Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes

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Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes

  1. 1. Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes
  2. 2. Prokaryotic Cells -Prokaryotes include the kingdoms of Monera (simple bacteria). Simply stated, prokaryotes are molecules surrounded by a membrane and cell wall. Prokaryotic cells lack characteristic eukaryotic subcellular membrane enclosed "organelles", but may contain membrane systems inside a cell wall. -Prokaryotic cells may have photosynthetic pigments, such as is found in cyanobacteria ("blue bacteria"). Some prokaryotic cells have external whip-like flagella for locomotion or hair like pili for adhesion.
  3. 3. Eukaryotic Cells Basic structure The basic eukaryotic cell contains the following: 1. plasma membrane 2. glycocalyx (components external to the plasma membrane) 3. cytoplasm (semifluid) 4. cytoskeleton - microfilaments and microtubules that suspend organelles, give shape, and allow motion 5. presence of characteristic membrane enclosed subcellular organelles
  4. 4. Organelles (Parts of the Cell) 1. Cell Membrane Allows certain materials to move into and out of the cell. “GATEKEEPER”
  5. 5. Nucleus Directs all cell Activities “The Control Center”
  6. 6. Mitochondria Releases energy stored in food. “Power Plant of the Cell”
  7. 7. Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) Moves materials around the cell. “Highway System” Ribosomes Makes Proteins “Protein Factories”
  8. 8. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) Synthesis and metabolism of lipids.
  9. 9. Golgi apparatus Packages & Sorts cellular Substances “PACKAGING PLANT”
  10. 10. Lysosymes A membrane bound organelle that is responsible for degrading (DIGESTING) proteins and membranes in the cell, and also helps degrade materials ingested by the cell.
  11. 11. Vacuoles Membrane surrounded "bags" that contain water and storage materials in plant & animal cells.
  12. 12. Plant Cells Chloroplast: Captures light energy & stores it as chemical. Cell Wall: Protects the Plant

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