Designing Products
that Help Users
Change their Behavior
O’Reilly Webcast
August 7, 2013
Steve Wendel (@sawendel)
Principa...
A surge of new products
Products that help people
do something hard.
Voluntarily. Transparently.
From exercise,
to organiz...
Background
How we decide
Design
Refine
Topics
1
2
3
4
A bit of background
http://oreilly.com/go/behavior-change
I’m here to listen
My day job
With help from friends
Background
How we decide
Design
Refine
Next Up – How we decide
1
2
3
4
An explosion of research in behavior economics and
the psychology of judgment & decision making
We’ve learned a great deal...
The same psychology… for a new purpose
Lots of individual tactics
To
What’s required for people to take action?
From
To
Every person and
every action we take is
unique.
But the mind still ...
We have two independent systems for decision making.
Image from http://kazez.blogspot.com/
Metaphor from Haidt (2006), Hea...
What else happens?
Conscious actions must pass these five tests:
Detect a Cue?
React Intuitively?
Evaluate Consciously?
Ha...
Preconditions for action
All five are
needed, at the
same time.
For the acronym
inclined, it’s the
CREATE
Action Funnel.
U...
3 strategies to pass the funnel
Conscious choice.
Build a habit.
Cheat.
Background
How we decide
Design
Refine
Next Up – Design
1
2
3
4
Applying the theory to products
Conceptual design: develop a story
How users progress from “just starting out” to “success!”
Customer experience map by Me...
Build the story in 3 steps
1. Structure the Action
2. Design the
Environment
3. Prepare the User
Structure the Action:
Break down hard problems
Write out the sequence of steps.
Make each step pleasant.
Straightforward. ...
Examples: Structure the Action
Construct the environment
to support action
Grab the user’s
attention.
Make sure the
motivation is clear.
Provide urgency....
Examples: Construct the environment
Page-Level Tactics to Support Action
Component: To Do This: Try This:
Cue Cue Action Tell the User What The Action Is
Incr...
Prepare the user
Help users see
and tell the story
of their successes.
Build on related,
positive experiences.
Educate use...
Examples: Prepare the user
The goal: lock it in & move on.
Just get it done.
Make it a habit.
Fully automate it.
Automate tracking, and grab
attentio...
Background
How we decide
Design
Refine
Next Up – Refine
1
2
3
4
There are no behavioral magic wands…
Impact on the world:
Pounds lost (RunKeeper).
Dollars saved (HelloWallet).
Vacations taken (TripTribe).
Not vanity metrics...
Set the Benchmark for Action & Outcome
Controlled Experiments:
The Gold Standard
“Let’s see what the numbers look like”
St...
Build a data bridge
From behavior you
can measure
frequently in the app,
to the real-world
outcome that’s hard
to measure.
Improve impact: Find obstacles
Approach 1: Look at the data.
Approach 2: Ask users.
And then look at the data.
Find where ...
Causal Map: Where is the problem?
Action Funnel: Why is there a problem?
Fix it & Test It
Change something, measure something.
Rigor required depends on:
How big of an impact you’re looking for.
...
Remember this!
A) What: 5 preconditions for action B) How: Design in 3 stages
C) Then: Test. There are no magic wands.
THANK YOU!
More to read and apply
Section 1: The Mind and Behavior Change 1
Chapter 1: How the Mind Decides What to Do Next 2
Chapter...
More on the decision making process
Pages of individual behavioral tactics
Component: To Do This: Try This:
Cue Cue Action Tell the User What The Action Is
In...
Integration into an Agile process
@sawendel
sawendel@hellowallet.com
http://oreilly.com/go/behavior-change
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OReilly Webcast: Helping Users Take Action 7 August 2013

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Slides from OReilly.com Webcast on 7 August, showing how to design products that help users take action -- from exercising more to getting involved in political action.

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  • http://
  • http://
  • Dessonance.wordpress.com
  • This breaks the design process up: to make it manageable, to force attention to the non-obvious
  • Break the action up into small, manageable stepsBuild up the users’ confidence Give clear feedbackMake it clear what to do physically, specificallyLook for ways to cheat, and look for habit loops.Question: What sequence of actions will help users exercise?
  • Motivate – why should they act?Trigger – actually ASK them to act. Identify and neutralize competing motivations & triggers Question: What’s in the users’ environment, for each step? Write out the story: why act, why now, and why not do something else?
  • Educate? Only if necessary. Usually wastedHook into prior positive associations & experiencesDevelop a self-narrative that the user will succeed Question: How do you prepare the user to act, for each step of the progression?
  • http://www.vintageadbrowser.com/beauty-and-hygiene-ads-1940s/119
  • OReilly Webcast: Helping Users Take Action 7 August 2013

    1. 1. Designing Products that Help Users Change their Behavior O’Reilly Webcast August 7, 2013 Steve Wendel (@sawendel) Principal Scientist, HelloWallet
    2. 2. A surge of new products Products that help people do something hard. Voluntarily. Transparently. From exercise, to organizing email.
    3. 3. Background How we decide Design Refine Topics 1 2 3 4
    4. 4. A bit of background http://oreilly.com/go/behavior-change
    5. 5. I’m here to listen
    6. 6. My day job
    7. 7. With help from friends
    8. 8. Background How we decide Design Refine Next Up – How we decide 1 2 3 4
    9. 9. An explosion of research in behavior economics and the psychology of judgment & decision making We’ve learned a great deal, recently
    10. 10. The same psychology… for a new purpose
    11. 11. Lots of individual tactics
    12. 12. To What’s required for people to take action? From To Every person and every action we take is unique. But the mind still has to go through a similar process.
    13. 13. We have two independent systems for decision making. Image from http://kazez.blogspot.com/ Metaphor from Haidt (2006), Heath & Heath (2010), and the Buddha (~500 B.C.) A Rider and an Elephant We’ve known this for a long time. Now there’s solid research showing, specifically, how the two systems work.
    14. 14. What else happens? Conscious actions must pass these five tests: Detect a Cue? React Intuitively? Evaluate Consciously? Have Ability? Is it Timely? All yeses? Execute. All five must come together at the same time. Think of them as a checklist for product design.
    15. 15. Preconditions for action All five are needed, at the same time. For the acronym inclined, it’s the CREATE Action Funnel. Users drop off at each step, and our products can change that.
    16. 16. 3 strategies to pass the funnel Conscious choice. Build a habit. Cheat.
    17. 17. Background How we decide Design Refine Next Up – Design 1 2 3 4
    18. 18. Applying the theory to products
    19. 19. Conceptual design: develop a story How users progress from “just starting out” to “success!” Customer experience map by Mel Edwards, desonance.wordpress.com
    20. 20. Build the story in 3 steps 1. Structure the Action 2. Design the Environment 3. Prepare the User
    21. 21. Structure the Action: Break down hard problems Write out the sequence of steps. Make each step pleasant. Straightforward. “Easy”. Tailor it to their prior experiences. Skip ahead where possible. Take the garden path.
    22. 22. Examples: Structure the Action
    23. 23. Construct the environment to support action Grab the user’s attention. Make sure the motivation is clear. Provide urgency. Remove distractions.
    24. 24. Examples: Construct the environment
    25. 25. Page-Level Tactics to Support Action Component: To Do This: Try This: Cue Cue Action Tell the User What The Action Is Increase Power of Cue Create Clear Affordances Increase Power of Cue Clear the Page of Distractions Reaction Increase Trust Make Site Beautiful and Professional Increase Interest & Trust Social Proof Increase Interest & Trust Display Strong Authority on Subject Bypass Automatic Rejection Be Authentic and Personal Evaluation Increase Motivation Prime User-Relevant Associations Increase Motivation Loss Aversion Increase Motivation Peer Comparison Increase Motivation Peer Competition Increase Motivation Make the Rewards Vivid Decrease Costs Default Everything Decrease Costs Lessen Burden of User Action (cheat) Decrease Costs Reduce information required for user to proceed (simplify) Decrease Costs Avoid choice overload Ability Increase Logistical Ability Implementation Intentions Decrease Resource Constraints Automate Increase Sense of Feasibility (Self-Efficacy) (Positive) Peer Comparison Time Pressure Increase Urgency Frame text to avoid temporal myopia Increase Urgency Remind of prior commitment to act Increase Urgency Make it scarce Increase Urgency Make it time-sensitive
    26. 26. Prepare the user Help users see and tell the story of their successes. Build on related, positive experiences. Educate users about how to do take action.
    27. 27. Examples: Prepare the user
    28. 28. The goal: lock it in & move on. Just get it done. Make it a habit. Fully automate it. Automate tracking, and grab attention where needed.
    29. 29. Background How we decide Design Refine Next Up – Refine 1 2 3 4
    30. 30. There are no behavioral magic wands…
    31. 31. Impact on the world: Pounds lost (RunKeeper). Dollars saved (HelloWallet). Vacations taken (TripTribe). Not vanity metrics: Page views. “Interest” on surveys. Facebook friends. Be absolutely clear on what you’re shooting for.
    32. 32. Set the Benchmark for Action & Outcome Controlled Experiments: The Gold Standard “Let’s see what the numbers look like” Statistical Models w/ Controls
    33. 33. Build a data bridge From behavior you can measure frequently in the app, to the real-world outcome that’s hard to measure.
    34. 34. Improve impact: Find obstacles Approach 1: Look at the data. Approach 2: Ask users. And then look at the data. Find where there’s a problem Find why there’s a problem
    35. 35. Causal Map: Where is the problem?
    36. 36. Action Funnel: Why is there a problem?
    37. 37. Fix it & Test It Change something, measure something. Rigor required depends on: How big of an impact you’re looking for. How much else is going on at the same time. Whether the action is unique to the app. Develop multiple testing platforms, for: Cycle Time & Accuracy
    38. 38. Remember this! A) What: 5 preconditions for action B) How: Design in 3 stages C) Then: Test. There are no magic wands.
    39. 39. THANK YOU!
    40. 40. More to read and apply Section 1: The Mind and Behavior Change 1 Chapter 1: How the Mind Decides What to Do Next 2 Chapter 2: Why We Take Certain Actions and Not Others 17 Chapter 3: Strategies for Behavior Change 31 Section 2: Designing the Product 49 Chapter 4: Gathering Knowledge 51 Chapter 5: Structuring the Action 63 Chapter 6: Constructing the Environment 73 Chapter 7: Preparing the User 82 Chapter 8: From Conceptual Design to Interface Design 89 Chapter 9: Reviewing and Fleshing Out the Interface Designs 100 Chapter 10: Turning the Designs into Code 116 Section 3: Measuring and Improving the Product 120 Chapter 11: Setting the Benchmark: Measuring Impact 122 Chapter 12: Identifying Obstacles to Behavior Change 142 Chapter 13: Learning and Refining the Product 152 Section 4: Putting It Into Practice 161 Chapter 14: Picking Your Battles: Finding the Right Behavior to Change 162 Chapter 15: Common Questions and Pitfalls 177 Chapter 16: Conclusion 189 Appendixes (Glossary, Resources, Bibliography) 196
    41. 41. More on the decision making process
    42. 42. Pages of individual behavioral tactics Component: To Do This: Try This: Cue Cue Action Tell the User What The Action Is Increase Power of Cue Create Clear Affordances Increase Power of Cue Clear the Page of Distractions Reaction Increase Trust Make Site Beautiful and Professional Increase Interest & Trust Social Proof Increase Interest & Trust Display Strong Authority on Subject Bypass Automatic Rejection Be Authentic and Personal Evaluation Increase Motivation Prime User-Relevant Associations Increase Motivation Loss Aversion Increase Motivation Peer Comparison Increase Motivation Peer Competition Increase Motivation Make the Rewards Vivid Decrease Costs Default Everything Decrease Costs Lessen Burden of User Action (cheat) Decrease Costs Reduce information required for user to proceed (simplify) Decrease Costs Avoid choice overload Ability Increase Logistical Ability Implementation Intentions Decrease Resource Constraints Automate Increase Sense of Feasibility (Self-Efficacy) (Positive) Peer Comparison Time Pressure Increase Urgency Frame text to avoid temporal myopia Increase Urgency Remind of prior commitment to act Increase Urgency Make it scarce Increase Urgency Make it time-sensitive
    43. 43. Integration into an Agile process
    44. 44. @sawendel sawendel@hellowallet.com http://oreilly.com/go/behavior-change

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