Sharing is Caring <ul><li>What do  you  think is the primary reason teachers leave the profession? </li></ul><ul><li>What ...
EMOTIONAL AND BEHAVIORAL DISTURBANCE Kristina Ibarra, Teni Halburian, Jeanette Hernandez, Silvee Islam, Alex Addley
Emotional Disturbance <ul><li>The number of students described as having Emotional and Behavioral Disturbance (EBD) is inc...
Major Questions about EBD <ul><li>What is EBD, and how does it manifest? </li></ul><ul><li>What methodologies are availabl...
Emotional Disturbance Definition <ul><li>A condition exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics over a long p...
Characteristics of EBD <ul><li>Hyperactivity  </li></ul><ul><li>Aggression / Self-Injurious Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Wit...
ARTICLE 1: JOURNAL OF EMOTIONAL AND BEHAVIORAL DISORDERS Function Based Interventions for Students Who Are Nonresponsive t...
Function Based Interventions <ul><li>Based on interviews, observations, discovering antecedent conditions </li></ul><ul><l...
Designing the Study <ul><li>3 Steps: Identify target behavior, function of behavior, environment of student </li></ul><ul>...
The Method <ul><li>Reinforcements: Secondary measures </li></ul><ul><li>If Claire met her goal, she no longer had to parti...
Results! <ul><li>After removing the reinforcements, these were the results: </li></ul><ul><li>Claire’s participation impro...
Visual Data
Visual Data, Continued
ARTICLE 2: VIDEO MODELING <ul><li>Consists of having an individual view a video via computer or television of himself/hers...
Video Modeling has: <ul><li>Demonstrated to be an effective intervention for challenging populations </li></ul><ul><li>Bee...
Research and Aims <ul><li>Research: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>16 studies (93 participants) dealing with: </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
Conclusion of Video Modeling Research <ul><li>All 93 participants  included in the study experience  some improvement  in ...
ARTICLE 3: EFFECTIVENESS OF  SCHOOL-BASED PREVENTION AND INTERVENTION PROGRAMS FOR STUDENTS  WITH ED  <ul><ul><li>The purp...
Research Motivation <ul><li>Today research shows children with ED… </li></ul><ul><li>-are under identified and undertreate...
Method <ul><li>Meta-analysis  review based on IDEA’s definition of ED </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a)  Literature Search </li></u...
Sample <ul><li>Subjects- </li></ul><ul><li>consisted of 1,405 children and adolescents across 29 studies </li></ul><ul><li...
Prevention <ul><li>Prevention Programs </li></ul><ul><li>20 programs were examined and included 687 children and adolescen...
Results <ul><li>External behavioral problems…  were 89% of prevention studies main focus  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>were 60% o...
Programs <ul><li>Active engagement…  </li></ul><ul><li>  - limited exploration </li></ul><ul><li>- both programs were some...
Conclusion <ul><li>As a result of these findings… </li></ul><ul><li>The APA established a task force to raise awareness of...
Our Group Reactions <ul><li>I thought that children with emotional disturbance were either very verbal or not talkative an...
Steps for Teachers <ul><li>Observe the class for particularly disruptive behaviors (Identification) </li></ul><ul><li>Keep...
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Diversity 100409

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Diversity Group Presentation on Emotional Behavioral Disturbance - 10/05/09, ELPS 541A

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Diversity 100409

  1. 1. Sharing is Caring <ul><li>What do you think is the primary reason teachers leave the profession? </li></ul><ul><li>What percentage of school aged children do you think have a diagnosable mental illness? </li></ul><ul><li>Which disability group do you think has the highest dropout rate? </li></ul>
  2. 2. EMOTIONAL AND BEHAVIORAL DISTURBANCE Kristina Ibarra, Teni Halburian, Jeanette Hernandez, Silvee Islam, Alex Addley
  3. 3. Emotional Disturbance <ul><li>The number of students described as having Emotional and Behavioral Disturbance (EBD) is increasing (Sawka, K. D., McCurdy, B. L., & Mannella, M. C. 2002) . </li></ul><ul><li>EBD is the primary reason teachers leave the profession (Smith, T. E. C. (1990). Introduction to education (2&quot;'' ed.) </li></ul><ul><li>20% of school age children have diagnosable mental illness. 5% of all children are diagnosed with EBD (Coutino & Oswald, 2005; Same, 1995; US DHH, 2000) </li></ul><ul><li>The EBD population has a 50% Dropout Rate! (Armstrong et al., 2003; US Department of Education, 2001) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Major Questions about EBD <ul><li>What is EBD, and how does it manifest? </li></ul><ul><li>What methodologies are available, and are they effective? </li></ul><ul><li>How can we, as general and special ed teachers, help our students? </li></ul>
  5. 5. Emotional Disturbance Definition <ul><li>A condition exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics over a long period of time and to a marked degree that adversely affects a child's educational performance: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>  An inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Characteristics of EBD <ul><li>Hyperactivity </li></ul><ul><li>Aggression / Self-Injurious Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Withdrawal </li></ul><ul><li>Immaturity </li></ul><ul><li>Learning difficulties </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>When children have an emotional disturbance, these behaviors continue over long periods of time. </li></ul>
  7. 7. ARTICLE 1: JOURNAL OF EMOTIONAL AND BEHAVIORAL DISORDERS Function Based Interventions for Students Who Are Nonresponsive to Prevention Efforts <ul><li>This study focuses on functional interventions for two students as implemented by the general education teacher </li></ul><ul><li>95% of the student body is effectively addressed by primary and secondary prevention efforts </li></ul><ul><li>Some students will require intervention, the next step. Function based interventions are one option </li></ul>
  8. 8. Function Based Interventions <ul><li>Based on interviews, observations, discovering antecedent conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Have been shown to yield desired outcomes in students with ED </li></ul><ul><li>Study centers on Claire (1 st grade) and Aaron (8 th grade) </li></ul><ul><li>Both belong to fully inclusive schools </li></ul>
  9. 9. Designing the Study <ul><li>3 Steps: Identify target behavior, function of behavior, environment of student </li></ul><ul><li>Claire did not participate in order to escape attention of teacher and class. Class was highly structured </li></ul><ul><li>Aaron was noncompliant to gain teacher attention and avoid assigned tasks. His classroom was less structured. </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Method <ul><li>Reinforcements: Secondary measures </li></ul><ul><li>If Claire met her goal, she no longer had to participate </li></ul><ul><li>If Aaron completed his list, he could receive verbal reinforcement. After 5 lists, he could sit with peers. </li></ul><ul><li>Antecedents (Goals): Preliminary measures </li></ul><ul><li>Claire’s goal was 3 incidents of participation per observation </li></ul><ul><li>Aaron’s goal was to complete a checklist daily at the beginning of class </li></ul>
  11. 11. Results! <ul><li>After removing the reinforcements, these were the results: </li></ul><ul><li>Claire’s participation improved from below 2 to over 7 per observed session </li></ul><ul><li>Aaron’s compliance increased to a mean of 74.56% from 17.06%. His science grade increased to 82% from 55%, and his cumulative GPA went from 1.67 to 2.17. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Visual Data
  13. 13. Visual Data, Continued
  14. 14. ARTICLE 2: VIDEO MODELING <ul><li>Consists of having an individual view a video via computer or television of himself/herself engaging in the behavioral targeted for improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Examples used include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One’s self engaging in an appropriate social interaction. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A peer following teacher instructions in the classroom. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One’s self receiving praise from the teacher following correct response. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Video Modeling has: <ul><li>Demonstrated to be an effective intervention for challenging populations </li></ul><ul><li>Been identified as a feasible intervention in schools </li></ul><ul><li>Derived from social learning theory in which individuals learn through observation </li></ul>
  16. 16. Research and Aims <ul><li>Research: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>16 studies (93 participants) dealing with: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing peer interaction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing on-task behavior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decreasing inappropriate behavior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Aims: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate the potential effectiveness of video modeling with the EBD population. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify areas of future research. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Conclusion of Video Modeling Research <ul><li>All 93 participants included in the study experience some improvement in targeting behaviors following video modeling. </li></ul><ul><li>Video modeling is instructive and designed to empower students. </li></ul><ul><li>May be particularly effective when working with students from culturally diverse groups since they tend to be segregated or receive more punitive than their counterparts. </li></ul><ul><li>Gaps exist in the research. </li></ul><ul><li>Warrant future research. </li></ul>
  18. 18. ARTICLE 3: EFFECTIVENESS OF SCHOOL-BASED PREVENTION AND INTERVENTION PROGRAMS FOR STUDENTS WITH ED <ul><ul><li>The purpose of this meta-analysis review is to examine the overall effectiveness of prevention and intervention programs for this population, while examining specific symptoms of Emotional Disturbance . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This population includes children “at risk” for ED and those identified with ED </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Research Motivation <ul><li>Today research shows children with ED… </li></ul><ul><li>-are under identified and undertreated </li></ul><ul><li>-have lower grades than other disability groups </li></ul><ul><li>-have academic and language deficits </li></ul><ul><li>-have a high grade retention rate </li></ul><ul><li>-have a high absentee rate </li></ul><ul><li>All have an effect on students education; therefore research must be done to help this population </li></ul>
  20. 20. Method <ul><li>Meta-analysis review based on IDEA’s definition of ED </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) Literature Search </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>49 studies were identified, after screening 29 studies remained (14 journals were included) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) Coding System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Code outcomes on 17 variables (9 for children, 4 for parents, 4 for teachers) </li></ul></ul><ul><li> c) Reported Outcome </li></ul><ul><li>Weighted Effect Sizes were calculated </li></ul><ul><li>for each study </li></ul>
  21. 21. Sample <ul><li>Subjects- </li></ul><ul><li>consisted of 1,405 children and adolescents across 29 studies </li></ul><ul><li>71% of the subjects were male </li></ul><ul><li>Intervention Programs- </li></ul><ul><li>9 prevention programs were examined and include 718 children (441 males) from kindergarten to second grade </li></ul><ul><li>First Step to Success Program </li></ul><ul><li>includes early screening, behavior reinforcement and parent training </li></ul><ul><li>Parent-Teacher Action Research (PTAR) Program </li></ul><ul><li>includes social skill training and an individual intervention plan </li></ul>
  22. 22. Prevention <ul><li>Prevention Programs </li></ul><ul><li>20 programs were examined and included 687 children and adolescents (569 males) </li></ul><ul><li>involved use of self monitoring and peer based program </li></ul><ul><li>time out alternatives implemented </li></ul><ul><li>Some variables measured included a student’s active engagement, externalizing and internalizing behaviors </li></ul>
  23. 23. Results <ul><li>External behavioral problems… were 89% of prevention studies main focus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>were 60% of intervention main focus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Intervention was most effective </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Internal behavior problems… </li></ul><ul><li> were 67% of prevention studies main focus </li></ul><ul><li> were 10% of intervention studies main focus </li></ul><ul><li> -Both programs were moderately effective </li></ul>
  24. 24. Programs <ul><li>Active engagement… </li></ul><ul><li> - limited exploration </li></ul><ul><li>- both programs were somewhat effective </li></ul><ul><li>Programs… </li></ul><ul><li>- overall prevention yielded a moderate effectiveness on </li></ul><ul><li>curtailing some symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>- in general intervention yielded a larger effect </li></ul>
  25. 25. Conclusion <ul><li>As a result of these findings… </li></ul><ul><li>The APA established a task force to raise awareness of children’s mental health needs in school </li></ul><ul><li>Federal funds have been earmarked for development and evaluation of school-based prevention and intervention programs for children with ED </li></ul><ul><li>IDEA has outlined established educational and related services </li></ul><ul><li>Legislation is being re-introduced in mental health services for under indentified and underserviced populations by raising funds for training professional to work with children with ED </li></ul><ul><li>There is optimism and hope for these students, their parents and teachers </li></ul>
  26. 26. Our Group Reactions <ul><li>I thought that children with emotional disturbance were either very verbal or not talkative and kept to themselves. After reading the articles I found that these children can also have other behaviors such as anxiety, mood swings and some may even have severe psychosis or schizophrenia. </li></ul><ul><li>I had never heard about Emotional Disturbance before this assignment, I am so embarrassed! </li></ul><ul><li>I was shocked to find out that EBD students are the primary reason teachers leave the profession. </li></ul><ul><li>The often antagonistic nature of ED seems to be the primary reason that it is under indentified, under serviced and under addressed by teachers. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Steps for Teachers <ul><li>Observe the class for particularly disruptive behaviors (Identification) </li></ul><ul><li>Keep continuous written records (Identification) </li></ul><ul><li>Recommend a student be referred to the school’s Student Success Team (Application) </li></ul><ul><li>Provide Positive Behavior Support (PBS), emotional support (Application) </li></ul><ul><li>Seek training and support from administration and counselors (Follow through) </li></ul>
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