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  • 1. SUBMITTED TO: Prof. S. K. Laroiya SUBMITTED BY: ABHISHEK ATREE C-02 DEEPAK CHOUDHARY C-12 MANAN CHOKSHI C-16 PRATEEK GOYAL C-22 RAHUL MAZUMDAR C-25
  • 2. LETTER/ MEMO OF TRANSMITTAL Mr.S.K.Laroiya Senior Professor Amity Business School Noida Dear Sir, We have now completed the analysis of consumer preferences of beer drinkers . The result of our research is contained in the report below. The report is based on response of 476 household in the state of Delhi/NCR. The complete methodology is described in the report. Standard marketing research practices were used in the conduct of the study, and we believe the results to be valid and reliable within the constraints as defined in the report. We believe you will find the results to be interesting and certainly of use to you and other board members in making your recommendations for your new service. Looking forward to your response. Sincerely Yours, Group 9 Amity Business School New Delhi 2
  • 3. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT With profound sense of regard and gratitude, we thank our project guide Dr S.K Laroiya for his invaluable guidance, incessant interest and constructive suggestions during the course of study. The completion of project wouldn’t have been possible without his zeal and interest throughout the task, right from the beginning. We thank him for sharing him valuable and immense knowledge and timely help, which made this, project a reality. Finally we would like to thank our near and dear friends who have been a constant source of inspiration and support in the course of the relentless work of our project. 3
  • 4. Table of content 1. LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL 2 2. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 3 3. INTRODUCTION 5 3.1 Problem Identification 6 3.2 Abstract 7 4. OBJECTIVE 8 5. METHODOLOGY 10 5.1 Market Research 11 5.2 Comparison 11 5.3 Defining the objective of the survey 13 5.4 Writing the questionnaire 14 5.5 What is a survey? 16 5.6 What are some common survey methods? 17 5.7 Questionnaire design 19 5.8 Research design 23 5.9 Errors to look out for! 35 5.10 Beer history 36 5.11 Individual company details 45 6. ANALYSIS 50 6.1 Summary of findings in the report 68 6.2 Cross tab analysis 69 7. LIMITATIONS 95 8. RECOMMENDATION 97 9. CONCLUSION 99 10. REFERENCES 101 11. ANNEXURES 102 4
  • 5. 5
  • 6. 3.1 Problem identification Manufactures, retailers, suppliers of all kinds of services, and many other organizations and industry a like beer need certain kinds of information in order to be able to satisfy their customers, wants and needs and to design effective marketing programs while still earning a profit. The researchers hence understanding the importance and value of this industry and undertakes a live market research, with the hope to uncover 5 basic but essential issues that concern this industry today. At least five such information topics, and some of the questions marketing managers have regarding them, are as follows. 1: To understand the sociological culture mindsets and usage patterns associated with beer in India. 2: To understand and quantify the most preferred qualities and associate set segments in the market with the same. 3: To quantitatively study the changing trend towards foreign beer and understands reasons of it doing so and also quantifies this market. 4: To study the present market conditions; understanding the current market leaders and followers and identifying their respective target segments. 5: To evaluate and rank the most important attributes of the products from the consumers mindset. 6
  • 7. 6: To find out the usage patterns of beer and relate with changing sociological mindset of people in relation to the place where they consume beer. THE ABOVE-MENTIONED ISSUES AND OBJECTIVE ARE JUST A BROAD GUIDELINE TO THE RESEARCHERS, THESE OBJECTIVES ARE ENFORCEABLE TO CHANGE ESPECIALLY AFTER CONDUCTING THE SECONDARY AND EXPLORATORY RESEARCH, WHICH MIGHT ANSWER SOME OF THESE QUESTIONS AND PUT FORWARD SOME NEW ISSUES. 3.2 ABSTRACT The beer industry in India falls under the essential and important food and beverage sector. FMCG refers to consumer non-durable goods required for daily or frequent use. One vein that feeds industries ranging from airline and travel agencies to the emerging fields of telecom, call centers and foreign banking is the food and beverage industry. These sectors have aggressively recruited students for their marketing and service departments. Even in itself, beer industry a growing field with exciting career prospects, both locally and internationally. The food and beverage industry in India is in a growth phase as the industry has seen massive investments in the last five years . Typically, a consumer goes to a beer when ever he feels like. And in turn he looks for various attributes like drinks strength , food along , music, ambience etc. Different customers have different expectations from a beer. This report attempts to answers some of the above mentioned questions by conducting a market research in the state of Delhi, trying to understand and observe the changing markets and mind sets in regards to the usage and of beer in India. This report is broken down into four main parts, first its deals with the problem identification and the scope of the research, second explains the process or methodology adopted under the head research methodology followed by the review of literature under secondary research and finally concluding by analyzing the primary research. 7
  • 8. 8
  • 9. Objective The objective to carrying out this project was two fold one was to make students aware of the usage of Market Research to find out ‘n’ number of things about anything, with the help of various statistical tools, various MR techniques, various quantative software’s like S.P.S.S to make a three step progress that is 9
  • 10. The three steps were 1) to collect raw data 2) to extract main and useful information from the data 3) To convert the information in the knowledge which can be used in finding out many things related and make some useful output. Then in turn this knowledge will be Becoming data for any other research and thus refining it more 2nd objective To use this MR to show its usefulness and penetration in various fields Here the field given to us was the beer market and the consumer behaviour related to various parameters e.g. Price, strength, smoothness etc and to find out the links which are inter as well as intra in nature. Information Knowledge DATA 10
  • 11. 5.1 MARKET RESEARCH 11
  • 12. Market Research is the process of planning, collecting, and analyzing data relevant to marketing decision-making. It’s basically using a combination of primary and secondary research tools to better understand a situation. Surveys, of the area in which a product or service is to be offered, which are done to determine the cost of doing business, any competition, potential sales, etc. The market research analysis is totally based on the data collected. Primary and secondary data/information types Primary - you collect the data Secondary - someone else collected the data and reported the results, information produced at least one step from the actual event that produced the original (primary) data Examples Primary - artifacts, photographs, movies, sound recordings, letters, dairies, memos, autobiographies, experimental data, eyewitness accounts, government records, research data. Secondary - textbooks, encyclopedias (including CD ROMs like Encarta), biographies, charts produced from primary data, maps, articles in a newspaper describing events/surveys not written by an eye witness/data collector, a 'doctored' photo, the census, "quotes" in newspapers. 5.2 Comparison Primary You know how accurate the data is You may collect data that only supports your ideas Secondary Less effort and time to collect May allow a look at trends over a period of time May get a lot more data that you could collect on your own Might be cheaper May be incomplete Accuracy is unknown May be out of data May have been collected with a particular view in mind May have been altered Internal validity 12
  • 13. It is a measure of accuracy of an experiment. It measures if the manipulation of the independent variables, or treatments, actually caused the effects on the dependent variable(s) External validity It is a measure of determination of whether the cause-and-effect relationships found in experiments can be generalized Classification of external variables into categories: • History—specific events that are external to the experiment but occur at the same time as the experiment • Maturation—an extraneous variable attributable to changes in test units themselves that occur with the passage of time • Testing effects—effects caused by the process of experimentation Main testing effect: an effect of testing that occurs when a prior observation affects a later observation Interactive testing effect: an effect in which a prior measurement affects the test unit’s response to the independent variable • Instrumentation—an extraneous variable involving changes in measuring instruments or in the observers or scores themselves • Statistical regression—an extraneous variable that occurs when test units with extreme scores move closer to the average score during the course of the experiment • Selection bias—an extraneous variable attributable to the improper assignment of test unit to treatment conditions • Mortality—an extraneous variable attributable to the loss of test units while the experiment is in progress Lets the main two constituents which make up a successful Market Research 1) Survey 13
  • 14. 2) Questionnaire First thing is that we have to 5.3 Defining the Objectives of the Survey The importance of well-defined objectives cannot be over emphasized. A questionnaire that is written without a clear goal and purpose is inevitably going to overlook important issues and waste participants' time by asking useless questions. The questionnaire may lack a logical flow and thereby cause the participant to lose interest. Consequential, what useful data you may have collected could be further compromised. The problems of a poorly defined questionnaire do not end here, but continue on to the analysis stage. It is difficult to imagine identifying a problem and its cause, let alone its solution, from responses to broad and generalizing questions. In other words, how would it be possible to reach insightful conclusions if one didn't actually know what they had been looking for or planning to observe. An objective such as "to identify points of user dissatisfaction with the interface and how these negatively affect the software's performance" may sound clear and to the point, but it is not. The questionnaire designer must clarify what is meant by user dissatisfaction. Is this dissatisfaction with the learning of the software, the power of the software, of the ease of learning the software? Is it important for the users to learn the software quickly if they learn it well? What is meant by the software's performance? How accurate must the measurements be? All of these issues must be narrowed and focused before a single question is formulated. A good rule of thumb is that if you are finding it difficult to write the questions, then you haven't spent enough time defining the objectives of the questionnaire. Go back and do this step again. The questions should follow quite naturally from the objectives. II. Writing the Questionnaire 14
  • 15. At this point, we assume that we have already decided what kind of data we are to measure, formulated the objectives of the investigation, and decided on a participant group. Now we must compose our questions. If the preceding steps have been faithfully executed, most of the questions will be on obvious topics. Most questionnaires, however, also gather demographic data on the participants. This is used to correlate response sets between different groups of people. It is important to see whether responses are consistent across groups. For example, if one group of participants is noticeably less satisfied with the test interface, it is likely that the interface was designed without fair consideration of this group's specific needs. This may signify the need for fundamental redesign of the interface. In addition, certain questions simply may only be applicable to certain kinds of users. For example, if one is asking the participants whether they find the new tutorial helpful, we do not want to include in our final tally the responses of experienced users who learned the system with an older tutorial. There is no accurate way to filter out these responses without simply asking the users when they learned the interface. Typically, demographic data is collected at the beginning of the questionnaire, but such questions could be located anywhere or even scattered throughout the questionnaire. One obvious argument in favor of the beginning of the questionnaire is that normally background questions are easier to answer and can ease the respondent into the questionnaire. One does not want to put off the participant by jumping in to the most difficult questions. We are all familiar with such kinds of questions. It is important to ask only those background questions that are necessary. Do not ask income of the respondent unless there is at least some rational for suspecting a variance across income levels. There is often only a fine line between background and personal information. You do not want to cross over in to the personal realm unless absolutely necessary. If you need to solicit personal information, phrase your questions as unobtrusively as possible to avoid ruffling your participants and causing them to answer less than truthfully. 15
  • 16. Questionnaire A set of questions designed to generate the data necessary for accomplishing the objectives of the research proposal. Types of questionnaires: 1) Mail questionnaire 2) Telephone 3) In-house survey 4) Mall intercept 5) Computer questionnaire 16
  • 17. Now let’s see these two steps in detail and understand what all they cover Survey 5.5 What Is a Survey? Today the word "survey" is used most often to describe a method of gathering information from a sample of individuals. This "sample" is usually just a fraction of the population being studied. For example, a sample of voters is questioned in advance of an election to determine how the public perceives the candidates and the issues ... a manufacturer does a survey of the potential market before introducing a new product ... a government entity commissions a survey to gather the factual information it needs to evaluate existing legislation or to draft proposed new legislation. Not only do surveys have a wide variety of purposes, they also can be conducted in many ways -- including over the telephone, by mail, or in person. Nonetheless, all surveys do have certain characteristics in common. Unlike a census, where all members of the population are studied, surveys gather information from only a portion of a population of interest -- the size of the sample depending on the purpose of the study. In a bona fide survey, the sample is not selected haphazardly or only from persons who volunteer to participate. It is scientifically chosen so that each person in the population will have a measurable chance of selection. This way, the results can be reliably projected from the sample to the larger population. Information is collected by means of standardized procedures so that every individual is asked the same questions in more or less the same way. The survey's intent is not to describe the particular individuals who, by chance, are part of the sample but to obtain a composite profile of the population. 17
  • 18. The industry standard for all reputable survey organizations is that individual respondents should never be identified in reporting survey findings. All of the survey's results should be presented in completely anonymous summaries, such as statistical tables and charts. 5.6 What Are Some Common Survey Methods? Surveys can be classified in many ways. One dimension is by size and type of sample. Surveys also can be used to study either human or non-human populations (e.g., animate or inanimate objects -- animals, soils, housing, etc.). While many of the principles are the same for all surveys, the focus here will be on methods for surveying individuals. Many surveys study all persons living in a defined area, but others might focus on special population groups -- children, physicians, community leaders, the unemployed, or users of a particular product or service. Surveys may also be conducted with national, state, or local samples. Surveys can be classified by their method of data collection. Mail, telephone interview, and in-person interview surveys are the most common. Extracting data from samples of medical and other records is also frequently done. In newer methods of data collection, information is entered directly into computers either by a trained interviewer or, increasingly, by the respondent. One well known example is the measurement of TV audiences carried out by devices attached to a sample of TV sets that automatically record the channels being watched. • Mail surveys can be relatively low in cost. As with any other survey, problems exist in their use when insufficient attention is given to getting high levels of cooperation. Mail surveys can be most effective when directed at particular groups, such as subscribers to a specialized magazine or members of a professional association. • Telephone interviews are an efficient method of collecting some types of data and are being increasingly used. They lend themselves particularly well to situations where timeliness is a factor and the length of the survey is limited. • In-person interviews in a respondent's home or office are much more expensive than mail or telephone surveys. They may be necessary, however, especially when complex information is to be collected. 18
  • 19. Some surveys combine various methods. For instance, a survey worker may use the telephone to "screen" or locate eligible respondents (e.g., to locate older individuals eligible for Medicare) and then make appointments for an in-person interview. Defining the Objectives of the Survey The importance of well-defined objectives can not be over emphasized. A questionnaire that is written without a clear goal and purpose is inevitably going to overlook important issues and waste participants' time by asking useless questions. The questionnaire may lack a logical flow and thereby cause the participant to lose interest. Consequential, what useful data you may have collected could be further compromised. The problems of a poorly defined questionnaire do not end here, but continue on to the analysis stage. It is difficult to imagine identifying a problem and its cause, let alone its solution, from responses to broad and generalizing questions. In other words, how would it be possible to reach insightful conclusions if one didn't actually know what they had been looking for or planning to observe. 19
  • 20. 5.7 Questionnaire Design Questionnaires are an inexpensive way to gather data from a potentially large number of respondents. Often they are the only feasible way to reach a number of reviewers large enough to allow statistically analysis of the results. A well-designed questionnaire that is used effectively can gather information on both the overall performance of the test system as well as information on specific components of the system. If the questionnaire includes demographic questions on the participants, they can be used to correlate performance and satisfaction with the test system among different groups of users. It is important to remember that a questionnaire should be viewed as a multi-stage process beginning with definition of the aspects to be examined and ending with interpretation of the results. Every step needs to be designed carefully because the final results are only as good as the weakest link in the questionnaire process. Although questionnaires may be cheap to administer compared to other data collection methods, they are every bit as expensive in terms of design time and interpretation. The steps required to design and administer a questionnaire include:  Defining the Objectives of the survey  Determining the Sampling Group  Writing the Questionnaire  Administering the Questionnaire  Interpretation of the Results This document will concentrate on how to formulate objectives and write the questionnaire. Before these steps are examined in detail, it is good to consider what questionnaires are good at measuring and when it is appropriate to use questionnaires, becomes a powerful and economic evaluation tool. 20
  • 21. Why use a questionnaire? Questionnaires are useful research tools in the development of a food product. They can be used to: • gauge consumer preferences, i.e. likes and dislikes • analyze food consumption patterns Assess new areas for product development What can questionnaires measure? Questionnaires are quite flexible in what they can measure, however they are not equally suited to measuring all types of data. We can classify data in two ways, Subjective vs. Objective and Quantitative vs. Qualitative. When a questionnaire is administered, the researchers control over the environment will be somewhat limited. This is why questionnaires are inexpensive to administer. This loss of control means the validity of the results is more reliant on the honesty of the respondent. Consequently, it is more difficult to claim complete objectivity with questionnaire data then with results of a tightly controlled lab test. For example, if a group of participants are asked on a questionnaire how long it took them to learn a particular function on a piece of software, it is likely that they will be biased towards themselves and answer, on average, with a lower than actual time. A more objective usability test of the same function with a similar group of participants may return a significantly higher learning time. More elaborate questionnaire design or administration may provide slightly better objective data, but the cost of such a questionnaire can be much higher and offset their economic advantage. In general, questionnaires are better suited to gathering reliable subjective measures, such as user satisfaction, of the system or interface in question. Questions may be designed to gather either qualitative or quantitative data. By their very nature, quantitative questions are more exact then qualitative. For example, the word "easy" and "difficult" can mean radically different things to different people. Any question must be carefully crafted, but in particular questions that assess a qualitative measure must be phrased to avoid ambiguity. Qualitative questions may also require more thought on the part of the participant and may cause them to become bored with the questionnaire sooner. In general, we can say that questionnaires can measure both qualitative and quantitative data well, but that qualitative questions require more care in design, administration, and interpretation. When to use a questionnaire? 21
  • 22. There is no all encompassing rule for when to use a questionnaire. The choice will be made based on a variety of factors including the type of information to be gathered and the available resources for the experiment. A questionnaire should be considered in the following circumstances. When resources and money are limited, a Questionnaire can be quite inexpensive to administer. Although preparation may be costly, any data collection scheme will have similar preparation expenses. The administration cost per person of a questionnaire can be as low as postage and a few photocopies. Time is also an important resource that questionnaires can maximize. If a questionnaire is self-administering, such as an e-mail questionnaire, potentially several thousand people could respond in a few days. It would be impossible to get a similar number of usability tests completed in the same short time. When it is necessary to protect the privacy of the participants, questionnaires are easy to administer confidentially. Often confidentiality is the necessary to ensure participants will respond honestly if at all. Examples of such cases would include studies that need to ask embarrassing questions about private or personal behavior. When corroborating other findings. In studies that have resources to pursue other data collection strategies, questionnaires can be a useful confirmation tools. More costly schemes may turn up interesting trends, but occasionally there will not be resources to run these other tests on large enough participant groups to make the results statistically significant. A follow-up large scale questionnaire may be necessary to corroborate these earlier results. Questionnaire Questionnaires are an inexpensive way to gather data from a potentially large number of respondents. Often they are the only feasible way to reach a number of reviewers large enough to allow statistically analysis of the results. A well-designed questionnaire that is used effectively can gather information on both the overall performance of the test system as well as information on specific components of the system. If the questionnaire includes demographic questions on the participants, they can be used to correlate performance and satisfaction with the test system among different groups of users. It is important to remember that a questionnaire should be viewed as a multi-stage process beginning with definition of the aspects to be examined and ending with interpretation of the results. Every step needs to be designed carefully because the final results are only as good as the weakest link in the questionnaire process. Although questionnaires may be cheap to administer compared to other data collection methods, they are every bit as expensive in terms of design time and interpretation. 22
  • 23. The steps required to design and administer a questionnaire include: 1. Defining the Objectives of the survey 2. Determining the Sampling Group 3. Writing the Questionnaire 4. Administering the Questionnaire 5. Interpretation of the Results Questionnaire design is a long process that demands careful attention. A questionnaire is a powerful evaluation tool and should not be taken lightly. Design begins with an understanding of the capabilities of a questionnaire and how they can help your research. If it is determined that a questionnaire is to be used, the greatest care goes into the planning of the objectives. Questionnaires are like any scientific experiment. One does not collect data and then see if they found something interesting. One form a hypothesis and an experiment that will help prove or disprove the hypothesis. Questionnaires are versatile, allowing the collection of both subjective and objective data through the use of open or closed format questions. Modern computers have only made the task of collecting and extracting valuable material more efficient. However, a questionnaire is only as good as the questions it contains. There are many guidelines that must be met before you questionnaire can be considered a sound research tool. The majority deal with making the questionnaire understandable and free of bias. Mindful review and testing is necessary to weed out minor mistakes that can cause great changes in meaning and interpretation. When these guidelines are followed, the questionnaire becomes a powerful and economic evaluation tool. Now we can use the survey and questionnaire in lot many ways and using different research design and methods we can have many findings and lots of many inferences 5.8 RESEARCH DESIGN 23
  • 24. Research design provides the glue that holds the research project together. A design is used to structure the research, to show how all of the major parts of the research project -- the samples or groups, measures, treatments or programs, and methods of assignment -- work together to try to address the central research questions. Our research is basically exploratory and descriptive in nature. • The research started with defining the concepts. In our case we had to study various customer preferences, their consumption habits, the age group which makes up a major portion of the consumers, the various reasons as to why they buy different brands of cars, how well the car is publicized and what are the various marketing tools that could be employed to attract the customer attention towards the product, the most preferred attributes the customers look for in the product while making a purchase decision etc. What is an exploratory research? In the absence of tried models and definite concepts the exploratory study must be started from what is available, i.e. one or more objects of study. It is common that in the beginning of exploratory study, a holistic look at the objects is taken. It means that you start by gathering as much information about the objects as possible, and postpone the task of cutting away unnecessary data until you get a better picture about what is necessary. The progress of a project of study becomes easier as soon as your point of view and problem is defined... After this, empirical knowledge that is related to the problem is gathered; that enables or helps in minimizing the material to be analyzed. The exploratory analysis of empirical field observations starts by checking that the field reports are written down intelligibly and without ambiguity. Often the original reports have been made in hurry; in that case, they should be clarified by the initial observer or interviewer. The same person is often best adapted to extricate the significant findings from observations because he/she is able to judge which details are important and which can be left out. In the same time he/she can start building a preliminary model from those patterns which seem to recur often, or estimate how well an earlier known model fits the observations. As soon as the invariance in the data becomes apparent you can omit all the material that is no longer relevant and compress the remaining, relevant information. This compacting is usually done with the help of coding the typical and frequent elements that is by assigning short names, letters or other symbols to them. Analysis in exploratory research is essentially abstraction and generalization. Abstraction means that you translate the empirical observations, measurements etc. into concepts; generalization means arranging the material so that it disengages from single persons, occurrences etc. and focuses on those structures (invariance) that are common to all or most of the cases. 24
  • 25. It will seldom be possible to divide exploratory study into such clear phases as is common in the case that the object has been studied earlier. According to Alasuutari (1993 p.22), in qualitative analysis of empirical findings, you can distinguish two phases but these two overlap: • simplification of observations • interpretation of results (or "solving the enigma") In the simplification phase, the material is inspected from the theoretical point of view of the study project, and only the points relevant from this angle are noted. Details differing from one individual to another at random are omitted or pushed aside so that the general lines of the data can be discerned more easily. Simplification continues by finding the relationships between separate observations or cases. Some tools for this work are comparison and classification. The goal is to find the general rule or model that is valid in all or most of the observations. "Solving the enigma" does not always mean answering exactly those questions that were asked at the outset of the project. Sometimes the most interesting questions are found at the end of the research, when the researcher has become an expert on the subject. It is often said that "data teach the researcher". Our research is exploratory in nature. Since we hardly knew anything about the research topic at the outset of the research and had only a vague impression of what should we study, therefore it became impossible to make a detailed work plan in advance. About descriptive research The purpose of descriptive exploratory research is to extract a structure from the source material which in the best case can be formed as a rule that governs all the observations and is not known earlier (per the definition of exploratory study). Finding the unknown structure may need some creative innovation, because even the most modern computerized analysis methods cannot automatically uncover the structures concealed in data. Usually you first have to formulate a tentative pattern for the assumed structure in the observations and then you can ask the computer to estimate how well the data corresponds to the model, cf. Tools for Analysis. In descriptive study the project is often arranged as distinct phases. First you demarcate the population about which you need knowledge, then select a sample, gather the empirical data, analyze them, perhaps with the same method as in the earlier study from which the model was taken, and finally assess the findings. Adopting models from earlier treatises involves a risk: it can affect your observations so that you wrongly discard the anomalies or those cases which too much differ from what would be expected on the basis of the old theory. If this happens, you will never discover the weaknesses of the old model. 25
  • 26. Our research is also descriptive in nature. It helped us provide data about the population being studied. It helped us describe “who,what,when,where and how” of the situation. The objective is to provide a systematic description that is as factual and accurate as possible. It provided information on the number of people who had seen the advertisement and the number of people who remembered it well. Our research has been designed in such a way that abstractions have been translated into concepts and then generalizations have been formed. It has also helped us describe the phenomena being studied. Research Methodology • Population definition Population is nothing but the entire aggregation of items from which samples can be drawn; "it is an estimate of the mean of the population “or it can also be said to be the number of inhabitants (either the total number or the number of a particular race or class) in a given place (country or city etc "). The population consists of :  Residents of Delhi and NCR.  both men and women  all income groups  most of the consumers were from the working class  all age groups • Sample plan SAMPLE PLAN: A sample allows us to make generalizations about populations. A sample is a subset of a population, but that subset is only useful if it accurately represents the larger population . Our research basically focused on convenience sampling. In this type of no probability sampling, in contrast, population elements are selected on the basis of their availability (e.g., because they volunteered) or because of the researcher's personal judgment that they are representative. The consequence is that an unknown portion of the population is excluded (e.g., those who did not volunteer). One of the most common types of no probability sample is called a convenience sample – not 26
  • 27. because such samples are necessarily easy to recruit, but because the researcher uses whatever individuals are available rather than selecting from the entire population • Sample size The sample consists of 300 people both men and women of all age groups and all income groups. • Development of the survey questionnaire We followed an iterative approach in designing the questionnaire. First a structured questionnaire was formed after revisiting the objective of this research. This was discussed with Sir, who enlightened as to where we went wrong and asked us to make various alterations. . After this, certain changes were made. Each question was evaluated on the basis on comprehensibility, knowledge and ability, sequencing and layout decisions. Special emphasis was given on the following:  Doubled barreled questions were avoided  It was brief so as to cover important aspects  The wording was simple and not overloaded  The questionnaire should follow a funnel approach The following changes were made on Sir’s recommendations:  Open ended questions were removed  Lifestyle questions were added  Wording of the questions were changed. The questions included in the questionnaire were based on the following scales:  Semantic Differential scale  1 open ended question  Ordinal scale  Constant sum scale  Ranking method etc. • Collecting the data After having successfully test marketed our questionnaire we undertook the task of getting our questionnaire filled. In order to fulfill this purpose successfully we went to various shopping malls , multiplexes, restaurants, juice shops etc. And got vital information from the crowd present there by employing various data collection techniques such as interviews, questionnaires etc. In NOIDA our prime target would be places like WAVES Cineplex. We also went to various residential complexes in order to get relevant information. 27
  • 28. Statistical inference concerns the problem of inferring properties of an unknown distribution from data generated by that distribution. The most common type of inference involves approximating the unknown distribution by choosing a distribution from a restricted family of distributions. Generally the restricted family of distributions is specified parametrically. 28
  • 29. What kind of questions do we ask? In general, there are two types of questions we asked, open format or closed format. Open format questions are those that ask for unprompted opinions. In other words, there are no predetermined set of responses, and the participant is free to answer however he chooses. Open format questions are good for soliciting subjective data or when the range of responses is not tightly defined. An obvious advantage is that the variety of responses should be wider and more truly reflect the opinions of the respondents. This increases the likelihood of you receiving unexpected and insightful suggestions, for it is impossible to predict the full range of opinion. It is common for a questionnaire to end with an open format question asking the respondent for his/her unabashed ideas for changes or improvements. Open format questions have several disadvantages. First, their very nature requires them to be read individually. There is no way to automatically tabulate or perform statistical 29
  • 30. analysis on them. This is obviously more costly in both time and money, and may not be practical for lower budget or time sensitive evaluations. They are also open to the influence of the reader, for no two people will interpret an answer in precisely the same way. This conflict can be eliminated by using a single reader, but a large number of responses can make this impossible. Finally, open format questions require more thought and time on the part of the respondent. Also, whenever excess questions are asked from the respondents, the chances of tiring or boring the respondent increases. Closed format questions usually take the form of a multiple-choice question. There is no clear consensus on the number of options that should be given in a closed format question. Obviously, there needs to be sufficient choices to fully cover the range of answers but not so many that the distinction between them becomes blurred. Usually this translates into five to ten possible answers per questions. For questions that measure a single variable or opinion, such as ease of use or liability, over a complete range (easy to difficult, like to dislike), conventional wisdom says that there should be an odd number of alternatives. This allows a neutral or no opinion response. Other schools of thought contend that an even number of choices is best because it forces the respondent to get off the fence. This may induce some inaccuracies for often the respondent may actually have no opinion. However, it is equally arguable that the neutral answer is over utilized, especially by bored questionnaire takers. For larger questionnaires that test opinions on a very large number of items, such as a music test, it may be best to use an even number of choices to prevent large numbers of no-thought neutral answers. Closed format questions offer many advantages in time and money. By restricting the answer set, it is easy to calculate percentages and other hard statistical data over the whole group or over any subgroup of participants. Modern scanners and computers make it possible to administer, tabulate, and perform preliminary analysis in a matter of days. Closed format questions also make it easier to track opinion over time by administering the same questionnaire to different but similar participant groups at regular intervals. Finally closed format questions allow the researcher to filter out useless or extreme answers that might occur in an open format question. Whether your questions are open or closed format, there are several points that must by considered when writing and interpreting questionnaires: Clarity: This is probably the area that causes the greatest source of mistakes in questionnaires. Questions must be clear, succinct, and unambiguous. The goal is to eliminate the chance that the question will mean different things to different people. If the designers fail to do this, then essentially participants will be answering different questions. To this end, it is best to phrase your questions empirically if possible and to avoid the use of necessary adjectives. For example, if asking a question about frequency, rather than supplying choices that are open to interpretation such as:  Very Often 30
  • 31.  Often  Sometimes  Rarely  Never It is better to quantify the choices, such as:  Every Day or More  2-6 Times a Week  About Once a Week  About Once a Month  Never There are other more subtle aspects to consider such as language and culture. Avoid the use of colloquial or ethnic expressions that might not be equally used by all participants. Technical terms that assume a certain background should also be avoided. Leading Questions: A leading question is one that forces or implies a certain type of answer. It is easy to make this mistake not in the question, but in the choice of answers. A closed format question must supply answers that not only cover the whole range of responses, but that are also equally distributed throughout the range. All answers should be equally likely. An obvious, nearly comical, example would be a question that supplied these answers choices:  Superb  Excellent  Great  Good  Not so Great A less blatant example would be questions based on Ordinal Scale i.e. yes/No questions that ask: Is this the best CAD interface you have ever used? 31
  • 32. In this case, even if the participant loved the interface, but had a favorite that was preferred, she would be forced to answer ‘No’. Clearly, the negative response covers too wide a range of opinions. A better way would be to ask the same question but supply the following choices:  Totally Agree  Partially Agree  Neither Agree or Disagree  Partially Disagree  Totally Disagree This example is also poor in the way it asks the question. Its choice of words makes it a leading question and a good example for the next section on phrasing. Phrasing: Most adjectives, verbs, and nouns in English have either a positive or negative connotation. Two words may have equivalent meaning, yet one may be a compliment and the other an insult. Consider the two words "child-like" and "childish", which have virtually identical meaning. Child-like is an affectionate term that can be applied to both men and women, and young and old, yet no one wishes to be thought of as childish. In the above example of "Is this the best CAD interface you have every used?" clearly "best" has strong overtones that deny the participant an objective environment to consider the interface. The signal sent the reader is that the designers surely think it is the best interface, and so should everyone else. Though this may seem like an extreme example, this kind of superlative question is common practice. A more subtle, but no less troublesome, example can be made with verbs that have neither strong negative or positive overtones. Consider the following two questions: Do you agree with the Governor's plan to oppose increased development of wetlands? Do you agree with the Governor's plan to support curtailed development of wetlands? They both ask the same thing, but will likely produce different data. One asks in a positive way, and the other in a negative. It is impossible to predict how the outcomes will vary, so one method to counter this is to be aware of different ways to word questions and provide a mix in your questionnaire. If the participant pool is very large, several versions may be prepared and distributed to cancel out these effects. Embarrassing Questions: Embarrassing questions dealing with personal or private matters should be avoided. Your data is only as good as the trust and care that your respondents give you. If you make them feel uncomfortable, you will lose their trust. Do not ask embarrassing questions. 32
  • 33. Hypothetical Questions: Hypothetical questions are based, at best, on conjecture and, at worst, on fantasy. One simple question such as: If you were governor, what would you do to stop crime? This force the respondent to give thought to something he may have never considered. This does not produce clear and consistent data representing real opinion. Do not ask hypothetical questions. Prestige Bias: Prestige bias is the tendency for respondents to answer in a way that make them feel better. People may not lie directly, but may try to put a better light on themselves. For example, it is not uncommon for people to respond to a political opinion poll by saying they support Samaritan social programs, such as food stamps, but then go on to vote for candidates who oppose those very programs. Data from other questions, such as those that ask how long it takes to learn an interface, must be viewed with a little skepticism. People tend to say they are faster learners than they are. There is little that can be done to prevent prestige bias. Sometimes there just is no way to phrase a question so that all the answers are noble. The best means to deal with prestige bias is to make the questionnaire as private as possible. Telephone interviews are better than person-to-person interviews, and written questionnaires mailed to participants are even better still. The farther away the critical eye of the researcher is, the more honest the answers. Now that you've completed your questionnaire, you are still not ready to send it out. Just like any manufactured product, your questionnaire needs to go through quality testing. The major hurdle in questionnaire design is making it clear and understandable to all. Though you have taken great care to be clear and concise, it is still unreasonable to think that any one person can anticipate all the potential problems. Just as a usability test observes a test user with the actual interface, you must observe a few test questionnaire takers. You will then review the questionnaire with the test takers and discuss all points that were in any way confusing and work together to solve the problems. You will then produce a new questionnaire. It is possible that this step may need to be repeated more than once depending on resources and the need for accuracy. QUESTIONNAIRES Points The questionnaire method has come to the more widely used and economical means of data collection. The common factor in all varieties of the questionnaire method is this reliance on verbal responses to questions, written or oral. We found it essential to make sure the questionnaire was easy to read and understand to all categories of consumers people in the sample. It was also important as researchers to respect the samples time and 33
  • 34. energy hence the questionnaire was designed in such a way, that its administration would not exceed 2-3 mins. These questionnaires were personal administered. BENEFITS The idea was to get potential benefits that are provided while administrating questionnaires. As they were found to be a simple and a direct manner to generating feedback from the respondents of the product, taking their minimum time and effort. SCALING TECHNIQUES Scaling is the process of creating a continuum on which objects are located according to the amount of the measured characteristic they process. We have incorporated all types of scaling techniques for our purpose. • Nominal Scale • Comparative Scales • Rank Order Scale • Interval Scale • Multiple Scaling THE COMPARATIVE SCALES The question 4 is classic example of this kind of scale, it allows for direct comparison in the types of pubs available and allows for its influence in the role it plays in determine the consumer recall rate. 34
  • 35. Nominal scale is generally in terms of YES or NO, our question no1 is typical example of this kind of scale. Rank order scaling is also prevalent in our questionnaire this done in question no 9. This kind of scaling is generally done to rank a particular kind of attribute in scale 1-5. Paired comparison scale is done no 11 which allows the respondent choose between two or more sources information. A multiple scaling question is also prevalent in no14 in which multiple brands can be compared with each other in order of the similarities between them. Perceptual mapping on the last question is also possible as it shows the mental positioning of some of the pubs in the consumers mind. 35
  • 36. 5.9 ERRORS TO LOOK OUT FOR!! _____________________________________________________ INTERVIEWER ERROR There is interviewer bias in the questionnaire method. Open-ended questions can be biased by the interviewer's views or probing, as interviewers are guiding the respondent while the questionnaire is being filled out. The attitudes the interviewer revels to the respondent during the interview can greatly affect their level of interest and willingness to answer openly. As interviewers probing and clarifications maximize respondent understanding and yield complete answers, these advantages are offset by the problems of prestige seeking, social desirability and courtesy biases. QUESTIONNAIRE ERROR The questionnaire designing has to careful so that only required data is concisely reveled and there is no redundant data generated. The questions have to be worded carefully so that the questions are not loaded and does not lead to a bias in the respondents mind RESPONDENT ERROR The respondents selected to be interviewed were not always available and willing to co operate also in some cases the respondents were found to not have the knowledge, opinion, attitudes or facts required additionally uninformed response errors and response styles also led to survey erroSAMPLING ERROR 36
  • 37. We have taken the sample size of 300, which cannot determine the buying behavior of the total population. The sample has been drawn from only in and around Delhi. Another thing to look out for that the sample was selected from posh malls and markets. Introduction to the industry needed to be surveyed 5.10 BEER HISTORY Ever wonder about the role that beer has played in human history? To lend perspective to the historical importance of beer, we present this timeline of Beer History. For more information about the important and interesting place that beer has in history, visit the Beer Church Strange Brew page. . Ancient History Historians speculate that prehistoric nomads may have made beer from grain & water before learning to make bread. Beer became ingrained in the culture of civilizations with no significant viticulture. Noah's provisions included beer on the Ark. 4300 BC, Babylonian clay tablets detail recipes for beer. Beer was a vital part of civilization and the Babylonian, Assyrian, Egyptian, Hebrew, Chinese, and Inca cultures. Babylonians produced beer in large quantities with around 20 varieties. Beer at this time was so valued that it was sometimes used to pay workers as part of their daily wages. Early cultures often drank beer through straws to avoid grain hulls left in the beverage. Egyptians brewed beer commercially for use by royalty served in gold goblets, medical purposes, and as a necessity to be included in burial provisions for the journey to the hereafter. Different grains were used in different cultures: a) Africa used millet, maize and cassava. 37
  • 38. b) North America used persimmon although gave was used in Mexico. c) South America used corn although sweet potatoes were used in Brazil. d) Japan used rice to make sake. e) China used wheat to make samshu. f) Other Asian cultures used sorghum. g) Russians used rye to make quass or kvass. h) Egyptians used barley and may have cultivated it strictly for brewing as it made poor bread. 1600 BC Egyptian texts contain 100 medical prescriptions calling for beer. If an Egyptian gentleman offered a lady a sip of his beer they were betrothed. Early brewers used herbals like balsam, hay, dandelion, mint, and wormwood seeds, horehound juice, and even crab claws & oyster shells for flavorings. Romans brewed "cerevisia" (Ceres the goddess of agriculture & Vis meaning strength in Latin). 55 BC Roman legions introduce beer to Northern Europe. 49 BC Caesar toasted his troops after crossing the Rubicon, which began the Roman Civil War. Before the middle Ages brewing was left to women to make since it was considered a food as well as celebration drink. 23 BC Chinese brewed beer called "kiu" 500-1000 AD the first half of the Middle Ages, brewing begins to be practiced in Europe, shifting from family tradition to centralized production in monasteries and convents (hospitality for traveling pilgrims). During Medieval times beer was used for tithing, trading, payment and taxing. 1000 AD hops begins to be used in the brewing process. 1200 AD beer making is firmly established as a commercial enterprise in Germany, Austria, and England. a) German's preferred cold temperature lagers (bottom-fermentation) stored in caves in the Alps. 38
  • 39. b) English preferred mild temperature ales (top-fermentation) stored in cellars. 1295 King Wenceslas grants Pilsen Bohemia brewing rights (formerly Czechoslovakia, now Slovakia & Czech Republic). 1420 German brewers develop the lager method of brewing. 1489 Germany's first brewing guild, Brauerei Beck, was established. 1490's Columbus found Indians making beer from corn and black birch sap. Renaissance History 1516 Bavarian brewing guilds push for the Reinheitsgeobot purity laws make it illegal to use any ingredients but water, barley, and hops in the brewing of beer (they didn't know yeast existed). 1553 Beck's Brewery founded & still brewing today. Late 1500's Queen Elizabeth I of England drank strong ale for breakfast. 1587 the first beer brewed in New World at Sir Walter Raleigh's colony in Virginia--but the colonists sent requests to England for better beer. 1602 Dr. Alexander Nowell discovers that ale can be stored longer in cork sealed, glass bottles. 1612 the first commercial brewery opened in New Amsterdam (NYC, Manhattan) after colonists advertised in London newspapers for experienced brewers. 1620 Pilgrims land at Plymouth Rock because the beer supplies were running low. 1674 Harvard College has its own brewhouse. 1680 William Penn (founder of Pennsylvania) operated commercial brewery. 1757 Washington wrote his personal recipe "To Make Small Beer." 1786 Molson brewery is founded in what is today Canada. George Washington and Thomas Jefferson had their own private brewhouses. Samuel Adams operated commercial brewery. Soldiers in the revolutionary army received rations of a quart of beer a day. 39
  • 40. 1789 James Madison proposes that Congress levy a low 8-cent duty per barrel on malt liquors to encourage "the manufacture of beer in every State in the Union." Beer and bread were the mainstays of the ordinary person's diet for centuries. Yeasts during this time were exactly the same as those used in bread. Modern History Before the 1800's most beer was really "Ale." 1810 Munich establishes Oktoberfest as an official celebration. 1830's Bavarians Gabriel Sedlmayr of Munich and Anton Dreher of Vienna developed the lager method of beer production. 1842 the first golden lager is produced in Pilsen, Bohemia. In the mid-19th Century (1850's) German immigrant brewers introduced cold maturation lagers to the US (Anheuser-Busch, Miller, Coors, Stroh, Schlitz, and Pabst roots begin here). The modern era of brewing in the US began in the late 1800's with commercial refrigeration (1860), automatic bottling, pasteurization (1876), and railroad distribution. 1870's Adolphus Busch pioneers the use of double-walled railcars, a network of icehouses to make Budweiser the first national brand. 1876 Pasteur unraveled the secrets of yeast in the fermentation process, and he also developed pasteurization to stabilize beers 22 years before the process was applied to milk. 1880 there are approximately 2,300 breweries in the US. 1890s Pabst is the first US brewer to sell over 1 million barrels in a year. 1909 Teddy Roosevelt brought over 500 gal. of beer on safari in Africa. 1914 commercial competition drives the number of operating breweries down to 1,400. 1933 Prohibition ends for beer (April 7). 1935 only 160 breweries survive Prohibition. 1935 the beer can is introduced (American Can Co. & Kreuger Brewing). 40
  • 41. 1938 Elise Miller John heads Miller Brewing for 8 years as the first and only woman ever to run a major brewing company. 1965 Fritz Maytag purchases Anchor Brewing Co. 1966 Budweiser is the first brand to sell 10 million barrels in a year. 1976 New Albion is the first in the rebirth of brewpubs and microbreweries in the US opening in California. 1988 Asahi Super Dry (Japan) introduces new beer category (soon to follow is Michelob Dry). 1991 the US produces 20% of the world beer volume (world's largest). 1992: 1) The US beer industry produced & sold 2.62 billion cases of beer. 2) Estimated per capita consumption was 22.7 gallons (ranked 13th worldwide). 3) Beer drinkers consumed 5.89 Billion gallons, enough to fill the Houston Astrodome over 12 times or 330 oil tankers. 4) Five brewers produced 89.4% of domestic product: a) Anheuser-Busch (A-B), 44.5% b) Miller Brewing, 21.8% c) Coors, 10.4% d) Stroh, 7.4% e) G. Heileman, 5.3% 5) The world's largest combined-site brewer was A-B, at 1.166 Billion cases. 6) The world's largest single-site brewery was Coors Brewing, Golden, Colorado, at 272 Million cases. 1993 US retail beer sales exceed $45 Billion. First half of the 1900's beer was associated with men, blue-collar workers, college students, and mainstream sports enthusiasts. 41
  • 42. Late 1900's beer had a different image and cultural function, with growth in popularity among a more diverse share of the population. About Beer Beer types • All beer can be classified as either a lager or an ale. • The differences begin during the brewing process. Whether the beer is an ale or lager is defined by the type of yeast used in the brew and the temperature at which fermentation takes place. • Ales are brewed with top-fermenting yeast which allows for rapid fermentation at warmer temperatures; • Lagers are brewed with bottom-fermenting yeast which ferments more slowly and at colder temperatures. Lagers • Lager means to store or put aside. • This beer is made with bottom yeast, so-called because it flocculates to the bottom of the vat. • Traditionally bottom yeast will ferment at cold temperatures less than 10 deg C. Now fermentation takes place at 12 to 18 deg C. This cold or deep fermentation allows the malt and hops to assert their fine flavors. • Lager tends to be paler, drier and less alcoholic than ales. • Pilsener or pils beer originated in Bohemia where brewers first found beer that was over-wintered or laagered improved if stored in cool caves and kept on ice. • German lagers, including beers such as bock and marzen, are made according to the Bavarian Purity Laws of 1516 to ensure the beer is all-malt (no sugar) and hopped with bitter and aromatic varieties (noble hops). • Some German-style beers are described as "helles" meaning pale or blonde. Pale beers grew in popularity following the adoption of the glass for drinking in the 19th Century. Ales • Ales are brewed with top-fermenting yeasts at temperatures from 15 to 25 deg C. • Ales are matured for shorter periods and at warmer temperatures. • Ales include a wide range of beer styles from porters and stouts to pale ales and wheat beer. • Generally, ales are higher in alcohol, more robust and complex than lagers Beer history of India When you next cool down with a cold beer, take a minute to think of the ancient tradition of beer making and what goes into this special brew. 42
  • 43. There is a 4000 year-history dating back to the region now known as Iraq but it was the Monks of Europe, who nurtured the art of brewing. Most significantly, it was in 1842 that the golden-coloured LAGER, that's been copied around the world, was first brewed by Bavarian, Josef Groll. What goes into beer? BARLEY grains are turned into MALT (i.e. from starch to fermentable sugars) by being germinated, roasted & mashed MALT is put into hot (slightly salty) WATER HOPS is added to help the chemical process along and for the taste and flavour (in India the HOPS flower is grown in Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh) YEAST is added to trigger the chemical process called fermentation. After a week fermenting, the next process is conditioning or building up the carbon dioxide to give the beer its white frothy head. Finally, after filtering, the beer is heated to kill off any bacteria and to preserve it when it's in the bottle. Just as brewers skillfully blend scotches or wines, different BEERS are created the same way. The art is to blend different malts as well as use various fermentation processes. Types of Beer Top Fermented. eg. Ales (typical English beer) Wheat Beer Bottom Fermented Serving Beer Beer should be served at 13-15 degrees If it's lager it should be served colder than other beers Tilt the glass at an angle and pour slowly. This means you'll get the better small layer of white frothy "head" rather than a large one 43
  • 44. In some pubs you can ask for drought beer from the large "keg". When the bartender flicks open the "tap", the beer passes through a chilling unit as it travels to your glass. Indian beer markets • Market value of Beer industry is estimated at Rs. 22 Bn. (2002-03) • Annual consumption of beer 80 Mn. Cases • Growth rate 8 - 10 % p.a. • United Breweries (UB) is the market leader of Indian brewery industry with around 40 % market share • Based on the content, beer is further classified as : – Mild / Diet Beer ( 5 - 8 % alcohol) – Lager Beer ( 8 - 13 % alcohol) – Strong Beer ( 13 - 14 % alcohol) – Draught Beer ( fresh keg beer) General Details Long used as medication, mixed with plants and a variety of ingredients, beer was thought to cure ailments of all types: from skin disease to stomach problems, not to mention insomnia and strong fever. Today, studies prove that double- or triple- fermentation beer is good for the health, particularly given the vitamin B present in the yeast. Its beneficial effects are linked to its dietary, diuretic and sedative properties. Moderation is important, however, to avoid negative effects. Though beer has the reputation of causing weight gain, its calorific value (about 450 calories per liter for a very rich beer) is inferior to that of apple juice (500 calories) or wine (770 calories). Moreover, thanks to the amino-acids, vitamin B and iron it contains, beer is an energizing beverage recommended for anaemic and convalescent persons, as well as those who have lost a lot of weight. The diuretic action of beer is due to the hops resin, which stimulates the kidneys, thereby contributing to the elimination not only of excess water in the body, but also of wastes and toxins. The sedative action of the hops joined with the calorific effect of the alcohol make beer a light and pleasant sleep-inducing beverage. Beer is also known to be a remedy against itself: the unpleasant memory of an evening spent drinking a little too much can become a thing of the past with the absorption of one glass of very cold pale beer, such as a pils. 44
  • 45. 5.11 Individual company details and brand profile with details The Brands KINGFISHER A name synonymous with Beer in India - Kingfisher stands for excitement, youth and camaraderie. The Beer brands manufactured and marketed by United Breweries Ltd. have always been recognized for their international quality. That's Beer at its best for the discerning consumer! Since the launch, Kingfisher Beer has become one of the largest selling beer brands in the world. "It's flying" and the mood is upbeat - both within the Company and among consumers. The new look designed by the UK based packaging specialists, Claessens, is representative of the brand in full flight, in a supportive environment. It reflects the energy, youthfullness and freedom that are characteristic of the brand's target consumer and reiterates its contemporary positioning. The beginnings of what is today The UB Group are rooted in the flagship company, United Breweries Limited, (UBL) also referred to as the Beer Division. Led by Mr. Kalyan Ganguly, President & Managing Director, it has a 40% market share in the country McDowell Alcobev Pvt Ltd., (MABL), is the new Joint Venture Company in which UB and Scottish & Newcastle of the UK have a 40% stake each, and Mr. Ravi Jain, Managing Director of the company and his team has a 20% stake. United Breweries Limited, the flagship company of the UB Group, has an association with the brewing dating back over five decades, starting with 5 breweries in South India in 1915. From bullock cart-loaded barrels or 'hogheads' of frothing ale, the Beer business as gone on to become the undisputed 'king' in the Indian beer market. 45
  • 46. Here, innovative, creative and aggressive marketing is complemented by a strong distribution network. A management focused on building brand equity on one hand and exploiting it to the hilt on the other. A concerted emphasis on quality. Quality and hygiene are the key elements of the United Breweries' manufacturing philosophy. To this end, the Central Scientific Laboratory (CSL), headquartered at Bangalore sets standards for all its breweries. Quality Management Systems laid out along the lines of ISO 9000 are strictly adhered to, controlling quality at every stage of production, from raw materials to the end product. Also, besides controlling the production process, the CSL analyses the Company's beer taken off market shelves all over the Country, the competition's beers and beers across the world. These beers are tested as per the standards laid down by the European Brewery Convention on 40 different parameters. By these standards, United Breweries' beers don't just equal, but even surpass, several Dutch and American beers. Its flagship brand 'Kingfisher', has achieved international recognition consistently, and has won many awards in International Beer Festivals. Kingfisher Premium Lager beer is currently available in 52 countries outside India and leads the way amongst Indian beers in the International market. It has been ranked amongst the top 10 fastest growing brands in the UK. HAYWARDS Company's Description: Hayward’s 5000, the king of strong beers, was launched in 1983. It now sells over 14 million cases per annum and is a leader in strong beer category. It is also the second largest selling beer brand in India. The brand has a market share of 30 per cent in the strong beer category. Hayward’s 5000 has been instrumental in radically altering the beer consumption pattern of beer with strong:mild ratio changing from 30:70 in 1993 to 68:32 in 2001. Only goes to prove the Hayward’s tag line Asli josh se bach ke kahan jaoge. Hay wards 5000 is patiently brewed over an extended brew cycle to yield a beer that is super strong, yet surprisingly smooth. It boasts a sale of around 10 million cases (7.8 litres each) annually in the strong segment. FOSTERS Profile Foster's Group is a premium global multi-beverage company delivering a total portfolio of beer, wine, spirits, cider and non-alcohol beverages. Our products inspire global enjoyment and are enjoyed by consumers all over the world. 46
  • 47. Our Philosophies Consumer led, customer driven We believe in placing the consumer and the customer at the heart of everything we do. We strive to be innovative in the way that we respond to the changing needs of our consumers and customers. i-Nova is Foster’s global innovation hub providing leading insights into consumer and shopper behaviour that informs every aspect of our business from brand development and marketing to supply chain and logistics. Foster’s is committed to continuous improvement in our business processes so that we maximise our positive social, environmental and economic impacts. We are also conscious of the need to minimise our environmental footprint wherever possible. We do this because we know that our shareholders, our employees and our stakeholders in the communities where we operate rightly expect us to demonstrate corporate responsibility leadership. Foster's is committed to creating an 'inspiring workplace' which attracts and retains highly skilled people. Our people are a key focus for the organisation and form one of the three key strategic goals for Foster's, to be: o First choice brands for consumers o First choice employer for our people o First choice investment for our shareholder's The Foster’s workforce comes from different backgrounds, experiences and personal circumstances. At Foster’s, we do not merely tolerate employee diversity, equal opportunity and inclusiveness - we recognise and value it. In addition to our policies that clearly express our commitment to these principles, we have put in place programs and processes to make sure our workforce reflects the diversity of the community. Foster's leading beer range are enjoyed by drinkers throughout the world. Led by Foster's Lager, one of only a handful of truly global beer brands, our portfolio includes Australian and international icons like Australia's favourite beer, Victoria Bitter, premium favourite Crown Lager and great imports like Corona and Asahi. The number one performer in three major segments of the Australian beer market - premium, full-strength and lower alcohol, Foster's brands are part of the Australian lifestyle, enjoyed by drinkers throughout the country and indeed the world. CASTLE LAGER Castle Lager is perfectly balanced by South Africa's finest brew masters, using the best South African ingredients - African Gold barley from Caledon, Southern Star hops from George and the best sun ripened South African maize. Maize is added for drinkability as it balances the potential heaviness in malt-only beers, thus making Castle Lager ideal for South African conditions. 47
  • 48. Mr tools which are used for findings Executive Summary The basic objective of the market research study that has been conducted is to analyze the customer preferences/buyer behavior i.e. the factors that could affect the buying of a customer based on the various parameters like brand name, lifestyle, customer needs and expectations, etc. INTRODUCTION Market Research is a process used to collect, organize, maintain, analyze, and present data for the purpose of maximizing the capabilities, technology and competitive forces of the marketplace to meet an organization’s need for products and services. The challenge of market research is to find commercially available products and services to meet the customer-needs, rather than to create unique products and services. Effective market research can help us to determine the need for a service, a product's likelihood to sell, target-market demographics, and desirable store locations. There are numerous ways to uncover this information -- from online research to focus groups to counting customers. Market research is conducted to determine whether a match exists between a commercial item and a customer’s requirement. This includes products or services that can be used “as is” or “off-the-shelf” and those that may require slight alteration. If items can’t be used in standard form, market research is used to determine whether the items could be modified to meet the requirement, or whether the requirement could be modified, to a reasonable extent, to make the items compliant. There are times when a need may be met by a product differing from that originally requested by the requiring activity and that may offer a better value to the customers and still meet the need. Because market research can identify standard commercial practices and successful acquisition practices of other organizations, it is the foundation for building an effective solicitation and a successful contract. Research by itself will not dramatically change an organization. It is only the pipeline through which consumers communicate with companies. Organizations have to be prepared to act upon the findings. All market research should have clear objectives. Initiating research without objectives is like setting off on a drive without a destination. It should solve a clearly enunciated business problem. Market research has to be tempered with organizational understanding. The knowledge resident in the field, the insights gained by managers and the deep-rooted 48
  • 49. understanding of industry has to supplement the information and knowledge that research throws up. Research tends to be backward-looking — giving you a good view of the past — but the future can only be seen through the eyes of the foresighted. Sales managers tend to focus on the immediate and are operational in outlook. Often, they have a very good understanding of current problems. Blended with trends and the understanding that research throws up, the insights are valuable. Hence, market research needs to find a place for itself in the sales department. When this combination works in tandem, the business and sales problems seem like a breeze. 49
  • 50. 50
  • 51. 1. Why do you consume beer Freque ncy Percen t Valid Percent Cumulati ve Percent Valid kick 67 14.1 14.1 14.1 status 23 4.8 4.8 18.9 compa ny 52 10.9 10.9 29.8 taste 25 5.3 5.3 35.1 afford ability 27 5.7 5.7 40.8 relax 118 24.8 24.8 65.5 fun 164 34.5 34.5 100.0 Total 476 100.0 100.0 14.08% 4.83% 10.92% 5.25% 5.67% 24.79% 34.45% kick status company taste affordability relax fun why do u consume beer 51
  • 52. INFERENCE: From the above observation it can be inferred that 164 out of 476 respondents consume beer just for fun. Moreover 118 respondents consume beer to relax. Rest 194 respondents have gone for other options such as kick, company etc. 2. how often u consume beer Freque ncy Percen t Valid Percent Cumulati ve Percent Valid daily 26 5.5 5.5 5.5 once in a week 220 46.2 46.2 51.7 twice in a week 116 24.4 24.4 76.1 thrice in a week 58 12.2 12.2 88.2 less 56 11.8 11.8 100.0 Total 476 100.0 100.0 5.46% 46.22% 24.37% 12.18% 11.76% how often you consume beer daily once in a week twice in a week thrice in a week less Based on the above frequencies shown in the pie chart above it can be inferred that 46.22 % of the respondents drink beer only once in a 52
  • 53. week i.e 220 out of 476 respondents. The next share of consumers prefer drinking twice a week i.e 116 out 476 respondents(24.37%). A negligible portion of drinkers prefer it daily (5.46%). Persons consuming beer thrice a week and less are nearly equal. It may point towards the importance of weekends in consuming beer. when do u prefer Freque ncy Percen t Valid Percent Cumulati ve Percent Valid Day 22 4.6 4.6 4.6 Night 304 63.9 63.9 68.5 no such prefence s 150 31.5 31.5 100.0 Total 476 100.0 100.0 4.62% 63.87% 31.51% consumption time for beer when do you prefer day night no such prefences 53
  • 54. The pie chart above indicates that 304 out of 476 respondents (63.87%) prefer drinking beer in the night. It is interesting to note that only 4.62% of the respondents prefer consuming beer at the day time. 31.51% of the respondents has given no specific preference i.e they can prefer either of the two choices i.e day and night. 4. how many bottles Freque ncy Percen t Valid Percent Cumulati ve Percent Valid 1 to 2 316 66.4 66.4 66.4 3 to 6 143 30.0 30.0 96.4 more than 6 17 3.6 3.6 100.0 Total 476 100.0 100.0 66.39% 30.04% 3.57% 1 to 2 3 to 6 more than 6 how many bottles The pie chart points out that majority of the respondents i.e 66.39% prefers drinking only 1-2 bottles per sitting. 30.04% respondents 54
  • 55. prefer drinking 3-6 bottles whereas only 3.57% respondents i.e 17 out of 476 people prefer drinking 6 bottles or more. 5. with whom do u prefer beer to be consumed Freque ncy Percen t Valid Percent Cumulati ve Percent Valid family 14 2.9 2.9 2.9 friends 294 61.8 61.8 64.7 alone 92 19.3 19.3 84.0 no such preferenc es 76 16.0 16.0 100.0 Total 476 100.0 100.0 2.94% 61.76% 19.33% 15.97% family friends alone no such preferences with whom do u prefer beer to be consumed Friends constitute the major partners while consuming beer. The pie chart shows the figure of 61.76% of respondents preferring drinking 55
  • 56. beer with friends. 19.38% and 15.97% of the respondents prefer drinking beer alone and have no specific response respectively. Only 2.94% of the respondents prefer drinking with their family. 6. Price Freque ncy Percen t Valid Percent Cumulati ve Percent Valid 1 91 19.1 19.2 19.2 2 104 21.8 21.9 41.1 3 111 23.3 23.4 64.4 4 88 18.5 18.5 82.9 5 14 2.9 2.9 85.9 6 31 6.5 6.5 92.4 7 36 7.6 7.6 100.0 Total 475 99.8 100.0 Missin g Syste m 1 .2 Total 476 100.0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 price 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Frequency 91 104 111 88 14 31 36 price 56
  • 57. Price has been proved to be an important factor as per the findings. 306 out of 476 (64%) respondents has rated price on the scale of 1-3 which proves the significance of price factor before consuming beer. 7. brand name Freque ncy Percen t Valid Percent Cumulati ve Percent Valid 1 145 30.5 30.5 30.5 2 103 21.6 21.7 52.2 3 109 22.9 22.9 75.2 4 73 15.3 15.4 90.5 5 12 2.5 2.5 93.1 6 18 3.8 3.8 96.8 7 15 3.2 3.2 100.0 Total 475 99.8 100.0 Missin g Syste m 1 .2 Total 476 100.0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 brand name 0 30 60 90 120 150 Frequency 145 30.53% 103 21.68% 109 73 15.37% 12 2.53% 18 3.79% 15 3.16% brand name 57
  • 58. Brand name is also an important factor in consumption of beer as 145 respondents has rated it as 1 which is the highest preference. 285 respondents has selected it on a scale of 2-4. 8. Availibility Freque ncy Percen t Valid Percent Cumulati ve Percent Valid 1 50 10.5 10.5 10.5 2 76 16.0 16.0 26.5 3 126 26.5 26.5 53.1 4 80 16.8 16.8 69.9 5 104 21.8 21.9 91.8 6 26 5.5 5.5 97.3 7 13 2.7 2.7 100.0 Total 475 99.8 100.0 Missin g Syste m 1 .2 Total 476 100.0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 availibility 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 Frequency 50 76 126 80 104 26 13 availibility 58
  • 59. Availability is not rated as a very important factor as 310 respondents out of 476 has rated it on a scale of 3-5 i.e they are not very fussy about the availability factor. 126 people (26.47%) has responded availability factor as high(1-2). 9. strength Freque ncy Percen t Valid Percent Cumulati ve Percent Valid 1 55 11.6 11.7 11.7 2 114 23.9 24.2 35.8 3 75 15.8 15.9 51.7 4 132 27.7 28.0 79.7 5 57 12.0 12.1 91.7 6 22 4.6 4.7 96.4 7 17 3.6 3.6 100.0 Total 472 99.2 100.0 Missin g Syste m 4 .8 Total 476 100.0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 strength 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 Frequency 11.65% 24.15% 15.89% 27.97% 12.08% 4.66% 3.6% strength 59
  • 60. Strength has been selected as an important factor as 376 out of 476 respondents has rated 1-4 with 1 being the highest factor and 7 being the lowest. This proves that strength is considered very high in buying and consuming beer. 10. Smoothness Freque ncy Percen t Valid Percent Cumulati ve Percent Valid 1 40 8.4 8.5 8.5 2 70 14.7 14.8 23.3 3 89 18.7 18.8 42.1 4 91 19.1 19.2 61.3 5 136 28.6 28.8 90.1 6 39 8.2 8.2 98.3 7 8 1.7 1.7 100.0 Total 473 99.4 100.0 Missin g Syste m 3 .6 Total 476 100.0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 smoothness 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 Frequency 40 70 89 91 136 39 8 smoothness 60
  • 61. Smoothness is not considered as an important factor in consumption of beer as 266 out 476 respondents has rated it on a scale of 4-6 which means it is least preferred among other attributes that are important in gauging the buying behavior of consumers. Only 199 respondents has rated it on a scale of 1-3. 11. Dealer Freque ncy Percen t Valid Percent Cumulati ve Percent Valid 1 22 4.6 4.7 4.7 2 35 7.4 7.4 12.1 3 25 5.3 5.3 17.3 4 21 4.4 4.4 21.8 5 39 8.2 8.2 30.0 6 214 45.0 45.2 75.3 7 117 24.6 24.7 100.0 Total 473 99.4 100.0 Missin g Syste m 3 .6 Total 476 100.0 61
  • 62. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 dealer 0 50 100 150 200 250 Frequency 22 35 25 21 39 214 117 dealer The importance of dealer is totally negated in the findings as 331 respondents has rated it on a scale of 6-7 which infers that it highly unimportant in the consumption factor of beer among consumers. 12. Word of mouth Freque ncy Percen t Valid Percent Cumulati ve Percent Valid 1 31 6.5 6.6 6.6 2 23 4.8 4.9 11.4 3 33 6.9 7.0 18.4 4 40 8.4 8.5 26.9 5 54 11.3 11.4 38.3 6 77 16.2 16.3 54.7 7 214 45.0 45.3 100.0 Total 472 99.2 100.0 Missin g Syste m 4 .8 Total 476 100.0 62
  • 63. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 word of mouth 0 50 100 150 200 250 Frequency 31 23 33 40 54 77 214 word of mouth Word of mouth has been rated lowest among all other attributes as 291 i.e 61% of respondents has responded on a scale of 6-7. Thus it is least important factor as per the sample size in determining the consumption of beer. Now lets see which is the most preferred brand among the consumers Frequency obtained Kingfisher 295 Fosters 116 Hayward’s 57 CastleLager 19 Sandpiper 12 63
  • 64. Brand Prefered 60%23% 11% 4% 2% Kingfisher Fosters Haywards CastleLager SandPiper From the data given lets see the preferences of other brands other than those five mohan mikins 12 royal challenge 7 zingaro 15 others 2 64
  • 65. mohan mikins 33% royal challenge 19% zingaro 42% others 6% mohan mikins royal challenge zingaro others Which is the most second preferred drink after beer Frequency obtained Beer 476 Vodka 270 Soft Drinks 242 Whisky 205 Rum 116 Rum 88 65
  • 66. 476 270 242 205 116 88 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 Beer Vodka Soft Drinks Whisky Rum Rum Drinks Prefered Series1 Lets see the basic frequency of the various data fields service 303 student 48 self employed 125 66
  • 67. 26.26% 63.66% 10.08% occupation self employed service student income of the consumer and what is he doing currently income of the candidate * occupation Cross tabulation Count occupation Total self employed service studen t income of the candidate less than 10000 6 35 42 83 10000 to 30000 55 216 6 277 67
  • 68. 30000 and above 64 52 0 116 Total 125 303 48 476 6 55 64 35 216 5242 6 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 >10000 10000-30000 >30000 self employed service student 6.1 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS IN THE REPORT • 59% respondents consume beer just for fun and relaxation. • 70.58% respondents consume beer once or twice a week. • 63.87% respondents prefer consuming beer at night. • 66.39% of respondents prefer drinking only 1-2 bottles of beer. • 61.76% of the respondents prefer drinking beer with friends. 68
  • 69. • 64% of respondents has rated price as the most important or very important factor for consuming beer (1 being highest and 7 being lowest). • 75% of the respondents consider brand name as an important factor for consuming beer. • 65% of the respondents have rated availability on a scale of 3-5 which shows that it is not an important factor. • 78% of the respondents have rated strength on a scale of 1-4 which highlights the importance of this attribute in consumption of beer. • 55.88% of respondents do not consider smoothness as an important factor in consuming beer. • 69.5 % respondents have totally negated the factor of dealer in their consuming pattern. • Word-of-mouth has been rated as the lowest attribute as 61% respondents has replied in a scale of 6-7. 6.2 Cross tab analysis First Relation between how many times in a week do you consume beer and how many bottles are consumed per sitting 69
  • 70. how often you consume beer * how many bottles Cross tabulation Count how many bottles Total1 to 2 3 to 6 more than 6 how often you consume beer daily 14 8 4 26 once in a week 169 43 8 220 twice in a week 45 69 2 116 thrice in a week 36 19 3 58 less 52 4 0 56 Total 316 143 17 476 Second Relation between the beer drinkers of day and night with the person or company they prefer to have with When do you prefer * with whom do you prefer beer to be consumed Cross tabulation Count with whom do you prefer beer to be consumed Totalfamily friends alone no such preferenc es 70
  • 71. when do you prefer day 1 17 2 2 22 night 9 204 70 21 304 no such prefences 4 73 20 53 150 Total 14 294 92 76 476 Third Relation between the place and with whom do you want to consume beers We can see that there are various places where people like to consume beer and there are many people who consumes beer with someone special like friend, family, alone and so on so if the data is checked and analyzed in relation the out put will be With whom do you prefer beer to be consumed * bar Cross tabulation Count Bar TotalYes No With whom do you prefer beer to be consumed Family 7 7 14 friends 168 126 294 alone 52 40 92 no such preferences 10 66 76 Total 237 239 476 71
  • 72. family friends alone no such preferences WITH WHOM DO YOU PREFER TO CONSUME BEER IN A BAR 0 50 100 150 200 Count 2.95% 70.89% 21.94% 4.22% bar yes Bar Chart 72
  • 73. With whom do you prefer beer to be consumed * home Cross tabulation Count home Totalyes no with whom do you prefer beer to be consumed family 3 11 14 friends 68 226 294 alone 27 65 92 no such preferences 16 60 76 Total 114 362 476 family friends alone no such preferences WITH WHOM DO YOU PREFER TO CONSUME BEER AT HOME 0 50 100 150 200 250 Count 2.63% 59.65% 23.68% 14.04% home yes Bar Chart With whom do you prefer beer to be consumed * restaurants Cross tabulation 73
  • 74. Count restaurants Totalyes no with whom do you prefer beer to be consumed Family 4 10 14 friends 106 188 294 Alone 22 70 92 no such preferences 12 64 76 Total 144 332 476 family friends alone no such preferences WITH WHOM DO YOU PREFER TO CONSUME BEER IN A RESTAURANT 0 50 100 150 200 Count 2.78% 73.61% 15.28% 8.33% restaurants yes Bar Chart 74
  • 75. With whom do you prefer beer to be consumed * pub/disc Cross tabulation Count pub/disc Totalyes no with whom do you prefer beer to be consumed Family 5 9 14 friends 107 187 294 Alone 33 59 92 no such preferences 8 68 76 Total 153 323 476 family friends alone no such preferences WITH WHOM DO YOU PREFER TO CONSUME BEER IN A PUB/DISC. 0 50 100 150 200 Count 0 50 100 150 200 DerivedfromCount 3.27% 69.93% 21.57% 5.23% pub/disc yes Bar Chart Fourth Now lets see the cross tabulation of all these parameters on combine showing the places in relation with the people you want to go with there 75
  • 76. family friends alone no such preferences Pub 5 107 33 8 Bar 7 168 52 10 Home 3 68 27 16 restaurant 4 106 22 12 5 7 3 4 107 168 68 106 33 52 27 22 8 10 16 12 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% family friends alone no such preferences restaurant home bar pub 76
  • 77. Fifth Relationship of Major factors with consumer behaviour First factor Brand name Second factor Price Count price is very important Total Strongl y disagre e disagre e some what agree agree strongly agree pric e 1 0 9 44 23 15 91 2 7 0 29 58 10 104 3 1 24 65 21 0 111 4 3 8 62 15 0 88 5 0 3 2 9 0 14 6 0 12 16 3 0 31 7 14 0 4 16 2 36 Total 25 56 222 145 27 475 third factor strength strength * strength of the beer Cross tabulation Count strength of the beer Total strongl y disagre e disagre e some what agree agree strongly agree stren gth 1 0 10 27 11 7 55 2 1 17 31 58 7 114 3 0 21 26 24 4 75 4 0 14 56 48 14 132 5 0 3 22 31 1 57 6 0 4 4 14 0 22 7 0 4 1 10 2 17 Total 1 73 167 196 35 472 Sixth Relation ship of sex of drinker and with whom they want to 77
  • 78. consume it with whom do you prefer beer to be consumed Total family friends alone no such preferences sex of the candidate male 8 244 83 63 398 female 6 50 9 13 78 Total 14 294 92 76 476 8 6 244 50 83 9 63 13 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 male female family friends alone no such preferences Seventh 78
  • 79. Relationship between sex of consumer and place they want to go and consume the beer pub/disc restaurants home bar sex of the candidate male 131 115 110 213 female 22 29 4 24 131 22 115 29 110 4 213 24 0 50 100 150 200 250 male female sex of the candidate pub/disc restarunrts home bar Eighth 79
  • 80. Relationship between sex of consumer and how many times in week they consume beer How often you consume beer * sex of the candidate Cross tabulation Count sex of the candidate Totalmale female how often u consume beer daily 18 8 26 once in a week 175 45 220 twice in a week 108 8 116 thrice in a week 56 2 58 less 41 15 56 Total 398 78 476 80
  • 81. daily once in a week twice in a week thrice in a week less how often u consume beer 0 50 100 150 200 Count 3.78% 36.76% 22.69% 11.76% 8.61%9.45% 1.68% 0.42% 3.15% sex of the candidate male female Bar Chart From the above cross-tabulated data between how often you consume beer and sex of the candidate it can be inferred that 175 male(36.76%) and 45 female(9.45%) drink beer once a week. 108 male and only 8 female drink beer twice a week. Only 18 male and 8 female prefer drinking beer daily. Relationship of sex of consumer and how many bottles they consume 81
  • 82. Ninth Relation of sex of consumer and how many bottles how many bottles * sex of the candidate Cross tabulation Count sex of the candidate Totalmale female how many bottles 1 to 2 254 62 316 3 to 6 129 14 143 more than 6 15 2 17 Total 398 78 476 1 to 2 3 to 6 more than 6 how many bottles 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Count 53.36% 27.1% 3.15% 13.03% 2.94% 0.42% sex of the candidate male female Bar Chart From the above cross-tabulated data it can be inferred that 254 male and 62 female drink 1-2 bottles of beer per sitting. The cross tabulated data is on how many bottles and sex of the candidate Cross- tabulation. Only 15 male and 2 female prefer drinking more than 6 bottles per sitting. 82
  • 83. Tenth Relationship of the education level and places preferred for consumption Education * pub/disc Cross tabulation Count pub/disc TotalYes no educatio n high school 15 4 19 Graduati on 103 226 329 post graduatio n 35 93 128 Total 153 323 476 high school graduation post graduation education 0 50 100 150 200 250 Count 9.8% 67.32% 22.88% pub/disc yes EDUCATION LEVEL V/S PUB/DISC AS A LEVEL 83
  • 84. From the above cross tabulated data it can be inferred that out of 329 graduates only 103 of them go pub/disc and 226 don’t prefer pub/disc. Only 15 high school qualified respondents prefer going to pub/disc. Relationship of the education level and bar going habit Education * bar Cross tabulation Count Bar Totalyes no educatio n high school 16 3 19 Graduati on 168 161 329 post graduatio n 53 75 128 Total 237 239 476 84
  • 85. high school graduation post graduation education 0 50 100 150 200 Count 6.75% 70.89% 22.36% bar yes EDUCATION LEVEL V/S BAR AS A PREFERENCE It is again seen that 168 graduates prefer going to bar and only 16 respondents who have high school qualification goes to a bar. Relationship of the education level and drinking habit in home Education * home Cross tabulation Count Home Totalyes no educatio n high school 13 6 19 Graduati on 70 259 329 post graduatio n 31 97 128 Total 114 362 476 85
  • 86. high school graduation post graduation education 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Count 11.4% 61.4% 27.19% home yes EDUCATION LEVEL V/S HOME AS A PREFERENCE 70 graduates and 31 post-graduates prefer drinking beer at home. Relationship of the education level and pub and disc going habit Education * restaurants Cross tabulation Count restaurants Totalyes no Educatio n high school 10 9 19 Graduati on 102 227 329 post graduatio n 32 96 128 Total 144 332 476 86
  • 87. high school graduation post graduation education 0 50 100 150 200 250 Count 6.94% 70.83% 22.22% restaurants yes EDUCATION LEVEL V/S RESTAURANT AS A PREFERENCE 102 respondents who have done graduation prefers drinking beer at restaurants and only 10 people who have high school qualification prefers drinking beer at restaurants. Eleventh Relation between age group and brand preference: How the age group makes difference for preference of a particular brand of beer. 87
  • 88. 74 166 130 65 70 140 100 50 54 126 125 40 30 70 54 38 22 60 40 14 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% kingfisher foster haywards castle lager sand peiper 18 to 20 23 to 28 29 to 35 35 and above In the survey it was found that the preference for a brand is least in the age segment of 18 to 20. But in the other age groups Kingfisher came out to be the winner while foster was second. The interesting finding was that in the age group of 29 to 35 Hayward’s came out to be more popular than other brands. Twelfth Relationship of two leading beer manufacture Among the various factors how a particular brand of beer is been distinguished. 88
  • 89. 402 420 417 295 400 412 414 116 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 strength price availibility dealer foster kingfisher Among the various factors for preference of beer the brand name, strength, and price came out to be the major factors. But in the comparison of most two popular brands both the kingfisher and fosters came out to satisfy all three parameters. But the dealer’s recommendation came out to be the major criteria while purchasing beer for any consumer which was Kingfisher. Thirteenth Relationship between the effects of your drinking company with the level consumption beer qty 1-2 3 to 6 6 or more Family 10 2 2 89
  • 90. friends 191 94 9 Alone 62 29 1 no such preferences 53 89 5 10 2 2 191 94 9 62 29 1 53 89 5 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% family friends alone no such prefrences beer qty 1-2 3 to 6 6 or more Fourteenth Relationship of income of the consumer and how much price is important for them Income of the candidate * price is very important Cross tabulation Count price is very important 90
  • 91. 30000 and above 21 7 51 23 14 116 Total 25 56 223 145 27 476 less than 10000 10000 to 30000 30000 and above incomeof the candidate 0 50 100 150 Count price is very important strongly disagree disagree some what agree agree strongly agree Bar Chart Fifteenth Relationship of age and the strength of the beer consumed Strength * age of the candidate Cross tabulation 91
  • 92. Count age of the candidate Total 18 to 22 23 to 28 29 to 35 35 and above stren gth 1 2 20 29 4 55 2 17 44 37 16 114 3 24 19 24 8 75 4 24 35 39 34 132 5 6 34 13 4 57 6 14 7 0 1 22 7 0 15 2 0 17 Total 87 174 144 67 472 92
  • 93. strength 1 strength 2 strength 3 strength 4 strength 5 strength 6 strength 7 Total strength Statistics : Count strength * age of the candidate Crosstabulation age of the candidate 18 to 22 age of the candidate 23 to 28 age of the candidate 29 to 35 age of the candidate 35 and above Total age ofthe candidate 100 200 300 400 Values Chi-Square Tests Value Degree of Asymp. Sig. (2- 93
  • 94. freedo m sided) Pearson Chi- Square 88.744 (a) 8 .000 Likelihood Ratio 85.932 8 .000 Linear-by- Linear Association 2.256 1 .133 N of Valid Cases 476 a 4 cells (26.7%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .93. daily once in a week twice in a week thrice in a week less how often u consume beer 0 50 100 150 200 Count how many bottles 1 to 2 3 to 6 more than 6 Bar Chart Assumption: People consuming beer often will be consuming less. Through the chi square test in the survey it was found that there were very less no of people who used to consume beer daily. The people who have beer once in a week they used to take 1 to 2 bottles per sitting. The correlation between the frequency of consumption of beer and the bottles consumed per sitting was found very strong as around 88.7% which is quite a high value which proved that both the frequency and amount of consumption are highly dependent on each other. 94
  • 95. 95
  • 96. Limitations: o This survey report has considered a sample size of 500 for the research in the beer market. o The survey is done in the region of Delhi and NCR only. o The preference for brands was considered according to the consumer demand in the Delhi and NCR region. o The top five brands found in this region were Kingfisher, Haywards, Sand Peiper, Castle Lager and Fosters. o The total sample is consisting of mixture of both the students and working people. But due to some constraints the sample of students is only 10% of the total sample size of 476. o The preference of brand for consuming beer may change according to the location. o The study can not be generalized for entire beer industry since the customer loyalty to a particular brand may change as time passes. o The questionnaire prepared for the survey was prepared after an explorative study done in few groups of students and working people at various places in Delhi and NCR region. o There were a few non respondents who filled incomplete questionnaire or who had difficulty I understanding the question. The nature of the responses varies from person to person. 96
  • 97. 97
  • 98. Recommendations: (1) In the survey it was found that most of the people consume beer for various reasons such as to have fun, for relaxation and for chillness. (2) Most of the consumers of beer do consider it as non alcoholic drink and so it should be made more available at restaurants. (3) Beer does occupy a good stomach share with soft drinks in the beverages market. (4) Since most of the brands in beer come with same prices, price doesn’t stand as major distinguishing factor in various brands available. (5) Since beer even being the non alcoholic drink come under a taxation level of 70% with other alcohols like rum, whisky, vodka and gin. (6) But a reduction in taxes by government on beer may open a huge market in India. At present the per capita beer consumption of beer in India is only 0.5 litters. The consumption is of 140 litters in Denmark and 35 litters in China. The present growth rate of beer industry in India is 14%. (7) As price is same for most of the brands in beer dealers recommendation in some cases plays an important role for a particular consumer for purchasing beer. (8) The company can get a dealer in its favor by offering various discounts, credit sale and other incentives. (9) The company should even try to package their bottles or tins in attractive form and colors since the major age group which consumes beer was found in between 25 to 35. (10) Since the direct advertisement for alcohol, cigarettes and beer is banned by Indian government the company producing beer can’t advertise it directly but they should try to promote their surrogate advertisements in aggressive way. So that high brand recall rate can be created among the consumers. (11) Beer industry as a whole facing a very tough competition with unorganized sector in different areas which is having a market of around 56%. So as a united effort they may create awareness in people about the various harms and disadvantages of consuming that type of drinks. 98
  • 99. 99
  • 100. Conclusion: The beer market at present grew by 14% in India. Price came out to be an inelastic factor for consumption in case of beer that means price really doesn’t make any difference while consumer purchases beer. And even most of the brands except the unorganized sector found to have beers with same price or with minimum variation in the prices. Even at present it was found that consumers were quite loyal with their preference of brand and generally resist changing their preference due to other people’s recommendation. It was found that top brands are competing with each other very strongly and consumer could not distinguish between the brands very strongly. For survey the population taken was consisting various samples consisting of students and working people of both male and female. The students were least bothered about the price of beer. Even the age group between 18 to 25 showed the least consideration of price and was found that they consume beer only for relaxation and fun. While the age group between 25 to 35 came out to be the segment which consumes highest amount of beer. For this particular segment the strength of beer was the most important factor which influenced the choice of brand while purchasing beer. Even consumer behavior showed that most of the female consumers consume beer with their friends and family. The youngsters prefer to consume beer at pub, disc and at bars. Consumers prefer the chilled beer. So it was found that distributors need to have cooling facility in place to provide chilled beer to the consumers. From the survey we found that most of the female prefer to consume beer because it has got very less alcohol content which is of about 5 to 8% For the Delhi and NCR region Kingfisher and Foster came out to be the most popular brands preferred. The preference of the brands may change location and consumer base in different region. Even people do consume beer more often than other alcohols. Since beer is having lesser content of alcohol content even in day time people don’t mind consuming in day time even at office places. Even packaging came out to be the important factor for sales. By having an attractive bottles and packaging may pull of young customers. Some times lot of customers do find attachment with the brand and preference for that because of packaging that is external appearance being attractive. 100
  • 101. REFERENCES A.B.Blankenship,George EdwardBree and Alan Dutka,State Of Art Market Research.2nd Edition. Donald S.Tull and Del I.Hawkins, Market Research,Measurement and Method. Paul Hagne,Market Research-A guide to planning methodology and evaluation. Aaker and Kumar oay,Market Research –seventh Edition. Carl McDaniel and Roger Gates, Market Research –The Impact of Internet. Gilbert A Churchill.JR,Basic Market Research S.K.Laroiya, Hand notes. Nicola Brace, Richard Kemp and Rosemary Snelgar, SPSS for Psychologists-A guide to data analysis using SPSS for windows. WEBSITES: www.learning.indiatimes.com/career/ car_options/mktg/mrkt_res.htm http://www.imrbint.com/ 101
  • 102. ANNEXURES The following pages consist of the annexure which include various data, PDF cuttings, market scenarios and the questionnaire we used to carry out the survey. The annexure consists of: 1. The questionnaire. 2. Data from the ‘the Indian alcoholic beverage market’. 3. Excerpts from ‘the food processing sector in India’ a report by madras consultancy group. 102
  • 103. THE QUESTIONNAIRE CONSUMER PREFERENCES FOR BEER DRINKING DISCLAIMER: The data collected through this questionnaire will be used only for statistical purposes. Q1. Why do you consume beer? _______________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ Q2. How often do you consume beer? 1) Daily. 2) Once in a week. 3) Twice in a week. 4) Thrice in a week. 5) If more/less please specify_________________________________. Q3. When do you prefer to consume beer? 1) Day. 2) Night. 3) No such preferences. Q.4 On an average how many bottles do you consume per sitting? 1) 1 to 2. 2) 3 to 6. 3) More then 6. Q5. With whom do you prefer to consume beer? 1) Family. 2) Friends. 3) Alone. 4) No such preferences. Q6. Where do you prefer to consume beer? 1) Pub/Disc. 2) Bar. 3) Home. 4) Restraunts. 5) No such preferences. 103
  • 104. Q7. Rank the following parameters according to their importance for buying a particular brand of beer. (1 to 7, with 1 being the highest and 7 the lowest) 1) Price. 2) Band name. 3) Availability. 4) Strength. 5) Smoothness. 6) Dealer. 7) Word of mouth. Q8. In the following statements please rate them on the scale of 1 to 5. 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly disagree Disagree Some what Agree Agree Strongly agree 1) I always buy my brand of beer on recommendation of dealer.______ 2) Price is very important factor to me. 3) I buy the brand that is reasonably priced. 4) I buy the brand that is easily available. 5) The strength of the beer is very important to me. 6) My ideal brand is one that is aggressively advertised. 7) Service provided by dealer. 8) I prefer that brand which my drinking partner suggests. 9) I always buy the beer that is chill. 10) Alcohol content also plays a major role in my choice. 11) The location of the consumption plays a major role. Q9. Rank the following brands of beer in terms of your preference on scale of 1 to 5. 1 2 3 4 5 Highest Slightly high Average Slightly low Lowest 1) Kingfisher. 2) Fosters. 3) Haywards. 4) Castle lager 5) Sand piper. Q.10 If your brand is not stated above, and then please specify the brand you prefer? 104
  • 105. Q11. How satisfied are you with your No.1 brand mentioned in above question. Mark your satisfaction on the scale of 1 to 10. 1 10 Not at all satisfied fully satisfied 1) Price. 2) Brand name. 3) Availability. 4) Strength. 5) Smoothness. 6) Dealer. Q.12 on the various parameters like (price, quality, taste etc.) how much these brands differ from each other? (1 being the difference of most common brands and 5 being the for the most different of each other) Kingfisher Fosters Haywards Castle lager Sand piper Kingfisher N.A Fosters. N.A Haywards N.A Castle lager N.A Sand piper N.A Q13. What other drinks you prefer other then beer? 1) Soft drinks. 2) Vodka. 3) Whisky. 4) Gin. 5) Rum. For statistical purposes we would like you give us some information about yourself: Age Sex Income less than 10,000. 10,000-30,000. Above 30,000. Education High school Graduation Post graduation. 105
  • 106. SOME CORE FACTS 106
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