, weakness, opportunities and threats (Ashworth & Voogd, 1994). The author points out that in case of place marketing, the elements involved need to be treated differently than marketing of products and services. He explains that each element can be sold separately or as a bundled product in case of place marketing. In addition to this a place is a single entity; however, it can be sold over and over again. The producers of a place product can be many, and the consumers are free to choose the product’s use for varied purposes. The price of a place product is indirect and non-monetary. The marketing
    • 30 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 of a place is not restricted to traditional advertising and promotion. A place can improve its liveability, visibility and investibility to market itself (Ashworth & Voogd, 1994). There are four main characteristics of a place, which differentiate it from others; place as a character, as a fixed environment, as a service provider and as entertainment and recreation (Rainisto, Success Factors of Place Marketing: A study of place marketing practices in Northern Europe and the United States, 2003/2004). It is important to understand that the process of place marketing is a cyclical process, which goes on to infinity (Matlovičová, 2007) as explained in the model below:
    • 31 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 According to the author, the process of place marketing begins with acceptance of the marketing concept for the city, which is developed into a vision and a long term plan, at this stage of the process the greatest driving factor is ‘Motivation’. “The initiator must be able to persuade the relevant place opinion leaders about the importance of marketing for the place in question and have them as participants-multiplicators in the suggested process”. The next step is creation of a Marketing information system, where the information available in secondary sources and primary sources is analyzed, which helps develop the profile of the place based on Identity, brand and image of place (Matlovičová, 2007), as the author explains through the diagram below: The author explains that creation of a place profile is dependent on the semantic differential between the current image and derived image of the city, which can be concluded through a ‘public perceptions survey’. Once the profile of a place a created, one needs to conduct a detailed SWOT analysis of the place. The author explains that the SWOT analysis of a place needs to focus on three main areas, which are delimitation of the place, analysis of internal factors of the place (natural environment, demography, economy, infrastructure and business environment) and analysis of external factors (microenvironment and macroenvironment). The combination
    • 32 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 of a marketing information system, the difference between the current image of the place and the desired image of the place and finally a detailed SWOT analysis helps in formation of a strategy for further marketing of the place. Once, these three steps are covered, a key enabler for further progess is the segmentation of the market, which completes the sub-process called ‘Situation Analysis’. At this point, the ‘Goals’ are decided for the process of place marketing, targeting also takes place at this stage. Based on the goals, a ‘Strategy is Designed’, which involves positioning of the city, devising the marketing mix, scheduling inspections, zeroing in on the marketing budget, and inking the overall marketing plan. The author has developed a model for a clear segmentation of a city, as explained below:
    • 33 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 The author explains through Kotlers’ suggested methodology for segmentation, and points out that there is not unique way to segment, which becomes even more difficult in the case of a city due to the heterogeneity attached to the single product. He uses the classification of segmentation criterion and applies it to the city: Geographic, Demographics, Psychographics, and Behavioral. “A successful strategy will result from a detailed and systematic analysis that will respond the two fundamental questions: where is the place situated? and how did it get there? The following comparison of the whole spectrum of data and information will reveal the trends that have to be taken into account in setting the marketing goal. The essence of the conception and strategic stage could be summarized in the two questions: where does the place want to get in future? and how can it be achieved?” (Matlovičová, 2007) After a clear segmentation, this can be of two types, concentrated and differentiated. The key is that a city needs to decide which of the two segmentation strategies it goes with. In plain terms, this means that if the city chooses a concentrated segmentation strategy, it focuses on a micro segment and devises a value proposition for that segment. However, since a city has the capability to be multi-sold, the city can be marketed to a bunch of segments with differentiated value propositions. The problem with using the second approach is that it is not cost effective. Since a city has limited resources at its disposal, the choice between the two strategies decides the entire marketing plan and its implications for the city Positioning of a city starts after a target segment is clearly identified. This is the point, where the city declares its position to the market. The author suggests use of a ‘positioning map’ as a tool to devise a city’s position vis-à-vis its competitors. He explains that there can be two types of positioning for a city, authentic differentiation and non-authentic differentiation. Authentic differentiation focuses on a multitude of sub-products, while Non- authentic differentiation focuses on the product as a single unit. Both the strategies have their own set of flaws and advantages. In context of a city, the marketing mix is a combination of Place, Product, People, Process, Promotion and Price.
    • 34 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 The author explains that in context of a city, the description of the product is more complex, since there is no produced product; it is merely the cities offerings for different types of consumers. The key is to package it well that it appears attractive to the consumer. Price is defined as the financial requirement for getting the product. It is a direct reflection of the quality and condition of the place. Place in this context implies the environment where distribution of the product takes place. This loosely means its physical evidence (Matlovičová, 2007) and its localization within a wider context (availability, infrastructure level, character of natural environment, etc.). Promotion is an important part of the circle, as the place’s offerings may be very attractive, but it needs to inform the targeted consumers of those value propositions. Promotion, therefore, entails public relations (PR) (communications with the public) advertising, sales promotion and personal communications.
    • 35 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 People in case of place marketing/branding form the core of the process, who can be broadly divided into staff members, customers and partners; within the staff members category, they can be further sub-divided as follows (Matlovičová, 2007): - contact staff who have frequent contacts with customers and who have to be well-trained and motivated to solve problems, - modifiers do not take part directly in marketing activities but from time to time they communicate with customers (receptionists, information desk staff, secretaries, etc.) and - influencers similarly to modifiers’ occasionally communicate with customers but they take an active part in production of marketing strategy of a municipal unit; they are mainly municipal authorities who negotiate with a potential investor, etc. Finally, Process in case of city branding/marketing literally means the exact procedure for distribution of the place, individual subjects and surroundings such as, companies, government agencies, citizens, etc. Politics has deep implications in the process of marketing a city. Therefore, lobbying is a suggested tool in the marketing mix for a city. The last stage of the process is ‘Implementation’ of the strategy, which further requires managing and auditing. This is the end of the first cycle, however, not the end of the process. Based on the progress after the audit the 2nd cycle begins, and it goes on and on. The reasons for this is that the environment of the city, and world over changes constantly. A city to be a good product and a brand needs to re-invent itself with the changing scenarios (Matlovičová, 2007).
    • 36 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 MARKETING STRATEGY FOR PLACES Marketing of places is conducted at two main levels, which is strategic and operational in nature (Kotler, Place Marketing Strategy, 2002). According to Kotler, place marketing typically takes place in four broad environments: The author measures the success of place marketing on two axes, ‘Strategic Ability’ and ‘Implementation Ability’. Depending on how high or low a place’s marketing efforts lie on the two axes, the marketing strategy can be assessed. - When a place falls low on both strategic and implementation ability, it is called ‘the loser’, broadly implying that the place lacks the capacity to strategize or implement the marketing plan successfully - On the opposite end of the axes, lie ‘the expanders’ who rank high on both strategic and implementation ability. This implies that the place has a well defined long term strategy and the accompanying plan of action in place - ‘the frustrators’ rank high on strategic ability, but have low implementation capacity, rendering the strategy aspect futile for the place
    • 37 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 - ‘the gamblers’ rank low on their strategic ability, but have high implementation capacity, which can result in short term success depending on the environment and timing for the place According to the author, a balance of strategy and implementation is the key to a successful place marketing process. The stakeholders need to identify the current position of the place, and devise a plan to work on implementation or strategy, whichever is required to gain long term success. The stakeholders or planners in a city’s strategic marketing plan comprise of local, regional, national and international players (Kotler, Major Actors in a Place Marketing Process, 1999). The people who make the list at each level of players is following: Local Players: - Public Sector Actors: o Mayor/City Manager o Business Development Department in the Community o Urban Development Planning Department in the Community (Transport, Education, Sanitation, etc.) o Tourist Bureau o Conventions Bureau o Public Information Bureau - Private Sector Actors: o Individual Citizens o Leading Enterprises o Real Estate Developers and Agents o Financial Institutions (Banks and Insurance Companies o Electricity and Gas Utilities o Telecommunication Companies o Chambers of Commerce and Other Local Business Organizations o Hospitality and Retail Industries (Hotels, Restaurants, Department Stores, Retailers, Exhibition and Convention Centers)
    • 38 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 o Travel Agencies o Labor Market Organizations o Architects o Transport Companies (Taxi, Railway, Train, Airlines, etc.) o Media Companies Regional Players - Regional Economic Development Agencies - Local and State Government - Regional Tourist Boards National players - Political Heads of the Government - Inward Investment Agencies - National Tourist Boards International players - Embassies and Consulates - Inward Investment Agencies - Economic Development Agencies with a specific link to a city or a region - International Enterprises with a place bound link The author adds that a successful place marketing strategy demands that all the players are addressed and involved in the process. He refers to the concept of ‘cross marketing’, essentially implying that there exist links between all the players, and they are not mutually exclusive. Therefore, the strategy formulation should market to and among the players.
    • 39 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 SUCCESS FACTORS FOR PLACE MARKETING For a successful place marketing technique, a general framework renders useful. A total of nine factors for result oriented place marketing have been rendered imperative (Rainisto, Success Factors in Place Marketing, 2003/2004), as explained by the diagram below: - Planning Group - Vision and Strategic Analysis - Place Identity and Place Image - Public-Private Partnerships - Political Unity - Global Marketplace - Local Development - Process Coincidences - Leadership
    • 40 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 According to the author, in a successful place marketing technique, the success factors need to be linked with the practices, which are Events in the place marketing practices, Events in the network and Events in the macroenvironment. The two needs to be co-related in order to measure success or failure of the marketing process. He further explains that the factors inside the prism, in the figure above represent ‘self action’ factors, while the factors outside the prism in the circle represent the environmental challenges. The place marketing practices are mainly coordinated by the management team who is responsible for the execution of the place marketing process. The nine success factors determine why place marketing is successful for unsuccessful? The impact of each of the factors is explained below: PLANNING GROUP: According to the author, the planning group is responsible for the execution of the place marketing process. It usually consists of local and government authorities, external consultants, and industry professionals (Rainisto, Success Factors in Place Marketing, 2003/2004). As a part of the job description, the planning group identifies the strengths and weaknesses of the city, and develops a long term strategic plan of action, implementable for 10-15 years. The planning group also devises the vision and strategic outlook of the place being marketed. VISION AND STRATEGIC ANALYSIS This factor identifies a clear vision for the city, which means Vision in place marketing is the profound intuition and insight of the place about its future long-term position in the place market. Mission is the basic task domain of a place, defining the utmost ground for the place existence. (Rainisto 2000b) (Rainisto, Success Factors in Place Marketing, 2003/2004).
    • 41 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 Strategy means the way in which an organization takes care of its core tasks. Strategic analysis is a detailed examination of the elements of strategic information for this purpose. (Rainisto 2000b) (Rainisto, Success Factors in Place Marketing, 2003/2004) The author enunciates that formation of the vision and the accompanied strategic analysis is important for a successful place marketing strategy. He also proposes a check list for formation of the vision: - The desired outcome should be decided upon, and the vision should be drafted in collaboration with all the stakeholders. o The strategies should be devised for both the short term and the long term - After understanding the strengths and weakness of the city, the attractions (the hard and the soft factors) for the city should be identified - The customers for the place should be defined - Adaptation of the product (place) as per the needs of the consumer - A competitive analysis must be conducted - The Unique Selling Proposition for the city should be identified PLACE IDENTITY AND PLACE IMAGE A successful place marketing strategy takes both ends of the perspectives into account. The place identity is what the place wants to depict to the consumer, through focusing on certain types of attractions, using appropriate promotional strategies and the marketing logos along with it; while, the place image is the sum of experiences and beliefs that the consumer has with the place developing its image over time. He further adds that the branding exercise has an impact on image building for the place, but a systematic marketing communication to the target group leads to real experiences, making the image closer to the identity. PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS Public-Private partnerships are critical to a successful execution of the marketing strategy. The author specifies that if the government and the industry work in tandem with each other, it paves the way for a futuristic city branding and marketing process.
    • 42 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 The advantages of a public-private partnership are lowering of costs, combined development of facilities in the city, entrepreneurial thinking, etc. POLITICAL UNITY Since there are a number of stakeholders and decision makers in the place marketing process, it is important that they operate in a unified manner. Political Unity means agreement about public affairs in general among the political decision maker (Rainisto, Success Factors of Place Marketing: A study of place marketing practices in Northern Europe and the United States, 2003/2004). Therefore, there cannot be fight for power between the stakeholders, they need to operate in conjunction with each other for achieve efficiency for the strategy. GLOBAL MARKETPLACE AND LOCAL DEVELOPMENT Global Marketplace and Local Development implies the internal and external environment affecting the marketing process for a city. Since, the advent of globalization, the city needs to be aware of its external environment, its competition and advances in the completion. It needs to network, communicate the right marketing messages, and form a global approach to the consumer. At the same time, internally the city needs to develop the facilities, and improve its offerings to the consumer PROCESS COINCIDENCES Process Coincidences are defined as the remarkable concurrences of events, which apparently by chance, which take place during the process (Rainisto, Success Factors of Place Marketing: A study of place marketing practices in Northern Europe and the United States, 2003/2004). These coincidences are externalities which may not appear in the plan of long term strategy. Therefore, it is required that while a strategy plan is being devised the probability of positive and negative externalities is accounted for and contingency plans are put in place, as per the author.
    • 43 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 LEADERSHIP Leadership is considered the most important factor to the success of place marketing. The leadership should keep in mind the identity of the place and work towards using the available resources in the best way possible to communicate the brand of the city. Therefore, a good leadership should be supportive, motivational and well versed with the consumers’ expectations and desires from the place.
    • 44 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 KNOWLEDGE GAP & NEED FOR RESEARCH There are a plethora of models available defining the theory for the city branding or a place marketing process. However, most of the work done in this area concentrates on the developed world. In South Asia, particularly, no clear or distinctive work has been done in the area of city branding. Therefore there exists a clear knowledge gap for city branding in Asia, particularly in India. This dissertation attempts to review the branding efforts for places across the world, and apply the learning to India. Taking the case study of Delhi 2010, the research will try to map it against the developed models for city branding, understand the semantic difference between the current image and desired image of the city, identify the stakeholders involved, evaluate the existing branding efforts by the city, analyze the need-gap and finally, recommend changes/adaptations for a better branding process for Delhi. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY & OBJECTIVES Since there is a very little research done on the subject of Branding of Cities in India, the industry and the phenomena is a very nascent stage. Therefore, the research undertaken will be exploratory in nature. The research attempts to unravel the following main objectives: OBJECTIVE 1: TO UNDERSTAND THE PROCESS OF PLACE MARKETING AND CITY BRANDING, THE ACCEPTED MODELS, THEORIES, CRITISICM, AND LIVE EXAMPLES. OBJECTIVE 2: TO EXPLORE HOW THE ASSOCIATIONS CAN BE UTILIZED FOR LEVERAGING MARKETING ACTIVITIES, IN LIEU OF COMMONWEALTH DELHI2010 OBJECTIVE 3: TO DEVELOP BRANDING POSSIBILITIES FOR DELHI
    • 45 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 RESEARCH DESIGN The study will be conducted in three main phases, as explained by the diagram below. The research will be conducted in two main phases: SECONDARY RESEARCH This stage will be useful in providing a defined framework for the primary research stage. The first step is conducting a detailed literature review in order to understand the varied methodology and concepts used for place marketing and branding techniques. This also helps in determining the factors which are imperative for a successful branding exercise. To substantiate the models and theory, a case study method will be employed to study the Phase IIPhase I Phase III EXPLORATORY RESEARCH SECONDARY RESEARCH PRIMARY RESEARCH - QUALITATIVE LITERATURE REVIEW CASE STUDIES EXPERT INTERVIEWS TARGET GROUP INTERVIEWS DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS RESULTS AND IMPLICATIONS CONCLUSION
    • 46 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 places which have been branded, how successful they have been and what were the factors behind their success or failure. CASE STUDY METHOD: The case study method allows a contextual analysis of actual situations which validate the strength of the earlier research. This research proposal will benefit from the case study method as it will enable investigation of the research questions by providing verification and proof in multiple case settings, which can be linked with the expert interviews in the industry later to provide a holistic view into the study. Selection Criteria for Cases: The cases are chosen on the basis of their commonalities with the concepts explored and the application of the concepts in the cases chosen. Since, the case study method implores upon information orientation, the following cases will be studied as the classic success stories of city branding - Successful City Branding: o New York o Paris PRIMARY RESEARCH This phase will attempt to cover the industry and consumer side perspective to provide a wholesome outcome to the study. INDUSTRY PERSPECTIVE: This will involve interviews with the professionals who have worked in the field of city branding exercises in the industry. In depth interviews will be conducted in light of the research objectives to garner the current industry positioning, gaps in the system, need for improvement, trends and expected evolution. Total Number of Expert Interviews Proposed: 5
    • 47 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 CONSUMER SIDE PERSPECTIVE: In-depth interviews will be conducted with the target segment for Delhi as a branded city, in the lieu of Games 2010. The interviews will attempt to understand the current perceptions, imagery, expectations, and impact for a branding exercise for Delhi in accordance with the research objectives. The target segment of consumers has been divided into three main segments: - Living: Inhabitants of the City and The Creative Class - Working: Entrepreneurs who create jobs in the city, People who come to work - Staying: Tourists who come to the city for varied purposes No. of Years Spent in Delhi No. of Respondents Living (5-10yrs) 20 Working (2-5yrs) 15 Staying (0-1yrs) 15 These in-depth interviews will be conducted at the natural habitat and surroundings of the respondents, and will attempt to cover various touch points for the brand Delhi. Observational research will be conducted at Airports, Hotels, Offices, etc. Under each of the heads mentioned, the classification is described as follows: - Living (5-10yrs): Old timers of Delhi who have seen the progress and development of the city. This will include elderly people, housewives, students who have studied for the most part in Delhi or were born and brought up in Delhi - Working (2-5yrs): Non-natives of Delhi, who have migrated from other cities to find employment or have been transferred to the city in order to see comparability - Staying (0-1yrs): Tourists, Exchange students, Expatriates, etc. who form immediate perceptions on the basis of experiencing the city. RATIONALE FOR IN-DEPTH INTERVIEWS: In-depth interviews have been chosen for both the respondent types due to:
    • 48 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 1. Niche and specialized subject matter 2. Information sought is detailed in nature 3. Allows for face-to-face contact with the respondents 4. Allows for space to clarify/modify questions enabling relevant and useful responses 5. Provides an opportunity to uncover deeper, non documented details SAMPLING PLAN Sampling Universe (Proposed): - Industry Perspective: Industry Experts, Delhi Government Officials, Common Wealth Games 2010 Marketing Head, etc, - Consumer Perspective: Citizens of Delhi, Tourists to Delhi, Working Professionals in Delhi, Students in Delhi, etc. Sampling Technique: - Purposive and Snowballing sampling Sampling Unit: - Individual Purposive Sampling technique is proposed to identify the subjects for interviews. It is suggested as the identification can be based on the interest of the subject or the relevant experience in the industry. Snowballing is suggested in order to generate leads from the subjects contacted by using their social and professional networks. Since, this is a referral based method, it allows for more credibility in the interviewer and allows for better quality results and success rates. The choice of purposive sampling is due to the following factors: - Ability to choose respondents on the basis of their interest, therefore high knowledge in the area is useful for the type of research undertaken - Data collected for the study benefits the respondents for their further research into the topic - Economical and Convenient
    • 49 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 BRANDING DELHI : DEVELOPING A MARKETING CASE STUDY
    • 50 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 BRANDING DELHI Delhi, the capital of India occupies an area of 1,483 sq km, with nearly 14 milliion people in the city. It is situated near the western bank of river Yamuna, and is surrounded by the Himalayas and the Aravalis ranges. The languages spoken in the city include Hindi, English, Punjabi and Urdu (Maps of India, 2008). DELHI, IT’S ORIGIN AND HISTORY The first evidence to the city of Delhi comes from The Mahabharata, by the name Indraprastha build by Yudhistra in 1400 BC (Delhi, Where Every Stone has a Story to Tell, 2002-2003). Legend believes that Delhi derives its name from Raja Dhilu, around 1st century BC, who built a city near the current location of Qutub Minar after his name. Delhi has a rich cultural heritage and has seen the rise and fall of many empires. It is believed that the geographical location of Delhi has been the key factor in it being in the seat of power (History of Delhi). Delhi is a combination of a seven ancient cities, ruled by different empires at different times: It is believed that the city first came into existence in the 13th century by Anagpal Tomar. Which set the foundation for the seven cities of Delhi called Lal Kot. Lal Kot was conquered by the Chauhan clan, where Prithvi Raj Chauhan built and extended the city to be called Quila Rai Pithora. In 1191 AD, the city was invaded by Muhammad Ghuri, who ruled the city till 1206 AD. Invaded by Qutub-ud-din Aibak, Delhi saw the beginning of the Slave Dynasty, which lasted from 1211-1227. The Qutub Minar was built during this period. This was followed by the Khilji Dynasty from 1296-1316, ruled by Allauddin Khilji, who made the Siri Fort and called the city Siri. Siri was conquered by the Tughlaqs in 1308 AD and ruled by Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq. This began the Tughlaq dynasty and the formation of a city called Tughlaqabad. During the Tughlaq dynasty, Mohammed bin Tughlaq built the fourth city of Delhi between Siri and Tughlaqabad and named it Jahanpanah, in the 14th century. This was followed by building of Ferozabad by Feroz Shah Tughlaq. The Ashoka
    • 51 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 pillar is a remnant from this era. This was the end of the Tughlaq dynasty and the beginning of the Mughal dynasty. Humayun built Dilli Sher Shahi in 1534 AD, which can completed by Sher Shah Suri. Kabuli, Lal Darwaza etc. are ruins from this era. The last in line of the seven ancient cities of Delhi is Shahjahanbad, built by Shah Jahan, the fifth Mughal emperor in 1608 AD. During this time, the historic structures such as the Red Fort, Jama Masjid, and Streets of today’s chandni chowk were made. After this, Delhi saw various battles and wars till 1803. The British took control of Delhi during this period and shifted the capital from Calcutta to Delhi in 1811. According to the history, Delhi played an important role in the first independence movement of 1857. During this time, Lord Edward Lutyen developed Delhi and built Connaught Place, Rajpath, The Supreme Court, The Parliament and the President’s Bungalow. Delhi has remained Indian’s capital since 1811. Delhi was declared the status of the nation’s capital after independence in 1945 and it received the status of the state in 1992. The Seven Ancient Cities of Delhi
    • 52 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 The Current Map of Delhi Some of the Prominent Localities of Delhi Include: - Connaught Place - Chanakyapuri - Old Delhi, Chandni Chowk, etc. - Mehrauli - Saket, Vasant Kunj - Greater Kailash - Rajendra Nagar - Patel Nagar - New Friends Colony - Dhaula Kuan - Nizzamuddin - North Campus - South Campus - South Extension
    • 53 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 MAIN ATTRACTIONS OF DELHI Consumer interviews, observation of tourist patterns and speaking to tour organizers divides Delhi’s attractions into the following broad themes: Historical: - The Qutub Minar - Lal Qila (The Red Fort) - Jama Masjid - Tughlaqabad - Humayun’s Tomb - Safdarjung Tomb Natural & Green: - The Ridge - Protected Forest Areas - Lodhi Gardens Art & Cultural - The National Museum - India Habitat Centre - The Rail Museum - The Doll Musuem - The Delhi Race Course Indian & National - The Parliament - India Gate - The Supreme Court - Shanti Path
    • 54 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 THE PRODUCT CALLED DELHI – AN EVOLUTION Delhi has come a long way over its journey from the seven ancient cities of Delhi, to the independent India’ capital, to the New Delhi, as we know of today; The heart and soul of contemporary India, Delhi is defined as clean, lush, cosmopolitan and is comparable to the known cities of the world. And at the same time it maintains its old world charm in all its glory. To add to this, the people of Delhi give it a colorful character, which forms the core of Delhi. Delhi is described as the city of with a big heart, a city deeply steeped in history with a vibrant mix of cultures, with large spaces and ample greenery. Consumers were asked what they thought of Delhi, and the following insights were derived: - Delhi is the contemporary capital of India: o “Delhi is the centre for all activities, every trend starts from Delhi” o “The 'center', aptly named… is the heart of the nation... being the political capital, is the heart and mind of the nation” o “Delhi is the national capital of India. It stands for everything India as a nation stands for, from secularism to plurality, to prosperity to ghettos and yes of course, world class and the next big thing.” o “Vibrant, capital city, symbolizing New India” o “A city full of tradition yet still modern” - Delhi is Home: o “There might be places i would want to go to, to spend holidays, to have fun but ultimately i get tired of them and want to return home, and Delhi is my Home and I’ll never move out of it. It’s the best city in the whole world. I am proud to be a Delhite.” o “For me, the best place to be living and/or working in the entire nation. Like every other city in the world, it has its pros and cons. have lived in Delhi my entire life, and fortunately (or unfortunately as some like to believe), it shows. The only place I would like to call home.” o “My Favorite city in India, its big and vast, has place for people from all parts of the world.”
    • 55 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 - Delhi has an attitude and it shows: o “Lively, culturally-rich, loud, Punjabi, opulent, show-off, political, diverse, home, historical, religious” o “Boisterous, Loud (in a nice way), Vibrant” o “Shosha, tashan, paisa…” o “Loud: Be it music or the choice of clothes or the way someone greets you! It can be really irritating, but then you need to accept the city as it is and you'll start enjoying it. :-)” - Delhi is a heady mix of culture, cuisines and philosophies: o “Political Capital, Fashion Capital, Huge city, well planned in the new areas” o “Large spaces, greenery in some places, Victorian feel at some places, not as buzzing as bombay, but very sophisticated” o “Steeped in history.. great architecture.. a true metropolis.. home of political activism” o “Has its own character...blend of so many cultures, fast paced life, the best food ever, dilli gol hai!!” o “Beautiful, clean, wide roads, great restaurants” o “Everything is larger than life. Unfaltering spirit. Pollution gone down! Beautiful new infrastructure. So much variety in food and shopping. Historical landmarks. Pragati Maidan. CP. Metro! The fact that once you're lived in Delhi you can live anywhere :)” Most of the respondents said that Delhi is the place to be, with or without its problems. The study further investigated what works for Delhi and what works against Delhi.
    • 56 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 WHAT WORKS FOR DELHI? Delhi’s appeal lies in the way it welcomes people according to most respondents. As one respondent said, “It’s an organism. It breathes, it grows, its constantly maturing, much like you and me. Delhi has this strange magnanimity, no heart or home is ever too small, and everyone’s always welcome.” The key characteristics which work for Delhi, as uncovered by the in-depth interviews are: - Space - Well managed Infrastructure - The wide roads and flyovers - A wide variety of tasty food, for every income group - The Bazaars - Greenery - Lutyen’s Delhi - Delhi Winter - Heritage Sites and Monuments - The Delhi Metro - Bungalows - Friendly People WHAT WORKS AGAINST DELHI? Delhi’s infamous for its security issues. The city often named “unsafe for women” suffers hugely due to this. Most of the respondents interviewed expressed concerns over this matter, and also how it affects the overall perception of Delhi. In brief, the things which go against Delhi as per the in-depth interviews are: - Disrespect and Safety issues for Women - Poor Management and Lack of Public Transport - Road Rage (Accidents by Blue-line and DTC buses) - Nosy Neighbours
    • 57 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 - Increasing Pollution - Thugs - Red-tape and Babudom THE TYPICAL ‘DELHITE’ A typical Delhite is described as somebody who lives life kingsize, is a lot of fun, is a social animal, loves food, and is a bit of a show off. Overall, a Typical Delhite can be categorized into the following main stereotypes, as per analysis of consumer perceptions: THE PUNJABI AUNTIE Usually a well decked up middle aged woman, who believes in bling to the highest core. She knows all the luxury brands in the world, even though she doesn’t know how to pronounce them. She is intrusive in other people’s matters and her social life consists of theme kitty parties, marriages and noon indulgence in Saas-Bahu serials. She belongs to the families of traditionally rich and she loves to indulge in shopping. Her communication touch points are mostly television, in-store promotions and recently discovered facebook. She relies highly on word of mouth and recommendations from her social circle. THE HIGH FLYING EXECUTIVE Always on the move, this prototype is in the age group of mid 20’s to late 30’s. Usually works in the new age offices in the NCR region of Delhi, and spends a considerable amount of time on the road, driving to and from work. His/Her weekdays are packed with work, and this Delhite parties hard on the weekends. Belonging to the self made, new rich category, this Delhite believes in living a good life. Usually owns all the gadgets, has a shiny car and spends a lot of afternoons sitting at coffee shops with a laptop working out of office. This Delhite doesn’t have time to watch television and the communication touch
    • 58 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 points for him/her are mostly social media, radio on the roads, outdoor hoardings, and on ground promotions. THE SOUTH DELHI SNOB This Delhite, as the name suggests lives in South Delhi, which includes areas such as Vasant Kunj, Greater Kailash, Green Park, Hauz Khas, Saket, RK Puram, etc. These Delhite believe that they are a cut above the rest of Delhi and is very contemporary in nature. Highly influenced by globalization, this Delhite is very brand conscious, and knows how to carry them off. He/She is a actively practices fine dining. He/She is retailers dream, who looks good, takes care of themselves, indulges in all types of personal care, spends a considerable amount of money and time on dressing up. He/She lives in plush bungalows and owns top end models of cars. The communication touch points for him/her are Television, Internet, Restaurant Promotions and VIP Events. THE DILLI MUNDA This type of a Delhite is a loud mouthed, crass, young man with a lot of brawn. He is usually seen driving around in the lanes of East and West Delhi, playing loud music blasting through his speakers. He likes to brag, and make things appear larger than life. Usually seen in groups of other similar boys, He’s the true blood of a hindi movies’ version of a Punjabi Munda. Interests include checking out beautiful Delhi women, watching movies, going to the bars, indulging in food and spending of the new fads. The communication touch points for him are radio, the internet, food joints and merchandise of preferred brands. THE PSEUDO INTELLECTUAL COLLEGIATE The Pseudo intellectual collegiate is a kurta clad, jhola carrying Delhite, who is usually seen having heated conversations about the political scenario, the economics, the history, media or simply the weather. This Delhite always has an opinion, and believes that he/she
    • 59 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 knows more than most people. This Delhite is classy and contemporary at the same time, is very interested in art, theatre, fests, gigs, and rock music. He/she endorses the khadi movement, helps out in social work and is an active citizen. The communication touch points for him/her are Television, Radio, Event Marketing and Social Media. DELHI THE PERSON The personification of Delhi translates it to a woman. A woman is beautiful, breathtaking and serene. She has a sense of humor in all her ways. She is accepting and welcoming to all types of people from different cultures, religions, castes and philosophies. She loves them all equally. She is honest in her way of giving. She is classy and contemporary. Well steeped into the traditions of the country, she is the woman of yesterday, today and tomorrow. The findings from the in-depth interview deduce that more than 75% of the respondents interviewed felt that Delhi would be a Female, if it were a person. The main characteristics in Delhi as a person are listed below: - A Mix of Tradition and Contemporary - Classy - Beautiful - Accepting - Pure and Honest - Self Righteous - Wholesome DELHI IN COLORS The colors play a big part in developing associations for a city. In depth interviews with the respondents brought out the following associations with the color palette for Delhi:
    • 60 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 - Red: Approximately 60% of the respondents associated the color red with Delhi. o “The Mughal Constructions, The Red Fort, The Jama Masjid… Red is the first color that comes to your mind, when you think of Delhi.” - Green: Green came a close second with about 55% of the people voting for Delhi as Green. o “There’s so much greenery, lodhi gardens, deer park, the preserved forest area near Mehrauli.” - White: White has approximately 45% of the votes, mainly owning to the presence of the government, the Parliament, India Gate, etc. in Delhi - Blue and Silver were voted for Delhi’s winters and Pink was voted for the skyline and pretty women of Delhi - Gold also has a high percentage mainly due to the bling aspect of Delhi. o “The decked up aunties with loaded jewellery, gold is definitely a color for Delhi” NICKNAMES FOR DELHI Delhi popularly known as Dilli, universally across respondents garnered the first response as Dilli. Some mentioned variants such as, “Dilli Diwalon Ki”, “Saddi Dilli”, “Dilwalo Di Dilli”, “Dilwalo ki Nagri”, “Babli Dilli”. Some of the other nicknames mentioned were: - Alishan - D-city - Ol’Chatty Grannie - Deadly Delhi - City of Hope - City of Djins - Lutyen’s Delhi
    • 61 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 COMPETITION FROM OTHER WORLD CLASS CITIES “Any city might be wholesome but it needs to be compared to other world class cities, for it to develop a meaningful value proposition” – Sudio Sudarshan, Director, Brand Advisory “Contemporary globalisation of the late twentieth century encouraged the proliferation of globally organised production systems. Economies of scale in knowledge, economies of scope in corporate networks and competitive factor prices have resulted in high geographical mobility of global capital, both financial as well as human. This has initiated a worldwide urban economic competition as well as impacted the very nature of today's cities.” – Madhav Raman, Partner, Anagram Architects Taking these learnings and applying them to Delhi, The study compared Delhi to the established cities of the world such as New York, London, Paris, Singapore and Hong Kong, and asked the respondents to rate Delhi against them on the basis of perceptions formed. All respondents had been atleast 3 cities inclusive of Delhi. Taking these cities as a parameter across categories, on a Likert Scale, among the 50 respondents interviewed the following results came through on an overall rating: 10, 20% 12, 24% 20, 40% 5, 10% 3, 6% Delhi against other world class cities 5 4 3 2 1
    • 62 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 Delhi performed average in comparison to cities such as New York, Hong Kong, Singapore, Paris and London. 40% of the people interviewed rated Delhi at the Likert scale of ‘3’, making 40% of the responses. - “All cities are different. Unique! Delhi, has a rich culture, maybe richer than all the above stated. But infra wise, needs to develop more. As a brand, I think Delhi stands much higher than all of the above.” About 24% felt that it deserved a rating of ‘4’. 20% of the respondents felt that Delhi deserves a top rating for the uniqueness it offers in terms of variety compared to the other cities. - “I find it difficult to compare Delhi to other cities as it is quite unique. I think that Delhi is still not recognized as an international centre, and there is not much international presence in Delhi compared to London, New York, Tokyo, Hong Kong or Kuala Lumpur. However, I think the unique nature that Delhi has is its strength - I think one could say that it is bold and daring, insofar as it likes to meet and embrace the future and modern developments, but still make a point of its historical sites and also contain tradition elements. Of course, when one says that Delhi has traditional elements, that is in comparison to the west where there is not such a great sense of a singular culture pervading everyday life.” - “5/5 as no city can compare the rich culture and heritage, with diverse blend of people and places…” Only 10% of the people rated it below average and 6% of the respondents gave Delhi a poor rating. The main reasons stated for a poor rating for Delhi is the lack of proper public transport and security issues. - “Honestly it falls behind on most indicators especially - crime, infrastructure, standard of living, healthcare. Would beat most cities on history and culture parameters though!” - “In terms of infrastructure development, Delhi is certainly the most advanced city in India. However, it still does not compare to famous international cities, such as the ones mentioned here.”
    • 63 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 The analysis of Delhi against other world class cities shows a lot of potential for Delhi. As can be inferred a large chunk of the respondents see Delhi as good, and a total of 44% believe it’s better than average. Therefore a strategic branding exercise for Delhi can benefit Delhi greatly in terms of its positioning in the perceptions of people. A lot of respondents showed optimism and positivity to the future prospects of Delhi, these people admitted to the problems of Delhi, but implied conviction to betterment in the near future. - “City is evolving as fast as it could. It’s still low on the people’s attitude, however its catching up on few industries such as fashion, multinationals, etc. There needs to be a 360 degree change and evolution…” - “As great as it is, Delhi still has a long way to go to match the likes of these world metros. Will get there someday. Soon!” THE CURRENT DELHI BRANDING To understand the impact of Common Wealth Games on the overall perceptions of Delhi branding, the study researched the rationale behind the design and color choices for the logo and Shera – the mascot. The logo has been inspired by the ‘Chakra’, which is a signification of the nation’s pride, unity and freedom. Since it circles towards the top, it is a signification of India’s development into a new vibrant nation, and shift from traditional to a contemporary India. The Tagline, “Come out and Play” is inviting people across the world to Delhi. The colors chosen for the logo are green, blue, purple, pink, red, and yellow. The green signifies the first ever green games, and India’s dedication to energy preservation. The colors purple and blue are for reassurance and calming aspects, along with some mystery element. The colors red, blue and yellow signify three main values: red
    • 64 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 for humanity, yellow for destiny and blue for blue for equality. Finally the color pink signifies luxury and a surprise element for the games. Shera the Mascot: Shera derived from the Hindi word sher meaning tiger represents the true modern India. He is designed to be a traditional being looking forward into the future. His attire is athletic in nature. His animated expressions defined him as one with a big heart, who is motivating others to “come out and play”. RESONANCE, RECALL AND PERCEPTION OF CURRENT BRANDING ACTIVITIES OF DELHI To understand the resonance between the branding activities of the Common Wealth Games and the perceptions formed in the audiences’ minds, the study interviewed respondents to recall any focused branding activities that they might have seen of Delhi. This exercise was undertaken to analyze the current perception of Delhi. Since, no focused branding for Delhi has been undertaken barring the Common Wealth Games 2010. The study utilizes techniques of non aided and aided brand recall, as explained further. NON AIDED RECALL Approximately 73% of the 50 in-depth interviewees did not recall any branding activities related to Delhi. While about 15% identified vague branding activities related to the Times Delhi Festival, Lakme Delhi Fashion Week, Dilwalon Ki Dilli – Incredible India Campaign, ‘Keep Delhi Clean, Keep Delhi Green – by the State Government’, The Airtel Delhi Marathon, etc. Only about 12% of the people mentioned clear branding and promotion undertaken by the Common Wealth Games Committee. They mentioned the following promotions: - OOH of the logo outside the Bus Stops
    • 65 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 - The Save Yamuna Campaign by Common Wealth Games - Revamped DTC Buses with Delhi2010 hoardings AIDED RECALL When asked about branding promotions by the CWG Committee, 60% of the respondents agreed to have seen some or the other promotions of Delhi2010. The mediums they had been exposed to included: - Print Ads in Newspapers - The Countdown to the games at the Common Wealth Building - Bus Stops related to the Delhi2010 Mascot - Neon sign with a countdown near the BRT building - OOH at the Metro Stations - Radio Promotions - Shera, the Mascot on Television - Taglines such as “Chalo Dilli” and “Come out and Play” The study further enquired their perceptions on the logo of Delhi2010 and Shera – the mascot of Delhi2010 by showing the following picture: The response to the perception the logo and the mascot was divided into two extremes. While most respondents felt overall that the mascot represented fun and warmth and recognized the connection with the tiger being the national animal, some were unable to find significance to Delhi.
    • 66 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 - “He is cute, but dont know what is the relation between Delhi & tiger The logo is pretty and has Indian style again dont know why delhi” - “Logo seems to be pretty standard for such events. Logo is cute, likable but not necessarily related to Delhi....” The other extreme of respondents were able to find connections with Delhi in the mascot and the logo. They agreed that since the Tiger is the national animal and Delhi is the capital, it makes obvious sense. Some also commented that while the logo stands for unity, and Shera adds a frivolous touch to it. - “Logo is ethnic, it looks like a flame, its bright, its futuristic the mascot is friendly, fun, sporty…” - “Lots of colors, Indian due to shera name and Indian flag on vest.” - “It is Tiger which is our national animal and Delhi is our capital so they co relate and it is going to be fun event with lots of colors and grandeur” - “Tiger – big hearted and strong – just like Delhi”
    • 67 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 DEVELOPING A BRAND FOR DELHI As Professor Ashok Ranchod, states that for a city to develop into a brand, it is a four step process: “A successful branding effort for a place needs to have four essential ingredients (Ranchod, 2005): - Relevance - What makes the country’s (place’s) offerings relevant to key audiences? (Make an emotional connection) - Awareness - If few people are aware of a country’s (place’s) existence, then branding building is even more crucial (Determine your own fame) - Differentiation - Why is the country (place) distinct in the eyes of the customers? What sets it apart from others within the peer or competitor set? (Dare to be different) - Consistency - A brand can only be developed through the delivery of a consistent set of messages, ideas and interactions over time. (Internalize the brand)
    • 68 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 This study uses these four steps for the initial branding of Delhi. The three audiences for the product city are: - Living: People who are from the city and live in the city - Working: People who come to a city for employment and settle there - Staying: People who visit the city (tourists) or stay for a short duration in the city The applicability of these four steps for Delhi is as follows: RELEVANCE OF DELHI The relevance of a city is measured by what it offers to its audiences. In case of Delhi, for each of the three target audiences provides a distinct set of offerings to each of its target audiences. - For the living segment, Delhi offers a well designed city to live in, with wide roads, good property rentals, well valued real estate, all types of amenities comparable to the developed world, etc. - For the working segment, Delhi offers a range of employment opportunities, with a range of industries setting up shop here and high value investments, Delhi is the place to work in. In addition to this, Delhi has a range of educational institutes, hence it’s a lucrative option for students to migrate and study in Delhi - For the staying segment, Delhi, the capital city of India has a mix of tourism options which caters to every mood and occasion. With options ranging from historical ruins, to art and culture museums, Delhi has something for every type of tourist. It is also a transit place and a base for many tourists who want to explore India’s mountains, deserts and rural India Therefore, Delhi measures high on the relevance quotient, in terms of what it can offer to the three types of target audiences. In addition to this, Delhi offers all this in a complete Indian mannerism, therefore, forms an emotional connection with all its target audiences inherently.
    • 69 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 THE AWARENESS LEVELS OF DELHI According to the CIA World Factbook 2009, Delhi figures amongst the eight cities from the developing world, in the top ten urban agglomerations of the world. With India being touted as the next super power, and Delhi being the capital of the country, the awareness levels of Delhi are very high across the world. As Anupam Yog, Managing Director of Mirabilis Advisory (P) Limited, puts across, “More compelling figures relate to the distribution of urban centres in the world. While the density of mega-cities (cities of at least 10 million people) in the developed world is currently higher, experts predict high urbanisation rates in the developing world will mean an extremely rapid displacement of developed country cities on the list of the world’s largest cities by those in developing countries within the next decade. “ In addition to this, with the Common Wealth Games scheduled to be held in 2010 in Delhi have created vast awareness to the hitherto unknown areas of Delhi, through their campaigns. Delhi, in comparison to its counterparts in the world, is differentiated in its value proposition due to the lack of a single compelling promise. Rather, Delhi offers a distinct flavor of a mix of modern and preserved ancient co-existence. Unlike a New York, which is pure contemporary, or a Paris which is purely old world charm, New Delhi is a marketer’s heaven in the age of the world getting smaller. The west is being influenced by the east, and New Delhi becomes a reference point for that change. Therefore, what differentiate Delhi is not it’s mirroring of the west, but, its rendering of traditions in a present-day packaging. HOW CONSISTENT IS DELHI? Consistency is measured by memes and repetition. Delhi has seen the rise and fall of many empires and has maintained its charm over centuries of struggle. The Delhi of today is also a constant reminder of the Delhi of yesterday. This value is consistent, repeated and seen in all aspects of the city, Delhi.
    • 70 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 ATTRACTING THE CREATIVE CLASS: THE 4 PILLARS OF BRANDING THE CITY: APPLICABILITY TO DELHI As per Mr. Sudio Sudarshan, Director, Brand Advisory explains, “City branding is based on four pillars and creativity in city branding leads to: 1. Education (research facilities, educational institutes, quality of education, etc.) 2. Industry (select industries with future in mind and investment viability); 3. Government (public amenities, security, infrastructure, etc.); 4. Foundation (tourism, history, culture, sports, arts, etc). These four parameters result in innovation. As explained in the diagram above, this cycle attracts the best talent, or the creative class in a region to a city (cluster), which further enhances each of these pillars. Using this acquired identity, a city needs to create meaningful and memorable image.” Mr. Madhav Raman, Partner, Anagram Architects explains the concept of ‘Industrial Cities’ and ‘Entrepreneurial Cities’: “Contemporary globalisation of the late twentieth century Creative Class Education Industry Government Foundation
    • 71 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 encouraged the proliferation of globally organised production systems. Economies of scale in knowledge, economies of scope in corporate networks and competitive factor prices have resulted in high geographical mobility of global capital, both financial as well as human. This has initiated a worldwide urban economic competition as well as impacted the very nature of today's cities. The last thirty years of urban growth has witnessed the shift of impetus away from the creation of the “Industrial City” and the emergence of the “Entrepreneurial City”. This shift has aided certain developing countries to grow their urban economies through international transactions in services as opposed to being manufacturing hubs.” He further adds how, developing nations have moved to foray investments into entrepreneurial cities: “The last decade of the 20th century and the first decade of the 21st century has also witnessed a huge spurt in the development of technology, infrastructure and economies of tier 2 and tier 3 cities in developing countries as well as the devolution of power from the nation state to urban governments. With a view to ease the pressure on their mega-cities and to better manage their urbanization, many developing countries are in the process of enabling these cities to be viable participants in the emerging inter-urban economic fray.” It is evident for any city to be successfully branded; it needs to fare fairly well on all of the above mentioned parameters. Therefore, to proceed further in the branding exercise, the study asked respondents to rate Delhi on a Likert Scale of 1-5 on each of these parameters.
    • 72 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 MEASURING DELHI’S PERFORMANCE ON THE FOUR PILLARS According to the consumer surveys, the following findings come through: EDUCATION: If the parameter of a well branded city was ‘Educational Institutes & overall quality of Education, how does Delhi fare from 1-5’. (1 being the lowest)? A Total of 73% of the respondents gave Delhi an above average or an excellent rating on the educational facilities that the city provides world class quality to its target audiences. INDUSTRY: If the parameter of a well branded city was ‘Industries, Headquarters, Global Corporations’, how does Delhi fare from 1-5. (1 being the lowest) 2% 5% 20% 25% 48% 1 2 3 4 5 Rating of Delhi on Education Parameter 3% 10% 25% 38% 24% 1 2 3 4 5 Rating of Delhi on Industry Parameter
    • 73 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 Delhi performs well on the Industry parameter as well, as a total of 64% of the respondents gave an above average rating to Delhi in terms of industrial development and avenues of investment. GOVERNMENT: Since, the Government parameter is fairly wide in its scope, for the purpose of this study, the parameters were further divided into sub categories: - Public Transport Delhi fares poorly on its’ public transport network provided by the government. Nearly 50% of the people rated Delhi below average on this parameter, and 30% voted it to be average. While the Delhi Metro has provided some relief, Delhi still has a long way to fare well on this parameter - Safety, Crime Rate, Overall Governance 15% 35% 30% 10% 10% 1 2 3 4 5 Rating of Delhi on Government (Public Transport) Parameter 30% 25% 25% 10% 10% 1 2 3 4 5 Rating of Delhi on Government (Safety,Crime Rate and Governance)Parameter
    • 74 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 Delhi also fares poorly on the safety parameter of Government. A total of 55% voted Delhi to be below average on these criteria. The major issue is Delhi’s inability to provide a safe environment for women. Delhi is also infamous for thuggery, dishonesty in shopkeepers, DTC menaces, etc. - Infrastructure, Real Estate and other Public Amenities On the final sub-parameter of Government, Delhi performs well, with a total of 52% rating Delhi above average and whopping 36% rating it as good. FOUNDATION: Foundation has been further divided into the following sub-parameters for the purpose of this - Historical Appeal 4% 8% 36% 28% 24% 1 2 3 4 5 Rating of Delhi on Government (Infrastructure and Public Amenities)Parameter 0% 5% 33% 40% 22% 1 2 3 4 5 Rating of Delhi on Foundation (Historical Appeal) Parameter
    • 75 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 Delhi performs very well on the historical appeal parameter, with a total of 62% of the respondents giving it a rating of above average. - Art & Cultural Diversity Delhi fares very high on the Art and Cultural diversity criteria, as Delhi is the national capital which caters of people from different backgrounds, who bring with them their own set of traditions, art forms and cultures. - Sports Avenues Delhi performs average on the rating scale for Sports avenues, as most respondents felt that while there is ample sports opportunities, there is no active promotion of sports apart from Cricket. There does exist various golf, polo, horse riding, hockey options, however, since the stakes are greatly tilted towards cricket, the overall rating is average. 1% 10% 28% 35% 26% 1 2 3 4 5 Rating of Delhi on Foundation (Art &Cultural Diversity)Parameter 10% 15% 31% 27% 17% 1 2 3 4 5 Rating of Delhi on Foundation (Sports Avenues) Parameter
    • 76 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 - Tourism Delhi fares very well on the tourism criterion, as Delhi attracts tourists from across the world for its beautiful sights, it provides world class facilities in terms of accommodation options, dining options, tour plan options, etc. A total of 62% of the respondents rated Delhi above average, and approximately 25% voted Delhi as a good place for tourism. 2% 12% 24% 40% 22% 1 2 3 4 5 Rating of Delhi on Foundation (Tourism)Parameter
    • 77 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 POSITIONING THE BRAND DELHI After developing the product Delhi into a brand, the study further explores the 3 P’s for branding a city. As Professor Ashok Ranchod explains, that a customer brand relationship is called brand relationship quality. He illustrates that a place offers experiences and services, that is, environment (political, social, economic, etc.), climate and healthcare, public utilities, etc. respectively. The way a brand of a city/country/place develops is through the following three Ps (Ranchod, 2005). o Promise: What is the single compelling idea which is offered to the target audience o Personality: What are the characteristics, which make the promise believable o Performance: How and how well is the promise delivered? In case of Delhi, it can be deduced that the city promises to be the symbol of the country’s vision, a living example of a heady mix of traditional and contemporary values. It promises to be a world class city, with a deep history, amenities, infrastructure, and a suitable environment. The characteristics of Delhi, as devised through consumer surveys have in-built areas which make the promise believable, such as the co-existence of the Mughal structures and the retail revolution, the ancestral rich and the young vibrant workaholics making money, the old bungalows and the plus high storey service apartments. In terms of performance, Delhi performs well on some aspects and fails on others and hence fails to fulfill the promise to its fullest. Therefore while crime rate, safety for women and thuggery are prime areas that Delhi needs to work upon. Still though, over the past decade, Delhi has undergone a major facelift: - Delhi now boasts of wide, well planned roads with ample flyovers, over bridges and bus corridors to manage traffic congestion problems. - Delhi has attempted to solve its public transport issues by bringing in the Delhi Metro in place, which has been a thriving success. In addition to this, due to the common wealth games, the Delhi government has also rolled out better quality
    • 78 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 Delhi Transport Buses, employed corrective measures for the maintenance of the existing ones. While this initiative has not been a flaming success, it’s still an effort to combat the existing problems. - Delhi’s surrounding areas, i.e. the NCR inclusive of Gurgaon, Noida, Faridabad, etc. have become centers for investment by global firms. Headquarters of various Multi- National Companies have been opened up in these areas. - Delhi’s gone through a huge retail revolution. A series of designer malls, classy infrastructure and the world’s most well known brands have opened shop in Delhi - In its attempt to be a world class city, Delhi’s international and domestic airports have been tastefully done up to match the international standards, with technological advance facilities, consumer friendly arenas; the Indira Gandhi Airport of Delhi is at par with most well known airports of the world. This again is due to Common Wealth Games to be held in Delhi - Offering citizens and tourists a multitude of options in heritage sites, art and cultural options. Delhi is home to independent, aspiring artists from all the fields providing them a stage to showcase their talent, and providing the target audience an avenue to experience them - Delhi is a foodie’s paradise; from options ranging from street food of various cultures, to extremely luxurious fine dining. Delhi caters to every type of taste palette and pocket sizes. While devising the positioning statement for Delhi, the study found that the positioning of Delhi cannot be a singular promise. True to the city’s values’ the positioning statement for ‘Brand Delhi’ has to be potpourri of all its shades and flavors. TYPE OF BRAND Delhi’s core values involve a history of empires, rulers, and struggle for wealth, rich Punjabis, new high flying executives, retail explosion, industrial explosion form a basis for the brand Delhi to be a luxury brand. This was further confirmed by the consumer
    • 79 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 interviews, where they were asked to rate, whether Delhi was a luxury brand, a mass market brand or a niche brand. The results of the interviews are as follows: As depicted in the graph above, 60% of the respondents felt that Delhi was definitely a luxury brand. As one of consumer pointed out, “Delhi has everything working for it to be a luxury brand; it’s vast, classy and tasteful” Another consumer said, “What isn’t luxurious about Delhi, with such a rich heritage, and a history of empires…” While only 15% of the respondents felt that Delhi was a mass market brand. Approximately 25% said that, it was niche. Through, an analysis of reasoning of the 60% of the respondents and the character sketch of Delhi, this study decides that Delhi is a luxury brand. TAGLINE To devise a tagline for Delhi, tools such as character sketch of a typical Delhite, the current perception of Delhi in the respondents’ eyes, the historical analysis and a survey for a tagline rendered the following results. Type of Brand - Delhi Luxury Mass Market Niche
    • 80 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 To come to a definitive tagline, these taglines were put up for the respondents to vote. The results of the votes are as follows: “Delhi, - A City of Ancient Ruins and Modern Empires” was a clear winner with 30% of the respondents voting for it. It was closely followed by 19% votes to “Delhi – A Home to Many and then a Few”. The rest of the taglines lacked far behind according to the respondents’ votes. A semiotic analysis, confirms that “Delhi, A City of Ancient Ruins and Modern Empires” reflects the spirit of Delhi and its promise of this co-existence to the fullest. 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% Delhi – A City of Ancient Ruins and… Delhi – a Home to Many, and Then a Few Delhi, the City of Various Shades and… Delhi – the Symbol of Contemporary India Delhi - Ever Awake, Ever Vibrant Dilli – Diwalon Ki The Charming, Historic City of Delhi Dazzle with Delhi Delhi – Where Yesterday Meets Today Delhi, a Romance with Nature Come to Delhi Tagline for Brand Delhi
    • 81 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 PROMOTING THE BRAND DELHI After establishing the core values of the brand Delhi, drawing a character sketch, positioning, deciding the type of a brand Delhi is and zeroing in on a Tagline, the final step of the study is to promote and market the brand Delhi. In order to promote Delhi, it is important to understand which channels will have the maximum impact on its target audience. As has been discussed earlier, a city has three different types of target audience; the people who live there, the people who work there, and the people who come to visit. Therefore, to achieve maximum visibility and response, the study asked the respondents, what they thought would be the ideal medium of communication for city branding, and how well will they respond to it, if they were to see Delhi branding activities on those channels. The suggested channels for branding of Delhi were chosen on the basis of successful case studies of branded cities across the world. - Above the Line Activities o Television o Radio o Print - Below the Line Actitivities: o Promotional Merchandise, such as, T-shirt, Music Albums o Event Marketing (Formal, Conferences, Seminars) & (Informal, Concerts, Sport Events, etc.) o Social Media The respondents were asked across the target group to rate all the channels on the expected impact from all of them, If at all. It was found that the respondents felt that the above the line activities while create awareness, they involve them lesser than expected. Most of the respondents felt that Event Marketing would have the maximum impact to their mindsets.
    • 82 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 As Mr. Madhav Raman, Partner, Anagram Architects introduces the concept of Mega cities and Mega Events; he explains how events create massive awareness for cities who want to make a mark in people’s minds, “Over the last two decades there has been tremendous interest and high levels of competition between cities to host mega-events. Typically, these are international sporting events that change venues every cycle but, of late, the competition has grown to include the hosting of many other socio-cultural and economic events, that may be international, national and regional. The ability to successfully host mega-events is now perceived to be the benchmark that today's entrepreneurial cities aspire to. The infrastructural and economic legacies of these mega-events are leveraged by cities to develop their economies, increase their inclusivity, boost their brand equities and improve the quality of urban life they offer.” He insists that Mega Events are not just good for a city’s brand awareness, it is the most powerful way to go about it. But they require a careful strategic planning and considerable investment. - “Mega-events have now become watershed events in the course of a city’s development, and preparation for them is an opportunity for the city to review its own state of affairs. Due to the high investments made in order to prepare for such 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% Television Radio Print Event Marketing Social Media Promotional Merchandise Medium of Communication &Media Channels Medium of Communication &Media Channels
    • 83 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 events, the entire process, from initiating the bid to executing the infrastructural upgradations, requires a carefully coordinated effort on the part of various city agencies. In order to host the events and to manage their legacies, cities need to synergies the efforts and actions of all their stakeholders (from government to citizen).” Finally he adds, that hosting a Mega event has visible impact on the fundamental skeleton of a city, therefore they need to be well integrated and planned by all the stakeholders involved in the city marketing. “Delivering highly successful mega-events is a huge and complex challenge for any host city, leveraging the legacy to genuinely improve the urban condition of the city is far more demanding. Equally, it is crucial to gauge the impact of hosting mega-events on the socio-cultural fabric of the city and use them to advance cities toward a safer, more inclusive, more vibrant and self-confident urban future.” About social media, respondents commented that, it keeps them involved on a daily basis. As Mr. Abhinav Gupta, Vice President, Emergent Ventures confirms, “In this day and age, social media has the maximum eyeballs, and it can have directed messages for all the different TGs for a city brand.” He also adds, “The power of Social Media is phenomenal, at the dawn of the new internet age, this truly is the new media to promote a brand and weave into the target audiences lives. People are becoming active citizens, blog journalism is serious business now. Social media doesn’t have restrictive regulations and it is now considered more credible in a peer to peer manner. Facebook pages about Delhi, twitter updates, use of audio and video to showcase life in a city presents an honest truth, which is valued by people. When an international tourist comes to a city, the first place he/she visits is the internet. Therefore, it is important for a city to strategically present a consistent message to its audiences on that platform.” Finally, promotional merchandise was also voted a preferred option by the respondents. In a nutshell, they expressed that they would sport a t-shirt of Delhi with pride, if the branding showcases the city’s true values. Taking examples of the ‘I Love NY’ campaign, the respondents said that why shouldn’t there be a t-shirt, a mug, a calendar or other merchandize from Delhi.
    • 84 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 In addition to this, Bollywood plays a big role in promoting some cities of the country, music also holds great value. Taking the example of a recently released film, “Dilli 6”, a respondent hummed the “Yeh Dilli hai mere yaar” (a number from the music score of the film), and explained that “This song immediately paints a certain beautiful picture of Delhi in your head.” Therefore, musical scores can go a long way coupled with videos to create a memorable image of the brand of a city. THE SUGGESTED MEDIA AND CHANNEL MIX The suggested media and channel mix for the brand Delhi therefore is a strategic effort into hosting mega events, such as Common Wealth Games, which have helped garner massive awareness levels for Delhi. But its’ important that its’ not a one off thing. The city should utilize its better infrastructure, accommodation changes etc. to continue attracting both formal and informal mega events into the city. The Delhi Government should also look at hiring young people who can create an active audience for Delhi online through: - Dedicated facebook pages, using the character sketch of Delhi as a person, it should add friends from across the world, and be active like a real person - A revamped Delhi website providing information about all aspects of Delhi and not just tourism. Delhi has a lot of offer, as has been explored in the 4 pillars of branding Delhi and that information should be made available to all its target audiences. - Competitions should be held to make videos and music scores for showcasing one’s idea of Delhi to the world, and those should be put across websites, such as youtube.com, myspace.com, etc. - Twitter profiles, should be created to give a live update on what’s happening in Delhi - Blogs should be created for each of the four pillars, where user generated content from people who live in Delhi, people who work in Delhi and people who visit Delhi will automatically drive traffic to the city.
    • 85 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 The key thing to understand is that while all of this exists in tattered forms, it is neither consistent nor strategically linked to one vision of Delhi. The idea is to use these existing resources at a low investment and create a powerful brand of Delhi. Finally, In terms of usage of Promotional Merchandise, creative agencies should be hired by the government to create merchandise with the theme of “Delhi – the City of Ancient Ruins and Modern Empires” and the above the line activities such as Television, Radio Jingles and Print Ads should be utilized to promote these. This will involve audiences as an active participant, instead of using ATL in a traditional way, which leaves the audiences to be a passive spectator.
    • 86 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 CONCLUSION City branding is not a fad, but it’s a reality of today. City branding has evolved into a mainstream branding exercise. However, unlike a product, a city is distinct in the way it addresses people and way it affects it consumers. Various theorists have expressed how a city should be branded, but they all have one central theme in common, which is that a city branding exercise should lead to the overall development of the city. Another important aspect of city branding is that unlike traditional branding exercises, which focused on increasing tourism or fought for the multinational headquarters in a city. A cit branding has evolved to a more 360 degree format. A city branding should no more focus on purely tourism, but function as an entrepreneurial organization. As Anupam Yog, Managing Director of Mirabilis Advisory (P) Limited states, “Entrepreneurial cities, as opposed to their industrial predecessors, vigorously vie with each other to supply the globalised market with goods, services, skills and space. They also strive for better urban governance, local business climate and urban asset management in order to attract capital.” Typically, cities that most effectively leverage changing global geopolitical and economic climates tend to see a spurt in their stature and economic growth. “City Branding” is rapidly emerging as a crucial exercise undertaken by city managers in order to encourage investment as well as to increase their share of the global market. In other words, the effort is to improve their city's “brand equity”. While, on one hand, inter-urban competition has led to a context-less reproduction of postmodern real estate models such as shopping malls, medi-cities, media districts, IT parks and world trade centers, cities simultaneously seek to discern them by manipulating the interwoven cultural and historical attributes of their localities to create attractive images, ambiences and lifestyles. This is a contentious process involving a fierce battle between alternative cultural sensibilities and historical visions. Furthermore, city managers have begun to use “Introverted City Branding”, aimed at a city's own residents, as an important means of communication of a shared urban vision. This introverted branding differs from the other by being more interactive and sensitive to the aspirations of the residents. This makes it a powerful informant of urban policy and development strategies for city governments.
    • 87 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 Looking at Delhi, and devising a branding strategy for the city, all these aspects need to be kept in mind. India as a country has huge awareness levels in the west as of today. This is a positive sign for Delhi. A focused strategic marketing plan by the Delhi Government, involving all the four pillars of branding a city, and utilizing the findings of this study can result in a powerful brand for Delhi. Also, this is the perfect timing to roll out such a branding exercise, as the die has already been rolled out by the Common Wealth Games, and Delhi2010 branding. A roll out of a consistent umbrella branding for Delhi right now can be launched around the time of the games, the time when Delhi will have the maximum eyeballs, a number of international tourists, players, media agencies will be on ground in Delhi, and a launch of a branding exercise will lead to a dominoes effect and result in a successful, immediate result for the Brand Delhi. To conclude, City Branding might be a complex process, but the good news is that it has a huge set of resources working for it, which are the citizens of the city. If the government decides to involve the citizens, the industry, the educational institutes, and everyone else associated with the city to launch a branding exercise, the brand is sure to be a great success.
    • 88 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 ANNEXURE I Guidelines for Expert Interviews: 1. Branding is present in all forms as of today. What is your opinion on Branding of Cities? What all does it encompass? 2. Why are more and more cities across the world, indulging in branding exercises?  Are there any clear benefits derived from it?  How important is it versus the development of the city? 3. What kind of investment do cities make in branding themselves? 4. How effective do you think is branding of cities with the overall objectives of the city (poverty, infrastructure, lifestyle, etc.)  How do you measure effectiveness of city branding?  Are there any measures in place? 5. What factors do cities generally look for, before undergoing a branding exercise?  Infrastructure capabilities?  Governance?  Investment  Projected benefits?  Perception of the city and desired perception? 6. What risks are involved in branding of cities? 7. Are there any catalysts which play a role in city branding?  Games such as Commonwealth, Olympics, etc.?  Concerts, Event Marketing  Headquarters of Multi-national corporations 8. What according to you is the target audience for branded cities? 9. How do you think, the audiences react to branded cities? 10.Is there a model which can be replicated? 11.Are there levels of City branding? Can you explain?  Integrated vs. Fragmented Branding 12.Can you explain the hierarchy of branding in cities?
    • 89 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 13.Branding of cities in India. Comment. 14.Take Delhi as an example, with the commonwealth games coming up, can you explain how branding of Delhi is taking place?  Delhi2010 has attracted various sponsorships, how are these deals initiated?  What are the contractual terms of these deals 15.How was the logo decided for Delhi2010 16.What type of branding exercises were undertaken for Delhi2010 17.How successful has been the effort, what is the audience response to it 18.What were the pitfalls that branding of Delhi2010 faced 19.How do you think Delhi2010 will affect FDI, Tourism, Infrastructure development, Quality of life, etc. in Delhi 20.What are the various advantages and disadvantages which the city and the inhabitants derive out of city branding 21.What are the dos and don’ts in city branding? 22.Can you give us an example of a successful and failed city branding exercise across the world?  What worked, what didn’t work? 23.How do you see the concept of branding of cities, affecting the world, is this where world class cities moving towards?
    • 90 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 ANNEXURE II A city can be branded on a variety of attributes, as suggested by the marketing experts of place branding. While studying cases of branded cities, the focus is on the following attributes: - What’s the city’s story? o The History & Heritage of the City - What is attractive in the city? o The Value Proposition - Nickname for the City o Slangs, Terms of Endearment for the City - Branding Efforts o Conscious efforts by the government, agencies, industries for improving the image of the city - The Demographic Make-up o Population, Statistics - The Economical Scenario and Tourism to the City - What’s a City without its People? - What does the city want to communicate & what does it communicate? CITY BRANDING CASE STUDY: NEW YORK THE STORY OF NEW YORK Verrazano reached New York in 1524, after which Henry Hudson explored the Hudson River in 1609. It is believed that the Dutch settled in New York in 1624, and ruled the city for 40 years while it was called New Amsterdam. The city was renamed to New York, when the English conquered it in 1664 in the honor of the Duke of York. The city declared independence on July 9, 1776 and saw its first government in the year 1777. Two years later, the New York city became the capital of the state of New York (Development, 2007).
    • 91 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 The Dukes in New York New York at present The Old New York Map
    • 92 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 ATTRACTIONS OF THE CITY: THE VALUE PROPOSITION The New York, as we know today has its roots in the economic trade, as New York was an important port in the world’s development history. Therefore places such as the United Nations building, the Empire State Building, the World Trade Centre, MET form an important pull to the state of New York (Winfield-Pfefferkorn, August 2005). In addition to this, the city of New York also has a rich history and the other attractions to the city are the Statue of Liberty, the Hudson Valley, the Museum of Modern Art, SoHo and Times Square. It is the mix of capitalism’s capital and its grandiose history that makes New York amongst the most popular cities of the world, and helps develop its positioning statement. NICKNAMES – TERMS OF ENDEARMENT FOR THE CITY New York has over 98 nicknames to its credit, as per some bloggers and residents of the city. Big Apple (popularized by the African American musicians in the 1930s, there exists a popular hit called the Big Apple, 1937) being the most common one (How New York got its Nickname, 2002), New York is also known as the Empire City (State Symbols USA) as quoted by George Washington in 1784, when he referred to the city as “at present the seat of the Empire”. Some of the other nicknames for the city comprise of Father Knickerboxer (inspired by the trousers which the Dutch settlers used to wear), Gotham (Washington Irving referred to New York as Gotham in Salmagundi Papers in 1807), The Babyonian Bedlam (Genesis XI, describes it as per the confusion of tongues in Babel), amongst others (The Big Apple). BRANDING EFFORTS The popular tagline “I Love NY” was developed by the Ad Agency Wells, Rich and Greene in collaboration with Milton Gaser (a graphic artist). The agency was employed by the state of New York to promote tourism to the city in the year 1970.
    • 93 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 This slogan was highly successful in creating an emotional ‘connect’ with the brand New York. It is now the official slogan for the state of New York and has crept into merchandise, promotional material etc. for the city .Branding efforts for New York were a strategic plan as followed by the government, and then followed the citizens of the city, further metamorphosed by the institutions and corporations in the state of New York. Due to this, the brand New York’s communication has been consistent and effective through the years. THE DEMOGRAPHIC MAKE-UP The state of New York currently has a population base of 19,306,183 people (Fact Finder). The city has maintained a relatively decent population base over years. However, according to Julia Winfield-Pfefferkorn, the city faced a huge loss of lives during the 1970s – 1980s due to increasing crime rate at the subways. This led to loss of face and brand for the city, until the government officials identified the problem of uncontrollable crime in the ‘broken windows’ theory, which dictates that if a building has broken windows then the passerby believes lack of care and breaks more windows. Drawing parallels to the subways crime rate, the government agencies took corrective steps and painted all graffiti around the platforms, reworked the trains and made sure that all trains always look clean and well managed. This resulted in a surprising decrease in the crime rate and New York was able to combat the crime to a great extent, which led to building of a stronger brand of New York in the minds of the people.
    • 94 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 THE ECONOMIC SCENARIO AND TOURISM TO THE CITY According to the NYC Statistics board, the New York City attracts approximately 47 Million tourists per year, as of 2008. Figuring amongst the top tourist destinations, the city earns huge revenue through tourism (NYC). However, tourism forms a fairly small segment in the functioning of NYC economy. In terms of other revenue options, New York has experienced a surge in event marketing as a phenomenon. According to the statistics, the event marketing and sponsorships bring approximately 15 Billion USDs, which is a large sum contribution to the revenue chain. These two avenues are important from the context of branding, as they are direct results of a well marketed city. However, it is important to remember that tourism is quite fragile in nature, as crime rates, terrorism, etc. have a dominoes effect on the trade, as it happened in the case of NYC with September 11. However, careful planning and strategic marketing techniques can lower the impact of such occurrences. WHAT IS A CITY WITHOUT ITS PEOPLE?3 New York stands for a cosmopolitan lifestyle. New Yorkers take great pride in their belonging to the city. As in the case of city as a product, the people play a far greater role in building the brand attributes of the city. The people of New York have given as much back to the city, as much the city has given to them (Winfield-Pfefferkorn, August 2005). In fact, the residents of New York, endorse the brand New York as loyal consumers through word of mouth activities, wearing merchandise and overall spreading a good word about the city. WHAT DOES THE CITY WANT TO COMMUNICATE? New York embodies a luxury brand as it has all the right ingredients. Every city competes with some cities in order to give out a clear branding communication. In case of New York, it competes with cities such as Las Vegas, San Francisco, Kansas City, etc. who according 3 William Shakespeare
    • 95 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 to the mayor of NYC employ much bigger marketing budgets. The key is that New York communicates to its audience is that it’s a city of promises, a city of hope and city of dreams. CITY BRANDING CASE STUDY: PARIS THE STORY OF PARIS The history of Paris dates back to the 3rd century B.C. With almost 2,000 years of heritage, Paris has deep connections to its name. Originally a fishing village with a settlement of Parisii tribe near a river called Ile de la Cite’ (History of Paris), Paris has come a long way to become one of the fashion centers of the world today. Paris was known as Lutetia in the ancient times, and Julius Caesar conquered in 52 B.C. and the city was an important trade centre during the Roman rule. Paris declared independence in the year 1355, under the leadership of Etienne Marcel (About.com). Later Paris is known to have played an important part in various revolutions. During the First World War, Paris was not affected, but was captured during the Second World War. Paris today is a city of charms. The Old Paris
    • 96 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 The Eiffel Tower The Louvre Musuem
    • 97 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 ATTRACTIONS OF THE CITY: THE VALUE PROPOSITION Paris, as per the perceptions of the people had a romance about it. It’s biggest attraction lies in its sublime beauty. Approximately 20% of the total area in Paris is parklands. Some of the biggest attractions of Paris are Palaces, Cathedrals, Elegant Squares, etc. In terms of places to see some of attractions of Paris are the Eiffel Tower, Ste Chappell, The Opera, Place de la Concorde, Versailles, The Louvre Museum and various other museums, art galleries, cabarets, music halls, etc. NICKNAMES – TERMS OF ENDEARMENT FOR THE CITY One of the most popular nicknames for Paris is the City of Lights or La Ville-Lumière, for its beautiful demeanor. For the romance in the city, it is also popularly known as the City of Love (MSN, 2007). BRANDING EFFORTS Most of the branding efforts for Paris are linked with luxury and fashion. Popular for its influence over the fashion of the world, Paris is often mentioned in various communications, magazines, shows related to fashion. In addition to this, the government of Paris indulged in focused branding efforts in their bid for the 2012 Olympic games, where the proposed logo for the game was as follows: THE DEMOGRAPHIC MAKE-UP Paris is the capital city of France, and therefore it becomes the centre of all activities for the country. Nearly 65% of all industries in France are located in Paris (Winfield- Pfefferkorn, August 2005).
    • 98 | P a g e © Mansi Saxena, 2010 The total Population for Paris was approximately 2.5 Million people in 2006. Most of the population lives in the inner suburbs of Paris. Most of the households are small and the average child per house is 1. Marriages are not that popular in Paris and single life is a well accepted concept. THE ECONOMIC SCENARIO AND TOURISM TO THE CITY Paris ranks very high on its tourism quotient. Nearly 80 Million people visit France every year and approximately 30 Million tourists visit France purely for Paris. In fact, some of the attractions in Paris such as the Eiffel Tower, The Louvre Museum and Disneyland enjoy tourists up to 5-10 million tourists individually. In addition to this, the fashion industry has a high impact on the overall economic scenario of the city. WHAT IS A CITY WITHOUT ITS PEOPLE?4 The people of Paris or Parisians are elitist and are perceived to be the same. Their lifestyle includes a regular dosage of opera houses, art galleries, museums, cabarets, etc. While this is a normal lifestyle for the people of Paris, they are viewed as luxury by most people in the world. The people of Paris are proud to be associated with it and treat the city like the apple of their eye. WHAT DOES THE CITY WANT TO COMMUNICATE? Paris boasts of an extremely distinct and unique personality. The city is rich in culture, has a deep history and a distinct set of values. These qualities make Paris a very strong and unique brand. Paris has a strong brand image across the world, and it is promoted and reinvented year after year by the authorities and government of Paris. 4 William Shakespeare
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